Archive for February, 2010

Mark Twain: How Samuel Clemens got his Nom de Plume

February 23, 2010

Samuel Clemens - aka - Mark Twain


How Sam Clemens obtained his nom de plume of Mark Twain.

A true story by the Eureka Sentinel:

We knew Clemens in the early days, and know exactly how he came to be dubbed “Mark Twain.”

Virginia City (Image from

John Piper’s saloon, on B street, used to be the grand rendezvous for all of the Virginia City Bohemians. Piper conducted a cash business, and refused to keep any books. As a special favor, however, he would occasionally chalk down drinks to the boys on the wall, back of the bar. Sam Clemens, when localizing for the Enterprise, always had an account, with the balance against him, on Piper’s wall. Clemens was by no means a Coal Oil Tommy, he drank for the pure and unadulterated love of the ardent. Most of his drinking was conducted in single-handed contests, but occasionally he would invite Dan De Quille, Charley Parker, Bob Lowery or Alf. Doten, never more than one of them, however, at a time, and whenever he did his invariable parting injunction to Piper was to “mark twain,” meaning two chalk marks, of course. It was in this way that he acquired the title which has since become famous wherever the English language is read or spoken.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) May 11, 1877

Mark Twain: Funeral Oration on the Democratic Party

February 22, 2010

Mark Twain Speaking

“Mark Twain Speaking”: Google book preview LINK


His Funeral Oration on the Democratic Party.

During the Republican jollification meeting election night in the Opera House, Hartford, Conn., which was filled to overflowing, Mark Twain was called upon for a speech, and delivered what he termed a funeral oration over the Democratic party. Coming as it did immediately after an address by two clergymen, and beginning in a rather lugubrious way, the assemblage did not at first know how to receive it. As the speaker went on, however, the queer political hit began to be appreciated. Almost every sentence was greeted with roars of laughter. Following is the address:

There are occasions which are so solemn, so weighted with the deep concerns of life, that then even the licensed jester must lay aside his cap and bells, and remember that he is a man, and mortal; that even his light, butterfly career of folly has its serious seasons, and he can not flee them or ignore them. Such a time, my friends, is this, for we are in the near presence of one who


one whom we have known long and well, but shall know no more forever. About the couch of him who lies stricken are gathered those who hold him dear, and who await the incoming of a great sorrow. His breathing is faint, and grows fainter; his voice is become a whisper; his pulses scarcely record the languishing ebb and flow of the wasted current of his life; his lips are pallid, and the froth of dissolution gathers upon them; his face is drawn; his cheeks are sunken; the roses are gone from them and ashes are in their place; his form is still; his feet are ice; his eyes are vacant; beaded sweat is on his brow; he picks at the coverlet with unconscious fingers; he “babbles o’ green fields;” death’s rattle is in his throat; his time is at hand. Every breeze that comes to us out of the distances, near and far, and from every segment of the wide horizon, is heavy with a voice mourning for sorrow accomplished, and the burden of the mourning is, “The aged and stricken Democratic party is dying;” and the burden of the lament will be, “The mighty is fallen; the Democratic party is dead.” And who and what is he that is dying and will presently be dead? A foot sore political wanderer, a honorary political tramp, an itinerant poor actor familiar with many disguises.


In the North he played “Protection” and “Hard Money.” In the West he played “Protection,” “Free Trade,” “Hard Money,” and “Soft Money,” changing disguises and parts according to the exigencies of the occasion. In the South he played “Tariff for Revenue.” In the North and West he played “The Apostle of Freedom.” In the South he played “The Assassin of Freedom,” and mouthed the sacred shibboleths of liberty with cruel and bloody lies. His latest and final appearance upon the nation’s stage was in the new piece entitled


in which he was assisted by the whole strength of the company. It was a poor piece. It was indifferently played; so it failed, and he was hissed and abused by the audience. But he lies low now, and blame and praise are to him alike. The charitable will spare the one, the judicious will reserve the other. O, friends! this is not a time for jest and levity, but a time for bended forms and uncovered heads, for we stand in the near presence of majestic death; a momentous and memorable death; a grisly and awful death. For it is a death from which there is no resurrection. Heaven bless us, one and all! Heaven temper the blow to the afflicted family. Heaven grant them a change of heart and a better life!

The Athens Messenger (Athens, Ohio) Nov 11, 1880

Cheap Labor (Image from


In the opinion of the editor of the Review “a lie well stuck to is as good as the truth,” albeit he complained early in the campaign that he could not induce Republicans to “discuss the issues in a spirit of fairness.” From the very first of the campaign there has been no lie too outrageous for the [Review] to print — no insinuation too mean for its columns, provided it promised to assist the Democratic party. Every one of these campaign lies has been exposed and exploded. Yet the Review has never taken the time to correct the false impressions it sought to make, but as soon as the foundation was knocked from under one lie it was busy hunting up a fresh one to take the place of its worn out slush. Its latest effort in this direction is the Chinese letter which has been attributed to Gen. Garfield. In its issue of this morning are the following items based upon this now notorious forgery:

Garfield is the friend of monopolies; he is the enemy of working men as shown by his Chinese letter.

Garfield is in favor of cheap labor. Well he was pretty cheap himself, doing what he did for $329.

Garfield wants more than 329 Chinese brought to this country to cheapen labor in the interest of great monopolies.

Every Chinese washer-man that now fails to hang out a shirt for a Garfield flag, will be regarded as an enemy to his race.

Bring on your Chinese says the Sage of Mentor. Let us have cheap American labor in the interests of the great manufacturing and carrying interests.

If the workingman can vote for Garfield after his cheap Chinese letter, they should forever after hold their peace when hard times oppress and their families are in want.
How do our workingmen like the idea of having a man for President who is in favor of crushing our labor by Chinese who are not willing to leave their bones in this country when they die.

Now, when the editor of the Review penned those squibs he was well aware that the letter had been pronounced a forgery by Gen. Garfield himself. The Chicago Times of yesterday contained the following editorial paragraph:

The democratic literary bureau is now crowded with orders for weapons, to be used in protecting the vote of the laboring classes, for which the republicans are fighting vigorously and with considerable prospect of success. But it is only in the hands of men “entirely great” that the pen is mightier than the sword, and a dispatch from the Boston correspondent of THE TIMES indicates that the author of the alleged letter of Gen. Garfield, on the Chinese question, was only partially great; that is, he was great as an imitator of the republican candidate’s penmanship, but very far from being great in his familiarity with the Lynn directory. This letter was alleged to have been written to H.L. Morey, a member of the Employers’ union in Lynn, Mass. A dispatch from Boston announces that no such man as H.L. Morey has been known in Lynn, and that no such organization as the Employers’ union ever existed there. This is a sad blow to the bureau. With a view to discourage correspondence with Mr. Morey in regard to this letter, it was announced that he had gone the way of all the earth, and that this letter was found among his private papers after his decease. The ingenuity of this is creditable to the bureau, but its failure to address the letter to some one who had resided in Lynn, and who had been a member of some organization known there, shows that the bureau is not yet what it ought to be. It is said that countless copies of this letter have been printed for distribution where they would do the most good. But while this proves the zeal of the bureau, it also proves that that zeal is not according to knowledge, for it would have been much more judicious to keep the thing quiet till Nov. 1, and then cover all the dead walls in the United States with copies of the letter in circus poster type.

General Garfield’s denial of this letter appears to be pretty thoroughly corroborated.

The following is the special dispatch referred to, which also appeared in the Times of yesterday:

BOSTON, Oct. 21. — The city of Lynn has been scoured by reporters to-day, in order to  ascertain who “H.L. Morey” is to whom Gen. Garfield is alleged to have written a letter indorsing cheap labor. In the first place, no “Employers’ union” was ever known or ever heard of in Lynn. The manufacturers informally got together during the strike in 1878, for the purpose of protecting themselves against the board of arbitration. There was no such organization as an “Employers’ union” even then. These “manufacturers” concluded all the business, and settled up their bills immediately after the labor troubles had ceased, which was in March, 1878. No meetings of the “manufacturers” have been held since that time and there has not been any for of employers’ union; so, it would appear that the mysterious “H.L. Morey” could not be secretary of an Employers’ Union in Lynn, in January, 1880. The man who paid the clerk hire of the manufacturers in 1877 and 1878, says there was no such man employed by the manufacturers. It was telegraphed from New York to Boston that the man Morey was employed by Jerome Ingalls at one time during the strike, but Mr. Ingalls never heard of such a man.

The Review man, however, is not as fair as the Chicago Times, notwithstanding the general reputation of the latter, and he says not a word about the futile efforts made to find the alleged receiver of the letter or the organization he is said to represent. The “spirit of fairness” in which our neighbor wanted to discuss the issues of the campaign is well exemplified in this instance, which is on a par which the spirit that has characterized his course during the whole canvass. He has dealt in misrepresentation, abuse, mean insinuations and barefaced falsehood, and has never yet had the manliness or fairness to correct a single one of them when the proof became too strong to make its use longer profitable. But it will avail nothing; “the American people are not a fool.”

Decatur Daily Republican (Decatur, Illinois) Oct 23, 1880

The “Rag Baby” a Healthy Child.

Some of our Democratic contemporaries refuse to believe that the rag baby is dead, and they seem really to have had some affection for the melancholy infant. We assure them, however, that it is dead, very dead, in fact. Please now let the funeral go on. — Columbus Democrat.

The “rag baby,” (so called, by Republicans and hard money Democrats aping Republicans,) is the GREENBACK. Now, we know that the greenback is not dead by a long shot. It survives in spite of its opponents, because the people have willed that it shall be a part of the currency of the country. Hard-money Democrats and Republicans may rejoice at what they call “the death of the rag baby.” As the rag baby languishes so does Democratic majorities languish in Franklin county and the State. But the baby will be a full grown man in a few years, and then the hard money lunatics will claim that they helped to raise it, and always were its friends. Bosh!

The Ohio Democrat (New Philadelphia, Ohio) Oct 30, 1879

HANCOCK wears a pair of free trade boots, protection trousers, a tariff for revenue only vest, hard money stockings, and a fiat money hat. Now, if he will don a Confed. gray coat “all buttoned down before” to hid his Union sword, he will be a walking epitome of his interesting series of extraordinary letters.

Decatur Daily Republican (Decatur, Illinois) >\Oct 27, 1880

Workingmen and the Tariff.

The feeling of the workingmen of Cleveland was shown by the following mottoes at a late republican torchlight procession:

“‘Tariff for revenue only,’ means British free trade.”

“British free trade mean pauperism to American workingmen.”

“A protective tariff has built up American industry; we want no change.”

“No competition with foreign pauper labor.”

“Charity begins at home.”

“We shall not submit to the nonsense of a revenue tariff and low wages.”

“Protection and good clothes; free trade and rags.”

“Under protection Cleveland will become the rival of Birmingham.”

“Do not steal our bread by striking down the steel works with a low protective tariff.”

“Letthe South establish mills and shops and stop yelling free trade.”

“No low wages tariff for the benefit of England.”

“Protection, prosperity, peace and plenty.”

“Protective tariff and plenty of work.”

“We are now having plenty of work and good wages. No low revenue tariff for us.”

“No pauper wages for us.”

“A protective tariff enables us to own our own homes.”

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Sep 28, 1880


The manufacturing interests of the country have taken alarm at that “tariff for revenue only” in the Democratic platform. A “tariff for revenue only” suits the Solid South, where there is no manufacturing to speak of. The South wants to see internal revenue taxes taken off whiskey and tobacco, and the importation of foreign goods encouraged in order to derive a large revenue from imports. There are many hundreds of millions of dollars invested in manufactures in the North. Should the Democrats get in power and at once break down the protective system, immense manufacturing interests would be paralyzed, and hundreds of thousands of operatives thrown out of employment. The triumph of the Democratic ticket next month means a return to hard times.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Oct 8, 1880

1832: Commemorating George Washington’s Birthday

February 19, 2010

Washington's Farewell Address

Image from the Social Studies and History Teacher’s Blog


The Centennial Anniversary of the birth day of WASHINGTON, was celebrated in this village, on the 22d inst.

The morning was ushered in by a National salute. A numerous concourse of citizens were escorted to the Court House by the Infantry and Militia companies, under the command of Captains GAUFF, and CARKHUFF, directed by WILLIAM B. MATHEWSON, Marshal.

The Throne of Grace was addressed in a feeling, pathetic, and patriotic prayer, by the Rev. Mr. JOHNSON, — Washington’s Farewell Address was read by C.L. BOALT, Esq. — after which, we then listened to one of Mr. STURGES’ best pieces of eloquence which indelibly impressed upon our minds, the days of our fathers & enkindled in our bosoms the fire of ;76.

The procession was then escorted to Maj. O. JENNEY’s Hotel where a rich and elegant dinner was provided for the occasion. The Hon. TIMOTHY BAKER, presiding as President of the Day — assisted by P. BENEDICT, Esq. as Vice President. The cloth being removed, the following Toasts were drank, accompanied with a discharge of cannon.

1. The Patriot, whose birth day we celebrate — The Hero, whose virture was only equalled by his valor, and whose name is too firmly fixed in the Temple of Fame to be shaken or sullied by pious bigotry, or clerical slander.

2. The departed Heroes, who fought and bled in the cause of Liberty — peace to their manes — we revere their valor, courage, and patriotism.

3. The President of the United States.

4. The State of Ohio — Though young in years, she is rich in population and resources — great in intellectual acquirements, and as the Psalmist David says, “We go from strength to strength.”

5. The Governor of the State of Ohio.

6. Our Country — Her fetters are broke, her tyrants are fled, and the hands of the North and the South shall unite to raise on the tomb of the glorious dead a temple of honor and crown it with light.

7. The Venerable Charles Carroll — the remaining signer of the Declaration of Independence — like Job’s servants, he can say, “I only am escaped to tell thee.

8. Internal Improvements — The rugged path it makes smooth — the crooked way it makes straight — triumphs over time and space, and sheds new lustre upon all who promote it.

9. The United States — The pillars of [political and religious] freedom — the glory and delight of our country as they are, but our destruction when united.

10. The Light of Liberty — Unlike the sun, it rose in the West — may it soon shed its radiance over the East.

11. Farmers and Mechanics — the bone and sinew of our republic — it is not blasphemy to say, “without thee we can do nothing.

12. Agriculture, Commerce, and Manufactures — a triumvirate of sisters — palsied be the hand that severs these ligaments.

13. The Fair Sex of Ohio — So many beauties, don’t be particular — “touch and take.”


By the Chaplain of the Day. — The political aspiring and unholy Clergy of the day — like Jonah in the whale’s belly, may they be compelled to eat meat without salt, and then be spewed out upon a land, unknown to American Freemen.

Timothy Baker

By the President of the Day. — The freedom of Poland. — That much injured people, may we live to see the day when their freedom shall be equal to that we now enjoy.

Platt Benedict - Founder of Norwalk, Ohio

By the Vice President. — The 22d day of February, the birth day of our beloved Washington, may it be kept in remembrance by every American, until time shall end.

By the Marshal. — The Orator of the day — May his name be remembered by all true Americans, for his able and fearless stand, this day taken against the calumniators of Maj. Gen. George Washington, the father of this Republic.

By the Orator of the day — The life and fame of Washington — The man who reviles the one, or tarnishes the other, deserves our unqualified reprobation and contempt.

By Maj. Underhill — The Legislature of N. York — May they ever be applauded for discharging their Chaplain.

By M. Kimball, Esq. — The memory of George Washington — His fame survives — bounded only by the limits of the earth, and by the extent of the human mind.

By S. Van Rensselaer, Esq. — The present and future officers and citizens of our Union — May they ever be influenced by Washington’s precepts.

By S. Preston, Esq. — The enlightened citizens of Norwalk — A strong phalanx against the wiles of bigoted Priests, and Mormon Impostors.

By Capt. Carkhuff — The Militia of Ohio — In peace, humble citizens — but in war, a thunderbolt.

By Wm. Bruester — The American Fair — The chains imposed by them, are the only ones that Freemen will ever wear.

After which, the company retired, in good season, pleased with the festivities of the social meeting.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Feb 28, 1832

Delivered at Norwalk, Ohio,
February 22d 1832,

We are permitted, fellow citizens, once more to commemorate one of the interesting epochs of American history. we are met again to mingle our sympathies, congratulations, and rejoicings over the prosperity and happiness of our much loved country, and by a bright retrospect of the past, to indulge in the most vivid anticipations of her future glory and renown. Other nations have had their festivals of mirth and their seasons of triumph. Often have they united their exertions to decorate with the regal diadem the brow of the tyrannical despot, and again and again, echoed their praises, to the Imperial conqueror just returning from scenes of carnage and slaughter. From the earliest periods of the world, men too have arisen, distinguished for their philanthropy and benevolence, who have received the loud peans of national gratitude, and dying have elicited a deep expression of national mourning..

Greece has had her Leonidas, Rome her Cato, and modern governments their distinguished heroes, whose names have been celebrated in all the sweetness of ancient song, and all the grandeur and pathos of modern eloquence. Certainly then, as Americans, we need no apology for the reason of this day’s assemblage. Indeed to call to mind the virtues of those who have preceded us in the great struggle of American freedom; to speak of their patriotism and philanthropy, and to portray the great benefits we have received from their hands, is calculated to awaken the most vivid sensibility, and the fire of liberty, which already animates the heart, only catches new inspiration from a recital of the heroic deeds of our forefathers.

What occasion, fellow citizens, is more suitable to review the interesting scenes of our country’s history, and impels us to testify by every demonstration of joy our heart felt thankfulness for our great and continued prosperity, than the centennial anniversary of the natal day of our beloved Washington. Go search the records of other nations, investigate the history of the rise and downfall of the governments of Europe, traverse by the dim flickering of the pages of romance, the mystical lore of fabulous ages; pursue in your inquiries all the traditions of oriental stories, and tell me where do you find a day whose events have proved more important to freedom and to man. Then arose into existence one whose influence upon the history of our world can only be told when tyrants shall no longer hold a subject — bigotry an advocate, or slavery a victim.

Though then in his swaddling clothes, completely the object of a mother’s care, regardless alike of the past, present, and future, through his success many a king has been made to tremble, and amid the shouts of his victories, many a despot with anguish and despair has heard the loud death knell of his future power and grandeur. Think you not, if at this eventful period, the mother of our illustrious hero could have looked down the vista of future years, that the prospect would not have swelled her heart with emotions and raptures too mighty for utterance? She then held in her arms the future glory and brightest champion of America, and when other monuments and mementoes of greatness should tumble into ruins, the name of her son would be handed down to future times encircled with a gilded halo of glory, which would mock alike the asperities of party and the ravages of time.

I will not, fellow citizens, on this occasion, trace minutely the boyhood of Washington, or attempt to describe all the scenes of his eventful life. Engraven, as they have been, upon your memories, even from your own childhood, it would but insult your good sense to attempt to portray all the transactions in which he was engaged. Appointed at the early age of 19, to an important post in the military of Virginia, and at 22 to that of Lieut. Colonel in the British army, he here fought the battles of his sovereign with the same ardent courage, disinterested philanthropy, and unyielding determination, that so distinguished his subsequent career. It is however to a late period of our history that we must refer for the brightest display of Washington’s character. It was when the clouds of war brooded over our land and threatened with one fell stroke to sweep in its desolating march every vestige of the last brightest hope of man.

A voice already arose from the ground, now crimsoned with human gore — Arise, O Man, to Freedom and Glory — It met with a welcome response in his devoted heart and thrilled thro’ every fibre of his soul. From his first election to the Continental Congress, while holding the command of the American army, during the seven year’s war, he ever exhibited a magnanimity of soul, and independence of spirit, and fortitude under sufferings and privations commensurate with the great cause he had espoused. Let Monmouth, Trenton, Yorktown and Germantown tell of his prudence in embarrassments, his modesty under praise, and his invincible courage in battle. Let the thousands who have fought by his side, during the memorable contest for our national existence, tell of his patriotic devotion to his country’s good and of his kind and generous heart. Let his parting with his compatriots at New York tell how much his soul and his whole soul was wrapped iin the future glory of America. Let his sentiments which he unfolded when he resigned his military commission, bear witness to his noble elevation of purpose, and the dignity of his soul. Let the warm attachment which holds in each of your hearts speak to-day how much we owe to this great and good man.

But it was not, fellow citizens, mere amid the clangor of war, and the shock of contending armies, that the virtues of Washington shone conspicuously. When surrounded with domestic dangers and domestic foes, subject to all the contentions of party spirit, and exposed to the intrigues of foreign emissaries, his voice was ever raised to still the tumults of passion, and stay the torrent of civil war. How infinitely contemptible do all the heroes of other times appear when viewed by the side of Washington. With no ambition but his country’s good, and no anxiety but her future welfare, he was as unwearied in promoting the former as wise in devising plans for the latter. Blessed with an affluence which placed him above the reach of sordid motives, he placed it all at the shrine of patriotism’s altar. Born with a heart which knew no guile, and governed by principles which claim affinity to higher beings, the goodness of his soul was only equalled by the splendor of his achievement. He firmly visited detested treachery, with all the unyielding severity of martial law, while the unmerited sufferings of the incorruptible patriot ever elicited the most lively expression of his sympathetic feelings. Alike conspicuous in the cabinet as in the field, he wielded the sword with the devoted enthusiasm of the Warrior, and wore the coronet with the integrity of the Philanthropist.

What a sublime spectacle does his retirement from the Executive Chair present. Tho’ elected for two successive terms, surrounded by those who delighted to do him honor, already having received the highest reward a grateful people could bestow, he forgets his illustrious life, he forgets fame, he forgets the trying scenes of other days, he forgets his companions in arms, he forgets himself, he forgets all, and catching a glimpse of the paradise of glory, he, (as his last official act) commits the interests of his dearest country to the protection of Almighty God, and those who have the superintendence of them to His holy keeping. O, fellow citizens, who does not this day feel proud of such a hero, and who will not lay aside all sectarian feeling, while we do homage to the memory of such a benefactor?

We have thus but barely alluded to some of the transactions of Washington’s life, and some of the bright traits in his shining character. But I may perhaps be asked, had he no faults? It has, fellow citizens, been alledged, that he was too prudent, and that by a bolder and chivalrous onset he would sooner have obtained American freedom. But when we take into consideration the circumstances under which he was placed, must we not assign to this quality the very prospects we this day enjoy. Already had the genius of liberty been driven from the Eastern Continent and gladly unfurled her bright standard upon the fertile shores of America — to the charge of Washington it was committed to guard its safety with untiring vigilance. Millions yet unborn would be freemen or slaves according to its protection. Weigh then, if you can, the full weight of responsibility under which he acted. Who would not yield the doubtful success of immediate onset to the long but sure prospect of ultimate victory?

True it is, Washington had his enemies — deep, dark, and malignant enemies; — and the same malicious bigotry, that in our youth would have prostrated the rising prospects of America, now guides the heart and wields the pen of those, who would tarnish the brightest jewel in our country — Yes, humbling as it is to us as freemen — degrading as it is to human nature — revolting as it is to our feelings — there are those, even in high places, who would tear from his character every thing his countrymen hold dear — heap upon his memory every epithet of disgrace, and consign him to the lowest depths of degradation and woe. —

Tasting the sweets — the precious sweets of the freedom, that was purchased by his exertions, they would associate his name with the Volneys, Paines, and Voltaires of other times. You undoubtedly anticipate me, in alluding to the recent attempts. at the Capital of a sister State, to spoil his hard earned laurels, and under the professed sanction of the Cross, disturbing the ashes of the illustrious dead; and this merely to gratify the malignant feelings of his heart. Is it not enough, fellow citizens, that surrounded with dangers and death, for seven long and successive years, he fought by the side and inspired the patriotism of your fathers? Is it not enough, that he ascribed all his success, and all his victories to the God of Battles? Is it not enough, that the secret grove and the midnight hour witnessed the ardency of his devotions and the fervency of his aspirations? Is it not enough, that he with his compatriots bequeathed to us the bright inheritance of our liberties?

Under the full blaze of Washington’s glory, beaming its radiant rays, shall a Minister of the Gospel, which inculcates as its highest precept “peace on earth and good will to men,” dare to insult the moral feelings of this nation, by associating his name with infidels and deists, and proclaim him as mocking at every thing sacred?

Forbid it Heaven! —

Forbid it every heart, that has one feeling that responds to the touch of sympathy. Let no official robes or sacred surplice protect the defamers of our heroes and statesmen — they are the moral wealth of this nation, and dead indeed must be the heart — malignant indeed must be the feelings, that would lessen these riches, or thus trample upon the ingenuous sympathies of the America heart.

Am I too severe on this subject?

Let any individual read the paper I hold in my hand and not feel his heart rise in sentiments of indignation at this vile attempt upon the fame of Washington. Yes — I go farther — I call upon every partizan, of every party, to unite with mine their voices this day in protecting the character of their common father. I call upon every patriot to manifest the feelings, which already burn in their breasts, at this unhallowed outrage upon the friend of freedom. Above all, I call upon every christian of every sect, by the holy character of their calling, to redeem religion from the disgrace of its professed advocate, by an united testimony of their decided disapprobation. Far be it from me, fellow citizens, on this occasion, to violate the sentiments, or injure the feelings of any individual; rather would I give a new zest to every cause of rejoicing, and add a still fresher wreath to every source of pleasure; — but where is the man, so dead to every better feeling of the heart, as not to respond to the sentiments I have here advanced? Where is the man, so devoted to sectarian feelings, who will not pronounce his loud anathemas upon him, who without cause, and without provocation, would sacrilegiously open the tombs of our departed heroes, and thus profane their memories with all the bigotry of modern fanaticism.

But to return from this digression. The death of our beloved hero was in accordance with his patriotic life. His country, his whole country, and nothing but his country, was the theme of his last days. Let those, who can recollect the day of his death in ’99, tell of a nation’s mourning.

Here, fellow citizens, we may pause and reflect upon the scenes which have passed. One hundred years from this day we beheld a few dependent colonies, without resources, without arms, subject to the caprice of a foreign king; with no glorious retrospection of the past, and no vivid anticipations of the future. We have beheld her fighting the battles of her sovereign. We have seen a small but chosen band resist the usurpations of lawless power. We have seen her for seven long and successive years coping with the most powerful kingdom of the Eastern Continent — struggling even amid the inclemencies of the seasons and even without the common necessaries of life, fighting for their fire sides and homes, with no prospect but ignominy and death. —

With the most anxious expectation, we have seen the standard of liberty for, apparently, the last time unfurl her patriotic stripes, and we have witnessed this standard gloriously forcing its way against the most deadly opposition, and finally triumph over all its foes and all its enemies. The fearful struggle that ensued may well have attracted the attention of the nations of the earth. It was a moral spectacle, which may well have enlisted the prayers and sympathies of every patriot of every clime. We have seen our beloved country assume an important stand among the nations of the earth. We have seen her powerful at home and respected abroad — her commerce whitening every sea, and her progress surprising every heart. With more than thirteen millions of inhabitants, she has advanced, during the different periods of war and of peace, and constantly pursuing her onward course of human glory. — Free from the embarrassments of a national debt, and with no object but the happiness of her citizens, she at this moment presents the proudest spectacle ever told in song or recorded history. Is there an individual that does not this day feel his heart arise in aspirations of gratitude and thankfulness at the future prospects of America; and

“Breathes there a soul so dead,
That never to himself hath said
This is my own, my native land.”

While we have beheld with astonishment, the rise and downfall of other nations, seen some of the most beautiful specimens of political power, crumbling into ruins, witnessed even the predictions of to-day refuted by the events of to-morrow, and even seen the final catastrophe of many of the governments of the East unmoved and unharmed amid the surrounding elements of discord and confusion, we have only pursued our even and constant march of greatness and grandeur.

Look around you Fellow citizens, and contemplate the numerous avenues to happiness, which the genius of our government unfolds. Survey the numerous interests which shedding their revivifying radiance upon surrounding objects, are now moving forward in constant harmony, & each calculated to ameliorate our condition and hourly adding a still brighter tinge to our political horizon. Behold for one moment, the comparative superiority of our institutions with those of the dynasties of Europe. Here no voice from the abodes of tyranny strikes terror and dismay to the rising emotions of your souls. Here, free as the air, you breathe, you are permitted to indulge in every feeling of your heart. No religious fanatic dare here raise the arm of persecution and compel you to renounce the faith of your fathers, or bow your knees to the bigoted prophets of the East. All upon equality, the rich and the poor, the resident of the palace, or the peasant of the cottage, you can to-day mingle your sympathies on the rising destinies of America.

Oh! Fellow citizens, could Washington even in imagination have beheld this interesting Anniversary, — think you not, it would have swelled his heart with higher emotions and caused it to thrill with still greater extacies of joy and delight. Think you not it would have raised still higher the exertions of his arms and the reflections of his soul. Are our departed friends ever permitted to revisit the scenes of their former labors and former loves? If so, what tongue can tell, what imagination conceive the thoughts that glow in his breast at even the present prospects of his dearest country?

But Fellow citizens, the effects of the exertions of Washington are not confined to our own country. They have carried their sure and irresistible influence into the governments of the East, ameliorating the condition and spreading light and joy over our world. They have held their place in the retirements of the Imperial Palace, and already a ray of light has sprung from the very bed of despotism, destined yet to illuminate Europe. Many a devoted martyr to his country’s good, while lifting up his fervent and animated aspirations for the welfare of man, (although surrounded with the ensigns of royalty and the trappings of power,) has raised his drooping eyes and a beam of heavenly joy has gleamed over his countenance, while catching a glimpse of the glory which encircles the fame of our beloved Washington. The Patriot of every clime has looked to our shores with the most anxious expectations and are even now watching with ardent hopes, the last experiment, whether man can be free.

Tyrants have been taught by a lesson full of emphasis, that in the heart of man, even subjugated man, there burns a fire which fanaticism cannot smother, or oppression destroy. Greece, France and Poland, have each in their turn, led by the beacon light of American freedom risen in their Native Independence, torn off the badges of kingly power and proclaimed in a voice well understood the omnipotence of those principles bestowed by their Creator. And though torn by all the strifes of internal divisions and shaken to their very centre, by all the convulsions of civil war, yet they have only tended to provoke an inquiry which will eventually regenerate our world. —

Blood undoubtedly will yet flow and many a devoted friend to civil rights will bid farewell, a long farewell, to his country’s freedom. Yet Americans, the time is coming, when some returning sun shall mingle in its radiance, that of universal emancipation. Poland, unhappy, ill fated Poland, may again rise and again fall. Kings for a time may rejoice at the success of despotic arms, and the tomb of Kosciusko may still for a time be moistened by the tear of regret, & a night even darker than the grave, may still hover over this unhappy empire. Louis may again ride in the Imperial Chariot, and the Court of St. Cloud, may again witness decrees subjugating the Citizens of France. Turkish superstition and Mahomadan frenzy may still for a season carry success to the Moslem sceptre. Modern bigotry and ecclesiastical domination may forge still stronger and still closer chains upon the spirits of English Yeomanry. Inquisitorial cruelties may yet drench in blood, the fairest portion of the Eastern Continent, and reach in their lawless crusades, the hearts of the great and the home of the brave. But all in vain. The cause of freedom, is the cause of man. It is the cause of God. It will finally triumph. It will ultimately prevail.

Such, Fellow Citizens, are some of the effects of our Independence, obtained greatly by the exertions of him whose birth, we to-day commemorate.

But while we are called upon this day to rejoice, let us not forget the surviving soldiers and officers of the Revolution. A few of those, who fought by the side of Washington, still exist. They remain, it is true, like the oaks, stript of the foliage of their younger days, liable every moment to fall by the storms and tempests with which they are surrounded. In a few more years, the last of those who were the companions, as well as the compatriots of Washington, will descend into their graves, and their names be only known in our country’s history or in the inspirations of poetic song. They now behold their descendants raised to affluence and prosperity, and with the flush of patriotism, still glowing upon their withered cheeks, they raise their supplicating arms, and ask for returning gratitude. Shall they be denied? Never let a Nation’s sad regret prove the sequel of American ingratitude. Heard you not that shout of joy, and anthem of rejoicing, when they returned to their firesides and homes? Beheld you not that tear of exhilarating joy, when our country was proclaimed delivered and free? They belong to the veterans of other times.

Silence not that shout, dry not that tear. —

Smooth the decline of their years, and then in other days, we may invoke the spirits of our departed heroes, to lead us safely to the highest pinacle of National grandeur. —

What a debt of gratitude do we owe to the soldiers of the Revolution. —

As some requital let us hand to our children, and our children’s children, the bright inheritance of our liberties, uncontaminated and unimpaired. Let us one and all, testify this day, those hallowed feelings which already swell in every heart. As followers of different political sentiments, tho’ equal inheritors of the fame of Washington — let us lay aside all differences of opinions, and during all the festivities of this occasion, let us act as becometh American and freemen.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Feb 28, 1832


February 18, 2010


A slender boy was gazing on the waves
Of the broad ocean from a dizzy height;
Framing great deeds within his childish mind,
All heedless of the coming shades of night.
Ambition stirred within him as he gazed
On the wild motions of each foam-cap’d billow;
Visions of glory, glittering and bright,
Haunted that night the restless dreamer’s pillow.
Loud in his ears peal’d the deep cannon’s roar,
And nations bow’d to him a conqueror.

George Washinton - Princeton (Image from

Ten thousand men are struggling on a plain,
And, through the air resounds the lengthened shout
Of the contending armies. — In the midst
Of the hot melee, foremost in the rout,
The scheming boy, but now a boy no more,
Hovers around, defying danger’s front.
A nation’s wrongs inspire his youthful arm.
And round him rages, thicker than its wont.
The bloody fray. — ‘Tis over — all is still’d;
The boy’s ambitious dreams are well fulfilled.

A crowd have gathered round the massive front
Of a most stately edifice; — and, now,
Clad in plain garments on the portico
A venerable man appears. Hark! how
They shout; the busy tumult rends the air,
A nation’s gratitude inspires each tongue,
And all are gazing on that noble brow.
In whose acclaim those honest plaudits rung,
Louder and louder still for him who won
Again they shout. — The cry is WASHINGTON.

The Experiment (Norwalk, Ohio) Jul 24, 1844

George Washington: His Country is his Monument

February 18, 2010


Few columns rose when Rome was free
To mark her patriot’s last repose;
When she outlived her liberty,
The emperor’s mausoleums rose;
And Trajan’s shaft was reared at last,
When freedom from Tyber passed.
“Better than Trajan” lowly lies
By broad Potomac’s silent shore,
Hallowing the green declivities
With glory, now and evermore.
Art to his fame no aid hath lent —
His country is his monument.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio)1832


The following account of the appointment of General Washington to the supreme command of the continental army, June 18th, 1775, has been placed in our hands by a gentleman in whose veracity we have full confidence. We cannot doubt the authenticity of the anecdotes he gives.

This subject has of late years been brought before the public under various versions, and has in every shape attention. The private journal is narrating a conversation with John Adams, senior, before that great and good man was called to his final rest. The relation is more in detail than that which has hitherto been made public, but it substantially corroborates the former versions of the causes which led to the appointment of Washington. Lest we should in any way affect the anecdote, we give it in the words of the narrator.

The army was assembled at Cambridge, Mass., under Gen. Ward, and Congress was sitting at Philadelphia. Every day, new applications in behalf of the army arrived. The country was urgent that Congress should legalize the raising of the army; as they had, what must be considered, only a mob, a band of armed rebels.

The country was placed in circumstances of peculiar difficulty and danger. The struggle had begun, and yet every thing was without order. The great trial now seemed to be in this question. Who shall be the commander-in-chief? It was exceedingly important, and was felt to be the hinge on which the contest might turn for or against us.

The Southern and Middle States, warm and rapid in their zeal for the most part, were jealous of New England, because they felt the real physical force was here; what then was to be done? All New England adored Gen. Ward; he had been in the French war, and went out laden with laurels. He was a scholar and a statesman. Every qualification seemed to cluster in him; and it was confidently believed that the army could not receive any appointment over him. What then was to be done? Difficulties thickened at every step. The struggle was to be long and bloody. Without union, all was lost. The country and the whole country must come in. One pulsation must beat through all hearts.

The cause was one, and the army must be one. The members had talked, debated, considered and guessed, and yet the decisive step had not been taken. At length Mr. Adams came to his conclusion. The means of resolving it were somewhat singular, and nearly as follows: he was walking one morning before Congress hall, apparently in deep thought, when his cousin, Samuel Adams, came up to him and said,

“What is the topic with you this morning?”

“Oh the army,” he replied. “I’m determined to go into the hall this morning, and enter on a full detail of the colonies, in order to show an absolute need of taking some decisive steps. My whole aim will be to induce Congress to appoint a day for adopting the army as the legal army of these united colonies of North America, and then to hint at an election of a Commander-in-Chief.”

“Well,” said Samuel Adams, “I like that, cousin John; but on whom have you fixed as that Commander?”

“I will tell you — George Washington, of Virginia, a member of this house.”

“Oh,” replied Samuel Adams quickly, “that will never do, never.”

“It must do, it shall do,” said John, “and for these reasons — the Southern and Middle States are bout to enter heartily in the cause; and their arguments are portent! they say that New England holds the physical power in her hands, and they fear the result. A New England army, a New England commander, new England perseverance all united, appal them. For this cause they hang back. Now the only course is to allay their fears, and give them nothing to complain of; and this can be done in no other way but by appointing a Southern Chief over this force, and then all will rush to the standard. This policy will blend us in one mass, and that mass will be resistless.”

At this, Samuel Adams seemed greatly moved. They talked over the preliminary circumstances, and John asked his cousin to second the motion. Mr. Adams went in, took the floor, and put forth all his strength, in the delineation he had prepared, all aiming at the adoption of the army. He was ready to own the army, appoint a commander, vote supplies, and proceed to business. After his speech had been finished, some doubted, some objected, and some feared. His warmth increased with the occasion, and to all these doubts and hesitations she[he?] replied.

“Gentlemen, if this Congress will not adopt this army before ten moons have set, New England will adopt it, and she will undertake the struggle alone — yes, with a strong arm, and a clean conscience, she will front the foe single handed.”

This had the desired effect. They saw New England was neither playing, nor to be played with. They agreed to appoint a day. A day was fixed. It came — Mr. Adams went in, took the floor, urged the measure, and after some debate, it passed.

The next thing was to get a commander for his army, with supplies, &c. All looked to Mr. Adams on the occasion, and he was ready. He took the floor, and went into a minute delineation of the character of General Ward, bestowing on him the encomiums which then belonged to no one else. At the end of the eulogy he said, “But this is not the man I have chosen.”

He then went into the delineation of the character of a Commander-in-Chief, such as was required by the peculiar situation of the Colonies at this juncture. And after he had presented the qualifications in his strongest language, and gave the reasons for the nomination he was about to make, he said —

“Gentlemen, I know these qualifications are high, but we all know they are needful, at this crisis in this chief. Does any one say they are not to be obtained in this country? In reply I have to say they are; reside in one of our own body, and he is the person whom I now nominate.


Washington, who sat on Mr. Adams’ right hand, was looking at him intently in the face, to watch the name he was about to announce, and not expecting it would be his, sprang from his seat the minute he heard it, and rushed into an adjoining room. Mr. Adams had asked his cousin Samuel to ask for an adjournment as soon as the nomination was made, in order to give the members time to deliberate, and the result is before the world.

I asked Mr. Adams, among other questions, the following:

“Did you ever doubt of the success of the conflict?”

“No, no,” said he, “not for a moment. I expected to be hung and quartered, if I was caught; but no matter for that — my country would be free; I knew George III, could not forge chains long enough and strong enough to reach around these United States.”

The Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Mar 6, 1843

A Patriot’s Warning: The Words of Thomas Jefferson

February 17, 2010


If ever the tones of warning of the immortal Jefferson should be heard and heeded, now is the time. If there ever was a period when they were more directily applicable than any other, it is the present. Read and remember.

A Warning Voice. — “To preserve our independence, we must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt. We must make our selection between economy and liberty, or profusion and servitude.

If we run into such debts, as that we must be taxed in our meat and in our drink, in our necessaries and comforts, in our labors and our amusements, for our callings and our creeds, as the people of England are, our people, like them, must come to labor sixteen hours in the twenty-four, give the earnings of fifteen of these to the governmemt for their debts and daily expenses, and the sixteenth being insufficient to afford us bread, we must live, as they now do, on oatmeal and potatoes; have no time to think, no means of calling the mismanagement to account; but be glad to obtain subsistence by hiring ourselves to rivet the chains on the necks of our fellow-sufferers.

Our land-holders too, like theirs, retaining, indeed, the title and stewardship of estates, called theirs, but held really in trust for the treasury, must wander, in foreign countries, and be contented with penury, obscurity, exile, and the glory of the nation. This example reads to us the salutary lesson that private fortunes are destroyed by public as well as by private extravagance. And this is the tendency of all human governments. A departure from principle in one instance, becomes a precedent for a second; that second for a third; and so on, till the bulk of the society is reduced to be mere automatons of misery, to have no sensibilities left but sinning and suffering.

Then begins, indeed, the bellum omimium in omnia*, which some philosophers observing to be so general in this world, have mistaken it for the natural instead of the abusive state of man.

And the fore-horse of this frightful team is, PUBLIC DEBT.

Taxation follows that, and in its train wretchedness and oppression.”

Thomas Jefferson

The Experiment (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 8, 1841

*war of all against all (Definition from the Atlantic Sentinel, which published these same words from Jefferson in a recent article.)

Kentucky Feuds: Bailey – White

February 16, 2010

Image from the book: Days of darkness: the feuds of Eastern Kentucky – by John Ed Pearce (Link below with book image)

Commenter, M. White, asked for information regarding those that killed Bev White, (what happened to them,) and below is what I was able to find. I found no newspaper articles about the trials/outcomes for: John Bailey’s father, William Bailey, or his brother, James Bailey, or the sheriff, Perry, that are named in one or two of the articles.  Based on the outcome of John Bailey’s appeal, I would guess they all got off scott free.

NOTE: The Whites were involved in the Howard-Baker feuds, which I posted about here. Now, in that post, a Beverly White was killed by Tom Baker. That is a different Beverly White. There were several with that name living in that area, all related, I am guessing.

NOTE: Several of the news articles have Bev White’s name listed as Beverly D. White, instead of Beverly P. White.



Bev. P. White Has Located Near Lexington.

Lexington, Ky., May 5. — (Special)

Bev. P. White, the famous sheriff of Clay county, is now a resident of Fayette county, having recently located here.

White resigned his position as sheriff of Clay county on April 1st by an agreement with the authorities of that county, and at first intended to take up a home in Clark county, but changed his mind and has secured a lease in the Dabney Carr farm, on the Winchester Pike, eight miles from Lexington.

Sheriff White was one of the leaders in the bitter feuds of Clay county, and his resignation and departure from the county was one of the results of the recent all around agreement reached to abandon bloody warfare and engage in peaceful pursuits. He says he will next year buy him a farm and he may enter the ranks of trotting horse breeders.

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) May 6, 1901


Posses Searching for Alleged Kentucky Killer.

Lexington, Kentucky, April 8 —

A posse of citizens, armed with high-powered rifles, scoured the mountain districts of Clay and Knox counties, for John Bailey, Clay county farmer, who, late Thursday, scored a point in a lifelong feud between his family and that of B.P. White, wealthy farmer and coal operator of Barbourville, by shooting and killing White as he landed from a train, near Barbourville.

Meager reports reaching Lexington, today, indicate that friends of both families are arming and a battle is feared when the feudists on the White side attempt to take sides with the searching posse.

Marion Star, The (Marion, Ohio) Apr 8, 1921

Shot Dead.

Mrs. Edward Baute of this city received word last Friday that her father, Beverly White, was shot and killed by John Bailey, of Clay County.  The shooting occurred at Heldrick Depot of the Cumberland and Manchester Railroad shortly after Mr. White arrived at the depot.  Bailey is said to have opened fire without a word being spoken.  The shooting was the outgrowth of a family feud which started twenty-five years ago.  Mr. White moved away from the scene and had not been back since that time.  Bailey had been captured and is in jail at Harlan.  Feeling against him is high.  Mr. White was one of the wealthiest and most respected farmers in Central Kentucky.
Somerset, Ky., Friday April 15, 1921.

Pulaski News Apr 1921 (LINK to Ky Kinfolk, where article was posted)


William Lee Shot Dead by Bart Reid, Former Army Officer, Who Is Said to Have Given Offense by Talk about Indictment of Lee’s Brother — In Family War of Many Years.


State troops were called out here tonight to stop a threatened outbreak following an affair today in which William Lee, of upper Knox County, was shot and killed by Bart Reid, former army officer.

Lee is said to have threatened Reid because of statements the latter is alleged to have made in connection with indictments returned against Jim Lee, his brother, charged with shooting Josh Faulkner last week. It was feared that Lee’s friends might try to avenge the killing.

Old Feud Feared.

LOUISVILLE, Ky., June 7. —

Reports reached here today that the Bailey-White feud had broken out afresh in the vicinity of Barbourville, Ky., today and that one man had been killed.

Another report from Frankfort said Governor Edwin P. Morrow had been asked to send state troops to the scene of the trouble.

Meanwhile John Bailey, who on April 7 was credited with renewing the feud of twenty years between the Baker and White families when Bevereley White was shot and killed in Knox county, remains in jail in Louisville. He was brought here, authorities say, to remove him from the jurisdiction of friendly court influences at Mt. Vernon, which the state said it had reason to believe, would have released him on motion for bail and habeas corpus proceedings.

Reports of a second renewal of the feud are widespread, but verification is difficult owing to meager lines of communication.

The Bridgeport Telegram (Bridgeport, Connecticut) Jun 8, 1921

Soldiers Keep Disorder Down At Mt. Vernon

John Bailey, Jr., Alleged Slayer of Beverly White, Goes To Jail.


MOUNT VERNON, Ky., Aug. 22 —

Bailey-Lee and White rival clansmen numbering 100 are under arms here today for the opening trial of John Bailey, Jr., alleged slayer of Beverly White.

A detachment of the London cavalry troops, K.N.G., are camped on the court house grounds, dispatched here by Governor Morrow, upon request of the Mount Vernon authorities who fear trouble before the trial ends.

No trouble occurred yesterday. Incoming trains brought reinforcements of the opposing factions and many other feudists are arriving this morning.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Aug 22, 1921

Armed Men Flock To Feudist’s Trial

MOUNT VERNON, Ky., Aug. 22. —

With twenty-five National Guardsmen from London and twenty special deputy sheriffs on guard, the Rock Castle courthouse presented a martial appearance, when the trial of John Bailey, Jr., alleged slayer of Beverly White, was called here today. Approximately 100 members of the Bailey-Lee clansmen factions, in the most bitter mountain feud that has torn eastern Kentucky in recent years and which is said to have resulted in a score of killings in almost as many years, were present for opening of the trial.

Major James L. Dillon, in charge of the guardsmen, has issued warning to the clansmen against carrying concealed weapons during the trial.

The killing, for which Bailey is to be tried, occurred on April 7 last at Heidricks Station.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Aug 22, 1921


Baileys and Whites Face Each Other Today.


Force Prepared To Preserve Order During the Trial of John Bailey for Murder.

Mt. Vernon, Kentucky, Aug. 23 —

Baileys and Whites sat facing each other in the drab circuit court-room of Rock Castle county, today.

Had they met under different circumstances, everything might not have been so calm.

But here automatic guns of the state troopers helped to inspire a respect for the law and to frown on feud methods of settling conspiracies.

And the enmity of the member of the feud factions was masked behind expressionless faces.

Court routine took its customary monotonous course. Attorneys for John Bailey, accused of the murder of Beverly White, asked for continuance of the trial on account of a witness. Circuit Judge B.J. Bethurum appointed a special bailiff, to be accompanied by two soldiers, to arrest four missing witnesses.

The Whites and Baileys left the court-room and went their respective ways. The London cavalry troopers and twenty special deputies kept a center course. Realization that the slightest dispute, even between minor members of the clans might precipitate a general clash, kept the troops vigilant to keep the factions apart.

Every person entering the court-room was searched. But the warning of Major James Dillon, commanding the troops, had been heeded. Weapons had been left in the rooms.

A few knives were collected.

Marion Star, The (Marion, Ohio) Aug 23, 1921


Mount Vernon, Ky., August 22.–

With twenty-five national guardsmen from London and twenty special deputy sheriffs on guard, the Rock Castle county courthouse presented a martial appearance as the case of John Bailey, Jr., alleged slayer of Beverly White, was called for trial here today. Bailey’s case was brought here on a change of venue from Knox county, where the slaying occurred. Approximately 100 members of the Bailey-Lee clan and the Whites, opposing factions in the most bitter mountain feud that has torn eastern Kentucky in recent years, were present for the opening of the trial. The troops and special deputies were summoned to keep down any possible flare up of the feudal spirit that in the last few years has caused a number of deaths on both sides of the mountain war and which in the last quarter of a century has resulted in possibly a score of killings.

Judge B.J. Bethurum, who is conducting the court here, asked for special guards for the courtroom.

Major James L. Dillon, in charge of the guardsmen, has issued warning to the clansmen against carrying concealed weapons during the trial.

The killing, for which Bailey is to be tried, occurred on April 7 last at Heidrick’s station near Barbourbille.  Bailey was with his father, William Bailey; a brother, James Bailey, and a deputy sheriff named Perry, took to the woods but surrendered two days later and was taken to the Harlan county jail. Later he was transferred to Mount Vernon and then to Louisville and finally granted bail at Mount Vernon. John Bailey was indicted on the charge of wilful murder and for this he is to be tried. His father, brother and Perry have been indicted on the charge of conspiracy to murder Beverly White and their cases already are set for this term.

Although the best of order is being kept here by the state troops and special deputies, the White and Bailey-Lee clans present somewhat the appearance of wrestlers preparing to leap at one another. The Whites have made the Rock Castle hotel headquarters for their adherents, while the Baileys and Lees are putting up at a boarding house. On the street one seldom sees a member of one clan on the same side with members of the other.

When court hour approached this morning, according to officials, there was no indication of a continuance of the case.

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Aug 23, 1921

Mountain Feud Calls For Drastic Measures

Mount Vernon, Ky. —

The first day of the John Bailey murder trial, growing out of the Bailey-White mountain feud, was productive of nothing more than the search of every person who entered the court room for weapons. Soldiers and deputy sheriffs stopped each clansman as he entered the door. None resisted the search and no weapons were found except a few pocket knives. Even the women were not exempt from search.

When the case was called both the commonwealth and the defense asked for a continuance because essential witnesses were absent.

The prosecution asked for attachments for four and the defense for nine material witnesses. Circuit Judge Bethurum appointed Sheriff Walker to deputize two soldiers and bring them into court, and adjourned court until Tuesday.

The sheriff was also ordered to establish a censorship of telephone wires and instructed to prevent the transmission of any messages which might inform the missing witnesses of his order.

The Kingsport Times (Kingsport, Tennessee) Aug 23, 1921

More Jurors Are Needed in Trial

MOUNT VERNON, Ky., Aug. 23.–

With eleven men in the jury box and no more available for duty until they can be summoned by Sheriff Tip Langford, the trial of John Bailey, mountain feudist, charged with murder of Beverly D. White of Versailles, was adjourned this afternoon until 9 o’clock tomorrow morning. The sheriff and his deputies spent the afternoon and night summoning a special venue of one hundred men, ordered by Judge Bethurum from which to obtain a jury.
Bailey tonight was free under a new bond executed this afternoon before the county clerk.

Logansport Morning Press (Logansport, Indiana) Aug 24, 1921


Mount Vernon, Ky. —

Watt Norton died last night, after having been shot by James Winstead at Norton’s home, ten miles from here.

Winstead is a bondsman for John Bailey, on trial for slaying Beverly White. Winstead surrendered and is in the county jail, charged with murder.

The tragedy is the renewal of an old quarrel growing out of a suit to locate a roadway across Norton’s farm.

The jury to try John Bailey was completed before the noon adjournment of court today.

The Kingsport Times (Kingsport, Tennessee) Aug 26, 1921

Reports of Civil and Criminal Cases Decided by the Court of Appeals of Kentucky– Volume 195
Authors    Kentucky. Court of Appeals, Kentucky. Supreme Court
Publisher    S.I.M. Major, 1922

You can read the whole appeal record at this Google book LINK, starting on page 485. It gives the testimony of both sides. Evidently, Watt Norton lived long enough to tell others what happened.



John Bailey, mountain feudist, who has been on trial here for more than a week, on Wednesday was found guilty of murder and sentenced to imprisonment for life.

Bailey shot and killed Beverly D. White, last April. The tragedy was the outgrowth of a feud of 20 years between the Bailey and White families, whose kin and clansmen gathered here in large numbers for the trial.

State troops guarded the courthouse.

Eau Claire Leader (Eau Claire, Wisconsin) Sep 2, 1921


Precautions Taken as Kentucky Feudists Go on Trial


Baily Family Accused of Plot to Kill B.D. White

FRANKFORT, Ky. — (By Associated Press)

Thirty Kentucky national guardsmen and three commissioned officers, armed with pistols, rifles and two machine guns, today went on duty at Barbourville to guard the Knox circuit court during trial of members of the Bailey family on the charge of conspiring to murder Beverly D. White of Versailes.

White was killed by John Bailey, who now is in jail at Danville, Ky., awaiting final disposition of his life sentence by the court of appeals.

Orders for the guardsmen to proceed to Barbourville were issued here. This is the third time that the militia has been called out in connection with the Bailey-White feud.

Lima News (Lima, Ohio) Dec 6, 1921

In 1922 John Bailey had trouble with Beve White and shot and killed him. He was tried in Rockcastle Co., KY and was sentenced to Life in prison, but after only 1 year, his brother Jim got him out of prison.

Trouble continued between the 2 famlies for several years . On May 2, 1927 Beve Bailey was waiting to board the train at Rodonald Station, though he knew the Whites were going to be aboard, he boarded anyhow. Someone threw Beve a pack of Cigarettes and when he bent over to get them , a Jim Lyttle , brother in law to the Whites, shot Beve 3 times in the back. Beve returned fire, hitting Jim Lyttle in the shoulder. Beve then walked a few steps, sat down and asked for a smoke and then died.

With Beve Bailey now dead, that only left John and Jim and on March 30, 1931 they killed each other in Harlan. So I suppose you can safely say that the feud between these two families, whose boys used to be the best of friends and got in an argument over trading horses lasted from 1915 to 1931. As the Baileys and the Whites had trouble between them until they were all gone.


Note: This article is written based on facts from various newspaper articles on the troubles between the 2 families.

Posted on Rootsweb by CuzSmith – LINK

This is the book where I found the Feud Counties Map: Google Book Preview LINK

The following newspaper transcription can be found at TNGenWeb – Hancock Co. under the Hopkins surname HERE.

Sheriff J. H. Blair had a run in with George Lee and Bev Bailey, in the office of the County Judge Howard, in Harlan, last week, when Lee refused to surrender his pistol to the sheriff.

Lee and Bailey had some trouble with Chief of Police Pearl Noe, early in the day, when they drew their weapons on the officer and later forced him to go to the court with them.

When the sheriff came into the office, Judge Howard suggested that the men be searched, to which Lee objected, and when he reached for his front pocket, as if to draw a gun, Sheriff Blair grabbed his hand and stuck him, finally taking from him two large revolvers.  Lee and Bailey were then remanded to jail, in default of a peace bond of $5,000.00 each.

Lee shot and killed Neal Christian, a deputy sheriff, at Wallins Creek, two years ago.  Bailey was mixed up in the White-Bailey feud, in Knox County. several years ago, in which six or seven men were killed, including two sons of John C. White.

The Corbin Times-Tribune Oct 24, 1924



Bev Bailey was shot and killed in Clay County Monday morning in what is reported to have been a resumption of the old Bailey-White feud of long standing, according to information received here.  Bailey, whose brother John Bailey killed Bev White sometime ago, was shot about ten times.

The Pineville Sun May 5, 1927



Reports Reach Here That Bev Bailey is Shot to Death On Train by White Boys

Monday Morning


Reports have reached here that Monday about 9 o’clock, at Roadon- ald, Ky., four miles out of Manchest- er, in Clay county, on the C. & M. railroad, a shooting affray occurred between Bev Bailey and three White boys, in which Bailey was killed.  This is considered an outbreak of hard feeling which has existed be- tween the Bailey and White families for a number of years.  About five years ago two or three members of the White family were killed by the Baileys, and the feud since that time has been quiescent until the out- break Monday morning.

Details of the shooting are lacking, it being said that  John  C. White, Jr., J. E. White, Jr., and another White were on the train as it came from Manchester to Barbourville, and at the Roadonald station, the shooting took place, with Bev Bailey, who was at the station, being killed.  As to the number of shots fired and who started the fray, it is not known.

The report is that on the excursion train the day before, when some thousand Clay countians visited Cumberland Gap and the Pinnacle, Bev Bailey stuck his pistol in the ribs of one of the White boys and made some threats.  No fight occurred, however, on the train.

One of the train officials said that the coach in which the White boys were riding, was shot up consider- ably.

The Corbin Times, May 6, 1927

Presidents’ Day Feature: Ronald Reagan

February 15, 2010

From the Sitka Sentinel (Sitka, Alaska) Nov 5, 1980

For President’s Day, a Ronald Reagan montage: It’s just some  random things  leading up to his Landslide Presidential Victory.  The “objectivity” of these articles makes them entertaining to read; it’s really a wonder he ever got elected to anything. Evidently,  the people could read between the lines.

Gov. Ronald Reagan (Image from

$6.74 Billion Calif. Budget Proposed By Gov. Reagan

Associated Press Writer


Gov. Ronald Reagan proposed Tuesday a spartan $6.74 billion state budget which avoids a tax increase mainly by slashing the rate of welfare spending by $700 million annually.

Reagan told the California Legislature that “something must be done and done immediately” about soaring welfare and health care costs.

Proposed welfare spending in Reagan’s budget totals $2.2 billion. The state’s share would be 676.5 million — down $65.2 million from the current year.

The Republican governor’s proposed 1971-72 budget, 2 percent larger than the current one, cuts spending in many areas, hold the University of California to the current $337 million of state support and denies state workers the annual cost-of-living salary increases they have enjoyed for the past decade.


Reagan told the state’s college and university faculty members they would have to spend more time teaching to handle a heavier classroom load.

Reagan predicted in an address to the Republican state convention Sunday the budget would bring “resistance and cries of anguish.”

Referring to welfare, he said “When many snouts are threatened with forcible withdrawal from the public trough, it makes waves.”

Reagan shunned both the deficit financing of President Nixon’s new federal budget and new taxes such as those proposed by New York Gov. Nelson A. Rockefeller to balance his state’s $8.45 billion budget.


California had a bigger state budget than New York when Reagan first took office four years ago.

The Republican governor faces major problems in getting the budget, and its companion reform legislation, through a legislature controlled by Democrats: 43 to 37 in the Assembly and 20 to 19 in the Senate.

Reagan will propose administrative and legislative changes that will cut welfare spending by a projected $606 million of state, county and federal funds in the budget year beginning July 1. This will be done by tightening up on eligibility and doing away with a number of allowances considered by the Reagan administration to be frills. Details will be revealed in a welfare message to go to the legislature soon.

To save another $100 million, Reagan will ask the legislature to cut back the free health care given by the state to 2.5 million welfare recipients and medically needy in California’s Medi-Cal program.

Reagan proposes to limit Medi-Cal spending to what an average citizen who pays for his own health needs lays out during a year. This is estimated at about $300 by state officials. California has been paying an average $517 for each Medi-Cal patient, Reagan said.

The Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Feb 3, 1971

Image from the Graham Owen Gallery

Reagan Prepares For “Hawk” Tour



Gov. Ronald Reagan is getting ready for his first nationwide political tour as a full-fledged hawk on Vietnam and closer then ever to campaigning actively for the Republican presidential nomination.

Less than three weeks before his speechmaking trip through Illinois, South Carolina and Wisconsin, Reagan made his toughest statement so far on the war, asking for a sharp escalation.

“I don’t think the full technological power of the United States is being used,” Reagan told a news conference Tuesday.

He said he didn’t think nuclear weapons are needed to win but insisted “the enemy should be frightened that we might” use them.

The Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Sep 13, 1967

Brown: Reagan ‘Last Hope’ of Extremists

Gubernatorial Nominee Likened to Death Valley

SACRAMENTO (UPI) — Gov. Edmund G. Brown Sunday attacked his Republican opponent, actor-politician Ronald Reagan, as “the best and perhaps last hope” of right wing extremists for an attractive candidate who shares their philosophy.

In a speech prepared for a meeting of the Democratic State Central Committee, Brown said Reagan’s backers include ultra-conservatives from throughout the nation, not just California.

“They will spend whatever they must, and they will resort to whatever tactics they must,” the Democratic governor said.

“And they will do this because they know that Ronald Reagan is their best and perhaps last hope of inflicting on this nation a revolution of the right.”

Gov. Edmund G. Brown Sr. (Image from

Ignored Fight

Brown’s text concentrated on Reagan and ignored a bitter fight for selection of a new Democratic state chairman.

Committee members, almost 1,000 of them, were to choose between Mrs. Carmen Warschaw and Assemblyman Charles Warren, both of Los Angeles.

Brown is backing Mrs. Warschaw, currently the party’s southern California chairman. Lt. Gov. Glenn M. Anderson and most of the liberal wing are supporting Warren.

Supporters of Mrs. Warschaw have warned delegates that a Warren victory would be interpreted as a slap in the face of the governor. [SLAP! They chose Warren]

Brown said Reagan was trying to gloss over his earlier right-wing pronouncements. But the governor said Democrats would not let him do so.

Death Valley (Image from

‘Quaint Place”

“The people are going to find that Mr. Reagan’s philosophy is not unlike the landscape of Death Valley — threatening, barren and forbidding. And they will not let him remodel California in that image. Death Valley might be a quaint place to visit — but who wants to live there?”

(In Santa Monica, Reagan told a news conference Saturday the Democrats were trying to tie an extremist label on him ‘because they don’t dare run on their record.”)

The governor’s prepared remarks made no mention of his proposal, unveiled Saturday, for creation of a bipartisan committee to study the controversial Rumford Open Housing Law and recommend amendments or a substitute.


The Democratic state convention, in a platform adopted a few hours after the governor made the proposal, ignored it completely.

The platform said Democrats were “ready at all times to amend or improve” civil rights laws including the Rumford Act which prohibits racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.

But it said the party opposes repeal of any of the laws against discrimination.

In another speech prepared for the central committee, Democratic National Committeeman Eugene L. Wyman said Reagan was basing his campaign on information fed to him by “the behavioral scientists, the pollsters and the public relations experts.”

“They tell him the Rumford Act is unpopular, and Mr. Reagan calls for its repeal,” Wyman said. “They probe for the hidden fears and prejudices of the people, and Mr. Reagan goes on television to exploit those deep-seated emotions as coldly and cynically as the extremists of the left and right who would rule by mass manipulation of the mobs.”

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Aug 15,  1966

California GOP Leaders Fear Future

Don’t Like Reagan For Governor but Have No Candidate


Republican fat cats met secretly in Los Angeles Dec. 17 to hear an audacious proposal from money men backing moderate George Christopher, former Mayor of San Francisco, for governor.

Christopher’s bankrollers agreed that unrestrained blood-spilling in primary elections has helped debilitate the Republican party in California. Instead of another expensive primary, they continued, the money men should agree on one candidate for Governor: George Christopher.

The audacity of this proposal stems from the fact that in statewide polls, Christopher runs far behind Hollywood actor Ronald Reagan, darling of California’s Goldwater movement. Naturally then, Reagan’s financial backer were not about to capitulate. The Dec. 17 meeting adjourned with nothing accomplished.

End Of an Era

This story illustrates the desperate straits of California moderate Republicans trying to salvage the Hiram JohnsonEarl Warren tradition in their party. The increasingly likely nomination of Reagan might well destroy whatever remains of that tradition. Yet, leading moderates looked to that Dec. 17 meeting as a last hope of beating Reagan by cutting away financial support.

Reliance on so doubtful a maneuver is part of the Cherry Orchard syndrome. After Barry Goldwater’s nomination in 1964, journalist Murray Kempton compared anti-Goldwater moderates to the impoverished Russian aristocrats in Chekhov’s play, “The Cherry Orchard” — foolishly waiting for somebody to save them as they edged inexorably toward the abyss. The Cherry Orchard analogy is equally applicable to California today.

Looked to Kuchel

Although Reagan’s candidacy was building all through 1965, the moderates waited for somebody to save them — specifically, for Sen. Thomas Kuchel to come home and run for governor. Kuchel, Earl Warren’s last political protege, kept the hope alive by refusing to say yes or no. when he finally said no in September, the moderates were left with Christopher.

A progressive who was an excellent mayor of San Francisco, Christopher failed to catch on in populous southern California during two previous losing statewide races. Many moderates believed aggressive, young state Rep. Robert Monagan, Republican leader of the state assembly, would run better against Reagan.

So progressive and excellent, he couldn’t get elected anywhere other than San Francisco!

Monagan has been the subject of a low-paced build-up since September (coming to Washington last month to see officials of the Council of Republican Organizations, a national coalition of moderate groups.) But so long as the better-known Christopher is running, Monagan is stymied.

Here again the Cherry Orchard mentality was at work. Some moderates hoped Kuchel would convince Christopher to step aside for Monagan. Based on a cordial private conversation between Richard M. Nixon and Monagan in September, other moderates hoped Nixon would do the same. These were but dreams.

Nowadays, there are even Zombies in The Cherry Orchard!  If we only had a Zombie Reagan, we could save the Cherry Orchard.

Seek Nixon’s Help

With Monagan’s candidacy still-born and Christopher determined to run hard, California’s Cherry Orchard moderates now are seeking outside help for Christopher from two influential members of the party’s old Nixon wing: Sen. George Murphy and former Nixon aide Robert Finch. Neither has much us for Reagan. Either could do him damage.

It is, however, naive to believe either will Murphy, who upset Pierre Salinger in 1964 as an apostle of party unity, sticks to that theme.The highly astute Finch is not likely to endanger his unimpeded road to the nomination for lieutenant governor and an excellent chance against the weak Democratic incumbent by attacking Reagan.

This leaves many moderates reduced to the wish that Christopher’s money men somehow will talk Reagan’s money men into quitting. They are praying Reagan will drop, or at least fail to gain in the next statewide opinion polls. Christopher’s fat cats then could argue that the polls prove Reagan has only hard-core right wing support and would be a goner against Democratic Gov. Pat Brown.

This is relying on providence. Reagan instead relies on his political management firm, Spencer, Roberts and Associates, which plans for Reagan to announce his candidacy on the same day California pollsters will have interviewers in the field. The reason publicity generated by Reagan’s announcement will help him in the polls.

Forgetting Reagan’s neanderthal ideology,** nobody can say his campaign hasn’t outplanned, out-thought, and outfought the Chekhovesque moderates. It’s 1964 all over again.

(Copyright 1965)

Post Crescent (Appleton, Wisconsin) Jan 5, 1966

** NEANDERTHAL?  No journalistic bias there!

Post Crescent (Appleton, WI) Jun 3, 1965

Kinda funny, the paper’s name is the Post Crescent. Supposedly, this paper leans right, according to MondoTimes. Based on the preceding article from the Post Crescent, that doesn’t really appear to be the case.

From the Coshocton Tribune (Coshocton, OH) Nov 16, 1947

Who doesn’t love Shirley Temple?


Ronald Reagan and Jane Wyman peddle cigarettes, and look so good doing it!

From the Nevada State Journal (Reno, NV) Aug 11, 1939

A hint of things to come? “To Keep You Safe, They Risk Their Lives!”

Ronald Reagan, the Life Saver!

From the Lima News (Lima, OH) Jul 3, 1937

Abraham Lincoln: He Franked for Them

February 14, 2010

Abraham Lincoln (Image from



An Envelope That Is More Valuable Than the Best Stamp In Any Collection — The Soldier Who Wouldn’t Tell Lincoln a Lie.

“Let this go.     A. LINCOLN.”

Unless it has been destroyed there is a home in Fond du Lac county, Wis., a soldier letter in an envelope bearing the above words, signed by the great war president.
Frank King was a Lamartine boy, fresh from the farm, and a character our whole company took to kindly from the first.

When the army was camped in Virginia, near Washington, the winter of 1861-2, it was a common practice with the soldiers, when they got a pass, to visit the city to buy a package of envelopes and call at the capitol, send in for their senator or representative and get him to frank them.

One of our boys came back to camp in high feather. He had two packages of envelopes — one franked by Senator James R. Doolittle, now a Chicago lawyer, the other by the late Senator T.O. Howe, who succeeded Captain James as postmaster general in President Arthur’s cabinet. For 20 years senators and members have been giving a good deal of their time to helping soldiers with their pension claims. If they have done it as willingly and pleasantly as they used to frank envelopes for the boys, they must be pretty nearly angels.

“You fellows, there, are making a big blast over getting a couple of senators to frank your envelopes,” said Frank King. “Just you wait till you see me come back from Washington with the president’s name on some letter covers.”

Within a few days Frank King and Harry Dunn, who for years after the war was a Chicago business man, went to the city. They called at the White House. It was easier to see the president then than it is now. At certain hours of the day a soldier could reach the chief executive with fully as much ease as a senator can in these later years.

King was the ringleader. Approaching the guard, he said: “We want to see Mr. Lincoln. Please stand aside and let us pass.”

“Who are you, and what is your business?”

“You tell old Abe we have charge of a regiment over on Arlington Heights and want to see him on an important matter. He’ll let us in.”

“Where are your shoulder straps?”

“We came over in our everyday clothes. Come, we are in a hurry. Let us go in and see Mr. Lincoln.”

The parley had attracted the attention of the president. The door swung open and the good natured chief of the nation smiled upon the cheeky young fellows and bade them step right in.

“What can I do for you, my men?”

“Mr. Lincoln, I want you to frank these envelopes,” said King.

“Better get your congressman to do that.”

“I’d much rather have you do it, Mr. Lincoln. The folks at home would like to see your name on my letters.”

“I’ll fix one of them. Take the rest to your congressman. Who is he?

“I don’t know.”

“Where is your home?”

“Lamartine, Fond du Lac county, Wis.”

“That is my friend Scott Sloan’s district. You go to Mr. Sloan. He will fix the rest of them.”

The president shook hands with the two privates, asked them to be brave soldiers and wished them a safe return to their western homes.

Frank couldn’t make his tentmates believe that the president had written:

“Let this go. A. Lincoln.” But the next day he wrote a letter to his father. The name of Lincoln was personally examined by all of the neighbors.

In January, 1864, our regiment was in Washington on the way home, having re-enlisted — “veteranized,” as they call it. In company with two others I went to the White House. The president shook hands with us, thanked us for swearing in for three years more and expressed the hope that we would have a nice visit on our veteran furlough.

“Mr. President,” said Jones — Ed Jones — “you franked a letter for one of the boys in our company, Frank King. I wish you would frank one for me.”

“Odd as it may seem, you are the second soldier to make such a request. So both are of the same company? Very well.”

On Jones’ envelope he wrote “A. Lincoln, President,” and as he handed it back he asked what had become of that other man who had asked him to pass a letter.

“He was killed at Gettysburg.”

I shall never forget the look of sadness in the president’s face when the answer was given, and it had not disappeared when we left the room.

“Jones, what did you tell him about King for? Did you see how it pained him?

“What did he ask about him for? Do you suppose I was going to lie to a man I would die for? was Jones’ indignant reply.

— Chicago Times-Herald.

Edwardsville Intelligencer (Edwardsville, Illinois) Jan 15,  1897

Gettysburg - July 1, 1863. The 6th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment charges the 2nd Mississippi Volunteer Infantry Regiment in an attempt to capture the Southern forces sheltered in an abandoned railroad cut.

Image (by Dale Gallon,)  from Perfect Frames Military Gallery


U.S. Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles

Name: Frank King
Residence: Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin
Enlistment Date: 22 Jun 1861
Side Served: Union
State Served: Wisconsin
Service Record:     Enlisted as a Private on 22 June 1861.
Enlisted in Company E, 6th Infantry Regiment Wisconsin on 22 Jun 1861.
Killed Company E, 6th Infantry Regiment Wisconsin on 1 Jul 1863 at Gettysburg, PA.


My Valentines – By Col. A.M. Hobby

February 14, 2010


This anniversary will be celebrated as long as the human heart has passions. It is a day of confessions, when preference or devotion may be expressed in verse or prose without fear of criticism or offense. It is a day alike welcome to the young heart first touched by the tender passion, or the maturer one which speaks in burning words of love elevating and immortal, that can never be affected by circumstance or weakened by time. That there are such loves even hate and skepticism have never dared to deny. We publish below a poem inspired by the sentiments of the day, which has no superior in the language, and which will continue to be republished because it can not be improved. It is from the pen of one of our most practical and successful business men, who occasionally pauses in the midst of his labors to favor us with such productions as this. How much is fact or fancy in a poet’s confessions the world can never know. It may be as fair to conclude that from observation they tell the secrets of mankind — rather than their own.

In the different experiences described in the poem, each son of Adam will find his own hidden experiences with one of Eve’s daughters, made known. We know of no poem in the range of our reading that tells so many secrets in brilliant verse and touching pathos:



Come fill to the brim, let us drink to the day,
Old memories back it will bring,
One bumper, to banish life’s winter away,
Then back to its glorious spring.
Old age shall be cheered at the banquet of mirth,
As love lighted visions arise,
Like blooms that are hidden, will spring from the earth,
When wooed by the smile of the skies.

I am standing again at the portal of youth,
‘Mid memories many and tender,
And the future grows bright as the rainbow of truth,
Unrolls in its magical splendor.
In the school-house again, where in solitude waved
The sorrow-toned shadowless pine,
At the old oaken desk, where her name is engraved,
I am writing my first Valentine.

A poor wounded heart is suspended above,
Cupid’s arrows are piercing it through,
And I swore by each note in the gamut of love,
That my love should forever be true.
Its edges were gilt, and its sides were embossed,
Without an erasure or blot;
The t’s with a rule were all carefully cross’d,
And the I’s had their heavy round dot.

Her face was all beauty, and faultless her form,
Her cheeks wore the roses of May,
Her ringlets were tinged with the blushes of morn,
And her eyes they were azure as day.
We parted, and others were soon in her place,
I fervently sighed as they passed,
I hailed them in turn, queen of beauty and grace,
And the dearest was always the last.

And whence do you ask, are those Valentines now?
One has gone to the Kingdom of peace —
I smoothed down her tresses and kissed her cold brow,
It was white as the young lamb’s fleece;
And long hath she slept where the jessamine arch,
Bends lovingly over her tome,
And spring seems to pause, in her glorious march,
To shed there her fragrance and bloom.

Another whose days have been cheerless and cold —
Her brow keeps the record of care,
She bartered affection for acres and gold,
For a life that she never could share;
And others are treading life’s silent decline —
Some invite me, perhaps, to a dance;
And a bumper or two of the mellow old wine
Rekindles the early romance.

In the smile of the daughter the mother appears,
And the idol I worshipped is seen;
I gaze and forget that a river of years
Is silently flowing between.
Oh! well is it thus, that my fancy takes wing,
My bachelor dares to assuage;
Thus rose-buds are plucked from the gardens of spring,
To bloom in the winter of age.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Feb 14, 1873