Archive for May, 2010

The Man With the Hoe

May 19, 2010

The Man with the Hoe
by Edwin Markham

Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans
Upon his hoe and gazes on the ground,
The emptiness of ages in his face,
And on his back the burden of the world.
Who made him dead to rapture and despair,
A thing that grieves not and that never hopes.
Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox?
Who loosened and let down this brutal jaw?
Whose was the hand that slanted back this brow?
Whose breath blew out the light within this brain?
Is this the Thing the Lord God made and gave
To have dominion over sea and land;
To trace the stars and search the heavens for power;
To feel the passion of Eternity?
Is this the Dream He dreamed who shaped the suns
And marked their ways upon the ancient deep?
Down all the stretch of Hell to its last gulf
There is no shape more terrible than this —
More tongued with censure of the world’s blind greed —
More filled with signs and portents for the soul —
More fraught with menace to the universe.
What gulfs between him and the seraphim!
Slave of the wheel of labor, what to him
Are Plato and the swing of Pleiades?
What the long reaches of the peaks of song,
The rift of dawn, the reddening of the rose?
Through this dread shape the suffering ages look;
Time’s tragedy is in the aching stoop;
Through this dread shape humanity betrayed,
Plundered, profaned, and disinherited,
Cries protest to the Powers that made the world.
A protest that is also a prophecy.
O masters, lords and rulers in all lands,
Is this the handiwork you give to God,
This monstrous thing distorted and soul-quenched?
How will you ever straighten up this shape;
Touch it again with immortality;
Give back the upward looking and the light;
Rebuild in it the music and the dream,
Make right the immemorial infamies,
Perfidious wrongs, immedicable woes?
O masters, lords and rulers in all lands
How will the Future reckon with this Man?
How answer his brute question in that hour
When whirlwinds of rebellion shake all shores?
How will it be with kingdoms and with kings —
With those who shaped him to the thing he is —
When this dumb Terror shall rise to judge the world.
After the silence of the centuries?

Image from Shorpy.


(By Robert E. Jenkins, of the Chicago Bar.)

Note — Markham’s “Man With the Hoe” is an insult to every farmer and every farmer’s son in America. It draws a picture that has no foundation in fact. It is utterly vicious, in that it degrades honorable labor and promotes contempt for work and dissatisfaction, unrest and despair where there should be hope, happiness and courage. It and all similar woeful wailings are worse than worthless trash. — R.E. Jenkins.

The man with the hoe of whom I shall write,
The American man who stands forth in his might;
The American king, where hard, honest toil
Sheds halo of glory o’er tillers of soil.

This man with the hoe, the typical man,
Of the husbandman noble, and not under ban,
But free to do right, with open, fair chance,
To their own and their children’s best fortunes advance.

This man with the hoe, foundation of wealth,
Supplies grain for the trader and food to save health;
He drives away famine and want and distress,
And ushers in plenty all people to bless.

This man with the hoe is type of the best
Of our national life in the east or the west.
The ideal man of the people en masses,
The pride of Columbia, the yeomanry class.

This man with the hoe moves well in his place,
With a good manly stride and a smile on his face,
With strong, brawny arms his implement wields,
Nor leans on his hoe to gaze ’round o’er the fields.

This man with the hoe is settled for life
With the maid with the pail for his comely young wife;
They earn their own home, they toil and they strive,
They bear trials with courage and hopefully thrive.

This man with the hoe keeps up with the age,
He reads through the evening the works of a sage,
Or a tri-weekly paper or book of the farm,
Till wisdom and knowledge both give his life charm.

This man with the hoe is father of boys,
Six fine, manly sons share his cares and his joys;
They work on the farm as farmer’s boys do,
Then attend school in winter when working is through.

This man with the hoe was faithful to God,
Was sustained from above as life’s journey he trod,
Took his children to church and taught them to trust,
To observe all the laws and in dealings be just.

This man with the hoe saw his children succeed,
Grow up and go forth different callings to lead,
Saw the lawyer, the merchant, the farmer contented,
The pulpit and platform and press represented.

This man with the hoe and his true, loving wife,
Blessed the world and were each blessed with long, happy life;
Was honored with office and places of trust,
The reward of the man who is earnest and just.

The man with the hoe, the man with the hoe,
You can find him abounding wherever you go,
One knowing him not has wailed o’er his lot,
And drenched him with tears, though he needed them not.

Who in our country most laurels has won,
The barefoot from the farm or the millionaire’s son?
This one in his ease fails high purpose to press,
The other necessity drives to success.

These men of the hoe, look on them with pride!
In all trades and professions through the land far and wide
The farmer’s boy heads, Hard work made him strong,
Take the hoe for his emblem! Enshrine it in song.

Oh man of the hoe, oh man of the plane,
Oh man of the brake on the swift rolling train,
Man of the toilers whoever you be,
Your labor is patent of true dignity.

The pess’mists standard for men is all wrong,
He rails at the wealthy and envies the strong;
‘Tis manhood, not money, we should prize here on earth,
What a man is, not has, along measures true worth.

Most sons of the rich and all sons of ease,
Who lazily live and seek themselves but to please,
Are failures indeed. For all life is strife
And worth only to live is the strenuous life.

Shame on the teachers of hopeless despair,
Who call man a brute, crushed down under care;
Who degrade and debase in their doctrine of woe,
The real, manly, triumphant, good man with the hoe.

The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska) Jul 5, 1899


Its Author Received the Tribute That Parody Pays to Genius.

Kansas City Journal: No publication of recent date has evoked such widespread and varied discussion as Prof. Edwin Markham’s “The Man With the Hoe.” Markham took as his text Millet’s picture, showing an uncouth peasant leaning on his hoe and staring into a blank world with eyes deadened to all intelligence. There can be no question as to the power of the poem from a literary standpoint. All the critics admit that. But there is hot disputation over the question of whether or not the painter and the author have made a true characterization of a class of humans really existing in the civilized world. The poem degrades the man with the hoe to a level with the beasts of the field, and the two most striking verses are here repeated:

“Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans
Upon his hoe and gazes on the ground,
The emptiness of ages in his face,
And on his back the burden of the world.
Who made him dead to rapture and despair,
A thing that grieves not and that never hopes.
Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox?
Who loosened and let down this brutal jaw?
Whose was the hand that slanted back this brow?
Whose breath blew out the light within this brain?

“O masters, lords and rulers in all lands,
Is this the handiwork you give to God,
This monstrous thing distorted and soul-quenched?
How will you ever straighten up this shape;
Touch it again with immortality;
Give back the upward looking and the light;
Rebuild in it the music and the dream,
Make right the immemorial infamies,
Perfidious wrongs, immedicable woes?”

One thing, however, is sustained by every American critic. There is no such being in America as is here pictured. If intended to apply to the American agricultural laborer we must agree with Mr. Ralph E. Jenkins of Chicago, who has contributed an article holding up to admiration the “qualities of self-respect, independence and intelligence to be found in the American rural classes.” With considerable heat Mr. Jenkins says: Markham’s ‘Man With the Hoe’ is an insult to every farmer and every farmer’s son in America. It draws a picture that has no foundation in fact. It is utterly vicious, in that it degrades honorable labor and promotes contempt for work and dissatisfaction, unrest and despair where there should be hope, happiness and courage. It and all similar woeful wailings are worse than worthless trash.”

As is true of every poem worth remembering, many imitations have been made of Markham’s verses and not a few parodies. In the Chicago Time-Herald Mr. S.E. Kiser gives us the picture of a drunken man hanging to a post, together with some lines, from which we quote as follows:

“Bowed by a weight of fiery stuff, he leans
Against the hitching post and gazes ’round!
Besotted emptiness is in his face,
He bears a load that still may get him down
Who made him dull to shame and dead to pride,
A thing that cares not and that never thinks,
Filthy, profane, a consort for the pig?
Who loosened and let down that stubbly jaw?
Whence came the scum adhering to those lips?
What was it clogged and turned away his brain?

“O masters, lords and rulers in our land,
Must this foul solecism still
Be tolerated in an age when men
Grasp power from the circumamorent air
And speak through space across the roaring gulfs?
Must this vile thing be left to wed at will
And propagate his idiotic spawn,
A shame upon the age in which we live,
A curse on generations to be born?”

And then comes Hester A. Benedict, in the Pacific Ensign, denying that “Down all the stretch of hell to its last gulf, there is no shape more terrible than this.” She holds that lower yet is the woman who must consort with this bestial thing, saying:

“Look into that ‘last gulf,’ O poet! I pray thee,
Down, down where its nether cave leans,
And find there — God help us — a ‘shape’ to gain-say thee,
A shape that affrighteth the fiends.
And listen, O listen! For through all the thunder
A voice crieth — heavy with woe —
‘I, I am the woman, the woman that’s under
The heel of “The Man With the Hoe.”‘

“She is the begotten of derelict ages,
Of systems senescent the flaw,
She is the forgotten of singers and sages —
The creature of lust and of law.
The tale of the ‘Terror’ — the ox’s brute brother,
Can never be told overmuch,
But she is the vassal, and she is the mother,
The thrice-accursed mother of such.

“Look up from that last gulf, thou newest evangel,
Thou builder of ladders for men,
Look up from the pleading, pale face of the angel
That wooeth a prince of the pen.
And sometimes, a little, tho’ half the world wonder,
And critics cry high and cry low —
Sing out for the woman — the woman that’s under
The heel of ‘The Man With the Hoe.'”

Of the parodies that have been written perhaps none is better calculated to affect our risibilities — particularly at this season when the voice of the lawn mower is heard in the land — than a bit given without the name of the author in the Chicago Tribune:

“Bowed by the meanness of the act, he leans
Upon the handle, gazes on the ground.
With empty stomach — ’tis but 5 a.m. —
And on his back naught but an undershirt.
Who made him dead to other people’s rights,
A thing that cares not how much woe he makes,
Stolid and selfish brother to the ox;
His is the hand that shoves that thing along
Whose loud, infernal racket breaks the sleep!
Is this thing, made in likeness of a man,
To have dominion o’er the neighborhood;
To end the tired dreamer’s morning nap;
And shall no victim have the right to shoot him?
Is this the dream of all the ages past,
For whose sake bends the spacious firmament?
Down all the block to its remotest house
There is no dread so terrible as this —
More potent to o’erwhelm the soul with wrath,
More filled with portent of a day’s unrest —
More fraught with emphasized profanity!

*   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *

O masters, lords and aldermen, give ear!
How will ye deal out justice to this man?
How answer when some gaunt, long-suffering wretch
Whose slumbers he has murdered craves the right
To punch his head off and once more bring peace
To a distracted neighborhood? Ye men —
Ye men who rule the town, ’tis up to you!”

Daily Iowa State Press (Iowa City, Iowa) Sep 9, 1899


Question of His Responsibility for His Condition.

To the Editor of the Tribune —

Sir: Would it be possible through your paper to gain an expression of the opinion held by women in general on that topic so widely discussed of late, “The Man with the Hoe?”

Interest in the subject is not confined to those able to make a literary or artistic criticism; women who are students of the most elementary psychological and sociological questions are seeking to know how much of the blame for “The Man’s” condition ought really to be thrown upon the man himself. There seems to be in Mr. Markham’s verse no recognition of any obligation on the part of each individual to assume a share of the responsibility of his own intellectual advancement. Regard, if you will, “the man with the hoe” as a type of his class, and that class of the lowest social order; he surely cannot be divested of some responsibility for his own condition. Then is society wholly to blame for the existence of such as he?

Certainly no thoughtful person can have seen Millet’s picture or a reproduction of it, without receiving a profound impression, in part sobering if not saddening. Yet there are those who have gazed upon the painting and have found there portrayed a certain peace. To me, at least, there is no hopelessness in the man’s pictured figure; rather it speaks of thankfully taking a rest, found sweet because earned by strenuous effort. I claim that Millet’s peasant is not the oppressed creature represented by the poet. I deny the oppression. To say that this labor is oppressed because he works at a task that compels him to look more often at the earth than at the sky is as unreasonable as to declare that the millionaire oppressed when he is taxed to the full value of his property and is required to keep up repairs.

Mr. Markham calls upon the world to answer for the man’s “dulled brain.” He leads us to forget for a time that in the beginning all were dull of brain; that men must raise themselves, and that they can only do so through unceasing education. It is unfair to charge the world with effects springing from the free will acts of the individual. Such free acts, wrongly directed, have brought “The Man” to his present state. He should, I hold, be regarded as the result of the practice of shirking mental exertion.

No one can question, however, the responsibility of the world to lend needful aid or to even urge it upon any who are striving for personal development; yet, if the man’s “dulled brain” will not rouse him to response, impel him to action, he must abide the consequences. To make the world answerable for the result would be a monstrous wrong. What “made him dead to rapture and despair” but his own unheeding of the first faint impulse to reach beyond? Mental slothfulness checked desire, will to overcome was not put forth, and so it is sadly true that

Down all the stretch of hell to its last gulf
There is no shape more terrible than this,

*   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *
More fraught with menace to the universe.

Thus “The Man” now. He is here, the result of ages of self-neglect. In the far dim past the choice has made; some remained as “brothers to the ox” and some elected to know

Plato and the swing of Pleiades,
***the long reaches of the peaks of song.

But even yet, if this man will cast aside the indolence of mind which has cursed his race, he, too, may see

The rift of dawn, the reddening of the rose,

as they were seen by the first venturers in the field of thought. And though it is eternally true that man himself must make himself, it does not follow that no responsibility rests upon the seeing to help the blind. Women, whose work it is to uplift into light and beauty the lives of the lower classes, feels this and is striving to overcome wherever it is possible the effects of ages of mental indolence.

The slothfulness of the adult is almost incurable, yet free self-activity must be stimulated, and they who believe “the child to be father to the man” look to the little ones whose youthful training will help them to battle against some of the evil brought into the world by the great Army of the Unthinking. Can we not believe that the kindergarten toddler of today is able to grasp as deep a thought as that which dawned on the comprehension of the first man who did not shirk mental exertion in those long past ages when reflection began to challenge humanity to a struggle? And this child, though he may become a man with a hoe, a veritable toiler, need he be as a “brother to the ox?”

— F.J.S. in New York Tribune.

The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska) Aug 7, 1899

The general opinion of the enlightened public seems to be, after due consideration, that Mr. Markham, the poet of the “Man with the Hoe” got the cart before the horse when he suggested that this poor man was the creation of the rich and the powerful. On the contrary the man with the hoe antedates all other men of modern times and the rich and the powerful are his creation.

It was the man with the hoe in its ancient rude form that began the structure of civilization. Then he got a plough and became better off, then he invented agricultural machines of all sorts and wealth and culture followed.

He is now as he always was, the author and finisher of all civilization. The poet who would try to make a brute of him is a degenerate. Having within him all the springs of progress and wealth if he is a brute he is a self-made one. It is “the man with the growler” that is an off scouring of civilization, not the man with an implement of agriculture in his hand.

The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska) Aug 18, 1899

There is a singular relationshiop of blood and marriage among these perils. They are interwoven and concomitant. Unlike as are the men in whom they are separtely embodied, the man through whom they all become possible is the celebrated “man with the hoe.”

HEAR A PARABLE OF THE MACHINE, THE MONEY BAG, THE MOUTH AND THE HOE. The man with the machine persuaded the man with the hoe to vote precisely as he told him and thus made himself of much value as a commodity of barter or an instrument of assessment. The man with the money bag, desiring protection or power, went into the market place and found there the man with the machine, whereupon these two discovered a community of interest. This worked well until the man with the hoe grew suspicious that his part in the transaction, while the most important, was the least profitable. Then appeared the man with the mouth, promising to wind up the concern, distribute the assets and alter the laws of nature so far as necessary to effect a universal exchange of hoes for money bags. This programme was not fully carried out, but the machine was put temporarily out of repair, the money bag was sent abroad for its health, the mouth had an opportunity to explain some of its promises and retract the rest, and THE HOE, HAVING MARCHED IN SEVERAL PROCESSIONS AND GAINED MUCH EXPERIENCE, WENT ON HOEING AS BEFORE.

I do not mean to say that this somewhat allegorical description has ever been completely realized on any large scale in our country, but certain fragmentary features of it may be dimly recognized here and there in our politics. Men whose chief distinction is their wealth, men, whose only profession is the manipulation of political wires (underground), men who are related to real statemen as quacks to real physicians, have at times found their way into our ruling classes. Their presence is a menace to the integrity and security of the democracy.

The Newark Advocate (Newark, Ohio) Dec 9, 1901

The Man With the Hoe


The New Version.

“Who, indeed, is the ‘Man with the Hoe?'”
Said the preacher whose price is ten thousand or so,
“He’s nothing to me; he never has given
A dollar to buy my reserved seat in Heaven;
To be sure, our churches from taxes are free,
And the ‘Man with the Hoe’ pays the tax, but you see —
If churches were taxed and the tax couldn’t shirk,
Then some of us preachers must needs go to work.
And that would ne’er do, for we’re called of the Lord
To preach about Jonah, the Whale and the Gourd.”

“From the soles of your feet to the crown of your head
The ‘Man with the Hoe’ has clothed you.” I said,
“And even that binding of calfskin you prize
Because it preserves superstition and lies
Which you say are ‘holy,’ so, of course, it is so,
Was made by the overworked ‘Man with the Hoe.'”
But the preacher was shocked; he really didn’t know —
He guessed he wouldn’t bother ’bout the “Man with the Hoe.”

“Who in Hell is this ‘Man with the Hoe?'”
Asked the political boss, with his millions in “dough.”
“He’s the man who created the wealth you bestow
On race touts and gamblers and much vulgar show;
He’s the man who you rob by political stealth
And the woman who slaves to pile up your wealth
Through laws that are passed by your corrupt ‘pull’ —
He’s the man whose eyes you keep covered with ‘wool.'”

Yet this Man

Gathers the fuel and boils the pot
And cooks the dinner for the whole blessed lot
Of liars and loafers and political bums —
Then weeps that for him the good time never comes.
Then he follows the wagon and “carries the can,”
And goes to the polls and votes for their man.
The biggest damned fool in this whole “bloomin’ show”
Is this very same fellow, this “Man with the Hoe.”

Mansfield News (Mansfield, Ohio) Mar 23, 1904


William J. Lampton, after reading Markham’s world-famous poem, penned this, “The man with the ‘Dough'”:

Bowed by the weight of capital,
He leans
Upon the bank,
And gazes on the ground
That looks to him to people it
With all producing industries;
He fills the emptiness of ages
With his energy,
And on his credit bears
The burden of a world
That needs his strength;
Wealth makes him dead
To doubting and despair.
A thing that grieves not
And who always hopes,
Stolid and Stunned,
The brother to the ox
Is raised by him
To higher brotherhood,
Who loosens and lets down the jaw
That chews up Poverty?
Whose hand slants back the tide
Of panic and defeat?
Whose breath blows out
The light of failure and decay?
The man with the “dough.”
And don’t you forget it.

Title: International wood worker, Volume 14
Authors: Amalgamated Woodworkers’ International Union of America, Machine Woodworkers’ International Union of America
Publisher: Amalgamated Wood-Workers’ International Union of America, 1904 (Google book LINK)

The Forgotten Man

May 18, 2010

“The forgotten man” has become a sort of a joke, even among Democrats. But it doesn’t seem funny to the man looking for a job.

Berkeley Daily Gazette – May 11, 1933


IT WOULD NOT be easy, if possible, to advance a serious political thought that had never occurred to any thinker before, or to express it with a catchy phrase never used before — unless by coining a brand new slang phrase — and it is not to be supposed that so sincere and scholarly a person as Franklin D. Roosevelt had any notion of impressing the country with anything entirely original when he brought out his “Forgotten Man.” Nevertheless it struck the country either as something new or in a new place, and has aroused much discussion, doubtless because most people thought it was new. Brisbane having said that Roosevelt “invented” it set the literary folks to digging and here are the results.

The “Forgotten Man” was “invented” as far back as 1883 by Professor William Graham Sumner of Yale University who wrote a treatise on “What Social Classes Owe to Each Other,” in which appeared one chapter headed, “A Certain Man Who Is Never Thought Of,” and another headed, “The Case of the Forgotten Man Further Considered.” In these chapters Professor Sumner wrote:

“The type and formula of most schemes of philanthropy or humanitarianism is this: A and B put their heads together to decide what C shall be made to do for D. The radical vice of all these schemes, from a sociological point of view, is that C is not allowed a voice in the matter, and his position, character and interests, as well as the ultimate effects on society, through C’s interests, are entirely overlooked. I call C the Forgotten Man.

“It is plain that the Forgotten Man and the Forgotten Woman are the real productive strength of the country. The Forgotten Man works and votes — generally he prays — but his chief business in life is to pay. His name never gets into the newspapers except when he marries or dies. He is an obscure man. He may grumble sometimes to his wife, but he does not frequent the grocery, and he does not talk politics at the tavern.

“The Forgotten man is not a pauper. It belongs to his character to have something. Hence he is a capitalist, though never a great one. He is a poor man in the popular sense of the word, but not in a correct sense. In fact, one of the most constant and trustworthy signs that the Forgotten Man is in danger of a new assault is that the poor man is brought into the discussion. ***

“Any one who cares for the Forgotten Man will sure to be considered a friend of the capitalist and an enemy of the poor man. *** The Forgotten Man never gets into control. He has to pay both ways.”

Since that time many politicians have used this idea with particularly telling effect. There is a strong emotional appeal in being a “Forgotten Man,” or in considering such a man. Walter H. Page, formerly ambassador to Great Britain once used it to describe the more unfortunate people of the Southern states. Governor Roosevelt described the “Forgotten Man” at some length in a radio address last April, in which he said:

“These unhappy times call for the building of plans that rest upon the forgotten, the unorganized, but the indispensable units of economic power, for plans like those of 1917, that build from the bottom up and not from the top down, that put their faith once more in the “Forgotten Man” at the bottom of the economic pyramid.”

St. Petersburg Times – Oct 10, 1932

Interesting how the author of the above opinion piece quotes Mr. Sumner, and even uses the asterisks to draw attention to the quotes, then goes on to quote FDR, whose statement is completely contradictory to those quotes!

Lofty, Yes. But noble? Probably not. Edwin Markham seems to have read The Forgotten Man, but I am not so sure he grasped the real meaning, or just chose to ignore it.  Mr. Sumner’s point, as I understood it,  was  in order to “give” to somebody, you must take it from someone else, and it is always taken from the Forgotten Man.  If that’s the case, then in order to really help him, you need to cut spending,  cut taxes, and eliminate  cronyism and trade unions, which create the burden that is heaped  onto  The Forgotten Man.

The Forgotten Man

NOT on our golden fortunes builded high —
Not on our boasts that soar into the sky —
Not upon these is resting in this hour
The fate of life future; but upon the power
Of him who is forgotten — yes on him
Rest all our hopes reaching from rim to rim.
In him we see all of earth’s toiling bands,
With crooked backs, scarred faces, shattered hands.

HE seeks no office and he asks no praise
For all the patient labor of his days
He is the one supporting the huge weight;
He is the one guarding the country’s gate
He bears the burdens on these earthly ways;
We pile the debts, he is the one who pays.
He is the one who holds the solid power
To steady nations in their trembling hour.
Behold him as he silently goes by,
For it is at his word that nations die.

SHATTERED with loss and lack,
He is the man who holds upon his back
The continent and all its mighty loads —
This toiler who makes possible the roads
On which the gilded thousands travel free —
Makes possible our feasts, our roaring boards,
Our pomps, our easy days, our golden hoards.
He gives stability to nations he
Makes possible our nation, sea to sea.
His strength makes possible our college walls —
Makes possible our legislative halls —
Makes possible our churches soaring high
With spires, the fingers pointing to the sky.

SHALL then this man go hungry, here in lands
Blest by his honor, builded by his hands?
Do something for him; let him never be
Forgotten; let him have his daily bread;
He who had fed us, let him now be fed.
Let us remember all his tragic lot —
Remember, or else be ourselves forgot!

ALL honor to the one that in this hour
Cries to the world as from a lighted tower —
Cries for the Man Forgotten. Honor the one
Who asks for him a glad place in the sun.
He is a voice for the voiceless. Now, indeed,
We have a tongue that cries the mortal need.

Gettysburg Compiler – Oct 22, 1932

Was Anna Glud Really a Drummer Boy?

May 17, 2010

Wanderlust? Pride? Vanity? Sex?

Why Girls Turn “Men”

Mrs. Anna Glud of Oakland, Calif., at the outbreak of the Civil War, donned the uniform of a Union drummer boy and marched away to the front.

For more than two years she saw active service where the fight was thickest and amid the cannon’s roar beat out upon her drum the rally call which once turned near defeat to victory and stemmed the tide of battle.


Mrs. Glud is now 68 and kept secret her experience as the boy drummer, “Tom Hunley,” for almost 50 years.

General Grant, though, was “let in” on it while the war was still in progress.

The general was inspecting “Tom Hunley’s” regiment and, seeing the diminutive “drummer boy,” ordered “him” mustered out as too young for service.

Mrs. Glud’s father interceded at this juncture and told Grant that his daughter was motherless and that he could not bear to leave her home alone.

The general swore himself to secrecy and ordered “Tom” to be retained.

Said the former “drummer boy” reminiscing:

“During all the time that I was in the army many remarked that I looked more like a girl than a boy. But not one soldier actually found it out.


“Father and I kept so constantly together that I was always protected. Had I not had his assistance at all times, I doubt that I could have stood the rigors of a soldier’s life.
“Why, in a battle near Davisville, where 7000 Confederates and Northerners were killed, our little body of men literally had to climb over the bodies of dead soldiers in order to fight our way out. My little feet were red with blood. And when we were mustered out in the fall of 1864 there were but 17 members of our company left.”

After the war “Tom Hunley” and her father settled down on a farm in Indiana. But the rigors of the conflict proved too much for the father, who followed his wife and four sons into the Beyond six months later.

Then “Tom Hunley” became Anna once more and never since has she changed the attire of her sex.

Other women, too, have put on masculine guise in time of war.

Patriotism moved them to such tactics, but more often they entered service to be near loved ones.

Modesto Evening News (Modesto, California) Sep 6, 1924

This article is almost the same as the one above, but it names her father as Jeremiah Hunley:


OAKLAND, Cal. — For 58 years Mrs. Anna Glud, of this city, has nursed a romantic secret.

And then, on her 68th birthday, with a family group about her, the white haired old lady revealed the amazing story of how, at the outbreak of the civil war, she had cut her hair, donned the uniform of a Union fighter and gone to the war as Tom Hunley a drummer boy.

That she had not previously bared her secret was due partially to the fact that her family had been divided on the war issues and she waited for time to heal the wounds; partially because of a somewhat natural reluctance.

But she did not wish the secret to go to the grave with her and so the story of Tom Hunley came to light.

Two persons had known her secret — Jermiah Hunley, her father and Gen. Grant, in whose charge her father had placed her.

The Hunley’s lived in a “border” state. Two sons went with the Union forces and two with the Confederate. Then the father was called.

Father Cuts Hair.

The prospect of leaving his little girl among strangers, unprotected and uncared for, was too much, so he dressed her in the uniform of a drummer boy, cut off her hair, told her to always remember her name was “Tom,” and joined the regiment.

For two years “Tom” Hunley and “his” father served with the Union forces in the bloodiest battles of the civil war. Never once was the identity of the little “drummer boy” suspected. There came a day, however, when Jeremiah was forced to reveal the secret of his daughter’s masquerade. General Grant inspected the regiment and seeing the diminutive “drummer boy” decided “he” was too young for active service, and ordered “him” mustered out. Thereupon Jermiah told him the story of the motherless little girl. The General swore himself to secrecy and ordered “Tom” Hunley’s retention in the service.

Reminiscing, the former “Tom” Hunley said: “During all that time though many remarked that I looked more like a girl than a boy, not one soldier discovered that I was a girl. Father and I kept together so constantly that I was always protected. Had I not had his assistance at all times, I doubt that I could have stood the rigors of a soldier’s life during those two dreadful years.

Feet Red With Blood.

“Why, in a battle near Davisville, when 7000 confederates and northerners were killed, our little body of men literally had to climb over the bodies of dead soldiers in order to fight our way out. My little feet were red with blood. And when we were mustered out in the fall of 1864 there were but 17 members of our company left.”

The war over, Jermiah and “Tom” Hunley settled down in Indiana. But the rigors of war were too much for the father and in six months time he followed his wife and four sons into the Beyond, leaving his little girl, now re-attired in the dress of her sex, to continue life under the guidance of newly-made friends.

Twenty years later, General Grant died without having revealed the secret of “Tom” Hunley, and a secret it has remained until recently when Mrs. Glud revealed it.

Logansport Pharos Tribune (Logansport, Indiana) Apr 11, 1921

The above clipping ran in the following papers, as well as others:

Logansport Pharos Tribune (Logansport, Indiana) Aug 18, 1922
Iowa City Press Citizen (Iowa City, Iowa) Aug 26, 1922

Mansfield News (Mansfield, Ohio) Aug 19, 1922


United News Staff Correspondent

Oakland, Cal., June 1 — Tom Hundley, the drummer who thumped away bravely while bullets whined on a dozen battlefield of the Civil war, was a girl.

After keeping her secret for 63 years, Mrs. Annie Glud celebrated Memorial day by pulling a battered old drum from its khaki case and casting aside the mystery with which she concealed the exploits of her early years.

Mrs. Glud was the “Tom” who enlisted at the age of 10 and who served for nearly three years in the trouble-laden days of the sixties. Only General Grant and the girl’s father knew the truth.

Erect and with a sparkle of excitement in eyes that still need no spectacles to aid them, Mrs. Glud strapped her beloved drum to her waist and beat again, but not so vigorously, the old battle rhythms.

There is a spot of fading red in the center of that drum. It has been there for more than a half-century.

“Tom” and the company were before Richmond. In a shot skirmish with the Confederates the bugler fell. The “drummer boy” caught the dying lad and propped him against the drum head as life passed. A few days later “Tom” was mustered out of service.

Tanned, and with lines that seemed out of place in a youngster’s face, “Tom” became Annie Hudley again and went back to pig-tailed girlhood.

“How did it feel to be in battle?”

Mrs. Glude asked, repeating a question. “Well, I remember that I used to get mad, real mad when the bullets whistled by.”

Mrs. Glud had two brothers in the Confederate army and four who wore the blue of the north. she herself was with her father, who, acting as a scout through territory well known to him, led the Union armies on quick dashes against the enemy. Father and daughter were always together. “Tom” would follow closely behind the guide as they pressed ahead on forced marches.

Sixty years had dimmed the memory of many of those exploits, but in hesitating words that leave no room for doubt, Mrs. Glud speaks of night bivouacs under the open sky, of violence and death, and of the torture of a family divided against itself.

“There is no glamor in war,” she said. “It brings only unhappiness.”

The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida) – Jun 1, 1925

Oakland Woman Fought As Drummer Boy in ’61

A drummer “boy” who marched with the Union forces in 1862 paraded again yesterday to the stirring notes of martial music, this time at the head of a party that rode a float entered by the Ladies of the Lyon Relief Corps.

The drummer “boy” was Mrs. Annie Glud, 416 East Fifteenth street, who, at the age of 10, enlisted with the Union forces as a drummer boy under the name of Tom Hundley. Only General U.S. Grant and Mrs. Glud’s father knew that “Tom” was a girl. And it was not until 1921, when Mrs. Glud celebrated her sixtyeighth birthday, fifty-eight years after she enlisted, that the secret leaked out.

The war to “Tom Hundley” was not merely a great adventure. Two of her brothers were in the Confederate forces, and two others fought on the side of the North.
Gettysburg and the battle at Richmond just before General Robert E. Lee surrendered were two of the bloodiest battles in which the drummer “boy” participated.
Mrs. Glud still owns the drum which she carried during the hectic days of the sixties. It is her proudest possession, she says.

Although the drummer “boy” has marched in so many Decoration and Armistice Day parades that she has almost lost count of them, she never tires of taking part. They bring back, she says, the stirring experiences of the Civil War.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Nov 12, 1927

American Heroines


“Tom” Hunley

IN 1862 there was enlisted in the Union forces engaged in the Civil war a drummer boy named Tom Hunley. He was a frail little fellow, whom the soldiers often teased with looking more like a girl than a boy. But his father, Jeremiah Hunley, enlisted in the same regiment, kept Tom close at his side and protected him not only from the taunts but even from the friendship of their comrades in arms. And for three years little Tom drummed the Northern troops along their weary marches and into desperate battle, and only two people, his own father and General Grant, ever knew that he was no drummer boy, but a little girl!

Tom’s father carried the secret to his grave a few years after the close of the war. And General Grant told none. So that is was not until 60 years after her heroic deeds that the drummer boy herself, then a white-haired old lady, Mrs. Anna Glud of Oakland, Calif., told the strange story.

Jeremiah Hunley and his five motherless children lived in a border state. When the Civil war opened, two sons joined up with the Union side, two with the Confederates. Then the father was called. Afraid to leave his only remaining child, Anna, then ten years old, alone, friendless in a contested territory, he cut off her hair, dressed her in boy’s clothes, told her to answer to the name “Tom” and set off to join the Union army. For two years “Tom” gallantly accompanied her father.

Then, on day, General Grant inspected his troops. He was particularly struck with the diminutive drummer boy, decided she was too small for action, and ordered her mustered out and sent home to her mother! There was only one thing for her father to do. As soon as he could gain a private hearing with the general he explained that the drummer boy was no boy but his own daughter, and laid before him the circumstances which had prompted the deception. He begged that he might be allowed to keep her with him. And General Grant straightway shook the little drummer boy’s hand, swore himself to keep her secret, and ordered her retained in the service.

Thus it was not until the end of the war that little Anna Hunley returned to the dress and life that befitted a little girl.

The Nashua Reporter (Nashua, Iowa) Dec 7, 1932

Title: Tom Hundley, the drummer boy: or, A secret that General Grant kept. A drama of 1861
Author: Mrs. Annie Hundley
Publisher: Published by the author, 1899 (Google Book LINK)

You can read Annie’s book online. The first part of it is basically a play script, followed by a narrative of her life. What came to mind when I started reading it, was the play, The Drummer Boy of Shiloh that was all the rage in the late 1800’s.  I wonder if that is what inspired her to write her story. The whole book is only 44 pages, so it is a really quick read, although, in my opinion reads like a dime-store historical fiction/romance novel.

I wonder if the play mentioned below, is the one from her book:

WOMEN, GIRLS ’61-’65.

The Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War, ’61-’65, met at 2 o’clock Wednesday afternoon. The sick were reported no better and the sick committee asked to visit them.

A rising vote of thanks was extended to Sister Glud, the author of the play put on Saturday night at the Auditorium. The workers will hold their annual birthday party on the third Wednesday in November. Songs and recitations by various members of the workers composed the program for the afternoon’s entertainment. The meeting closed with community singing.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Oct 24, 1920

GIRLS OF ’61-’65

On Wednesday, March 30, the third anniversary of the Girls of ’61-’65 was celebrated in Memorial hall. A chicken dinner was served in the banquet room to members, comrades and a number of invited guests. A table was reserved and decorated for those having birthdays this month. Mrs. Anna Glud and Mrs. Mary Morrin furnished two delicious birthday cakes for this table.

After dinner all adjourned to the hall and listened to the program of the afternoon. Comrade Stern, a visitor from Wisconsin, gave an interesting talk, taking for his subject “A Lincoln Monument.” He expressed surprise that a city the size of Oakland should not have some memorial to Lincoln. He congratulated the Girls on taking the initiative for the work, by giving an entertainment at the Auditorium on March 26.

An original poem written in honor of the day was read by Comrade Brinkerhoff. Another pleasing reading entitled “Old Chromos” was given by Comrade Eastman. Mrs. Fannie Ward Miller took over the program and read a description of Lincoln written fifty years ago by Governor Ogelsby as an introduction to Lincoln’s Gettyburg address.

Another enjoyable number was the singing of Mrs. Florence Sewell, accompanied by Miss Randolph. Mrs. Sewell sang “Mignon” and as encore gave “Silver Threads Among the Gold” and “Clover Leaf.” A piano and violin solo was given by the Misses Cook and Kolmodin. Mrs. Blake Alverson, who is 84 years old, was present and spoke to the girls and for the first time since the days of ’61 was not able to sing, but recited an old song, the rage in the days of the Civil War.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Apr 3, 1921


Once applicant was received at the meeting of the Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War last Wednesday afternoon in Memorial hall. Captain Viola Murphy presided.

Captain Murphy read “The Childhood History of Mrs. Anna Glud,” telling of her home and surroundings and her experiences as a drummer boy in the Civil War.

Comrade Garfield, Spanish War veteran, spoke on one of the leading topics of the day. Comrade William Crowhurst announced that at the convention of the grand lodge of Odd Fellows at Pasadena recently over 1600 were present and the main subject discussed was “Home and Mother.”

Comrade Scupham introduced Comrade Smith who was for four years in naval service. Captain Clara Wood of Division 5, of Sacramento recited “Starry Flag of Ours.” Mrs. Anna Jordan favored with a piano selection. The order accepted an invitation from Col. Wyman Circle, G.A.R., to attend a picnic.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Jul 26, 1924

G.A.R. Auxiliary To Give Dinner For Post on 15th

Plans were completed for the dinner to be given the men September 15 by Colonel John B. Wyman Cirle No. 22, Ladies of the G.A.R., Tuesday afternoon. Dinner will be served at noon, to which comrades and their wives are invited.

At the meeting one applicant was initiated and two applications received.

Louise Noack, chairman of the home committee, thanked the committee for aiding in the decoration of the float for the Dons of Peralta parade. Anna Glud was thanked for her drum beating in the parade.

About a hundred members attended the Bay District Association of the Lady Maccabees Tuesday evening the women being entertained by Golden Poppy Hive No. 1016.

A banquet followed.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Sep 12, 1925


A rising vote of thanks was given to Mrs. Anna Glud at the meeting of the Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War, Wednesday afternoon in Memorial hall for a large decorated cake. Harry Williams was thanked for floral gifts.

Clinton Dodge and T. Thompson spoke on the Anita Whitney case. Captain Viola Murphy presided.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Oct 31, 1925

G.A.R. Women Visit at County Home With Gifts

Because of the inclement weather last Saturday only a small group of members of the Women and Girls Workers of the Civil War and Col. John B. Wyman Circle No. 22, Ladies of the G.A.R. visited the County Home. The Assembly hall at the home was packed with men and women waiting to welcome the visitors.

A short program was given under the direction of Anna Glud and May David. Mrs. Glud recited “The Drummer Boy in the Civil War,” and gave taps, assisted by Mrs. Ada Rowe at the piano.

Candy and fruit was distributed, and many magazines presented. Greetings were expressed for a merry Christmas and happy New Year.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Dec 26, 1925

Lyon Corps Entertains

Lyon Relief Corps No. 6, G.A.R., entertained the department president of the W.R.C. and staff at luncheon Wednesday at the Hotel Oakland. Honored guests were Emma J. Alexander, department president; Rosa B. Sturtevant, department senior vice president; Kate Humphreys, department counselor, and Carrie Bartlett, first member of the executive board.

At the regular meeting of the corps held in the Veterans’ Memorial building, Alice Harrington presided. Many relief calls were reported and flowers were sent sick members. Mrs. Anna Glud was reported seriously ill.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Feb 9, 1929

Mountain View Cemetery (Image from Find-A-Grave)

Corps Sponsors Club for Juniors

Lyon Corps, auxiliary to the G.A.R., in compliance with the request of the national organization, has endorsed the suggestion that the corps sponsor a junior club. Any loyal girl between the ages of 8 and 16, is eligible to membership.

At the meeting Wednesday, a fitting tribute to the late Mrs. Anna Glud, written by Comrade G.A. Blank, was read by Department Senior Vice President Rosa B. Sturtevant.

The corps voted to accept the invitation of Oakland Post No. 5, American Legion, to attend a patriotic program in the Veterans’ building next Tuesday.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Feb 16, 1929

Annie Glud seems to have been a woman of many interests and talents:

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, ANNIE GLUD, a citizen of the United States, residing in Oakland, county of Alameda, State of California, have invented an Improvement in Fuel Saving Appliances for Grates; and I hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the same.

Patent number: 538511
Filing date: Feb 12, 1895
Issue date: Apr 1895

GOOGLE LINK to the complete patent.


Mrs. Annie Glud Says That She Has Discovered Rich Treasures in the Shasta Mountains.

With her own hands, Mrs. Annie Glud, wife of an Oakland, Cal., sailor, has uncovered a vein of gold in the heart of the Shasta mountains.

It was by merest accident that the hidden wealth was revealed to her, and she has kept the secret for nearly a year. A serious illness prevented her from delving further for the gold. Now she has regained her health, and is ready to start for the claim, which is registered under her own name in the United States land office, at Redding, Cal. Twelve miles from there, in the Shasta mountains, is Stillwater creek, running through the gulch where Mrs. Glud and her husband has pre-empted a quarter section of land.

“One day last October,” she said, “I was strolling down the gulch and was attracted by some shining particles mixed in the black, sandy loam. The thought struck me that they were gold. I thought, if gold is was, I would not dare tell the story of the discovery, fearing some one would ‘jump’ the claim.

“I had heard of panning gold, but there were no mining utensile on the ranch. Finally I decided to try my hand. I went to the cabin, got a tin wash basin, and, crawling to the creek, scooped up a pan of the dirt. After twisting and turning that old wash basin my eyes were delighted with the sight of glittering particles of gold.

“As soon as I was assured the gold was real, I made up my mind that I would own a claim and turn miner. I quietly found out what was necessary to be done and then I staked off a claim 600×500 feet and went to Redding, where I filed on it.”

Then came Mrs. Glud’s serious illness, that stopped further developments temporarily.

“I am going to my mine very soon. You would be surprised at the number of women that want to go with me. Why, this is a Klondike craze in miniature. But I am going to be very careful in the selection of my company, I shall accept no one who cannot meet her own expenses.”

Kansas City journal (Kansas City, Mo.)Aug 25, 1897


Mine Is Discovered at Sixth and Franklin.

Gold has been found on Franklin street. There is excitement in the neighborhood and plans are being evolved to tunnel under some of the houses.

Mrs. Annie Glud of 804 Franklin street is the discoverer of the gold mine at the corner of Sixth and Franklin streets. She has the nuggets and fine gold to show that the mine exists.

Two days ago the electric light men had trouble with Mrs. Mary Kelly over the placing of a pole in front of her house at Sixth and Franklin streets. During the night Mrs. Kelly was outwitted and the men dug the hole and placed the pole. Mrs. Glud happened along while the work was in progress, and she secured a small valise full of dirt taken from the hole. She knows how to mine. The next day she panned the dirt and it netted her $5.25 in gold.

A committee waited on President John A. Britton of the Oakland Gas, Light and Heat Company and told him of the find. Mr. Britton was surprised to hear that his workmen had struck a gold mine.

Yesterday several people called on Mrs. Glud to secure information on the subject. Mrs. Glud said, “Yes, it is true that I made the find. I’ve go the gold.”

Mrs. Glud is now trying to make arrangements with Mrs. Kelley to tunnel under the latter’s house in pursuit of gold. She wants to prospect for the gold.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Apr 12, 1901

These clippings are just a small sample of all the real estate dealings I ran across in the Oakland Tribune, which involved Anna Glud.


Notice is hereby given that in accordance with the terms and under the authority of a certain deed of trust, dated September 29, 1898, duly executed and delivered by Annie Glud and Paul C. Glud, her husband, of the City of Oakland, County of Alameda and State of California… [default on real property at Center and Fourteenth St]

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) May 28,  1901

June 1904


October 1904


May 1908



The one above is interesting because the transaction involves her son, Charles T. Hunley and his wife.

This headline is a bit misleading! After reading about Anna the “drummer boy,” I thought this was going to be about her once again posing as a male, but it is something much less interesting.



Mrs. Anna Glud of 804 Franklin street, who styles herself a private detective, made application to the Board of Police and Fire Commissioners this morning to be appointed matron of the City Prison, vice Mrs. Reed, deceased. The board met to pass the salary warrants for the next month. The application was referred to Chief of Police Hodgkins for a report.

Mrs. Glud had the recommendation of Ex-Mayor Barstow and other prominent members of the community, but inadvertently she appears to have used the same application made two years ago to be appointed matron of the County Jail.

The application had been originally addressed to the Board of Supervisors and Sheriff John Bishop. Whether the old application will prejudice her case or not is a matter for the board to determine.

The discovery was made by Secretary Walter Fawcett, who noticed the name of E.E. Baunce, deceased, in the petition for appointment.

The original application bears the date of December 27, 1902. This date and the name of the Supervisors and that of Sheriff Bishop was turned under.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) May 31, 1904


Three more young boys have left their homes in this city and their anxious parents have asked the police to locate them. Mrs. A.B. Burbank of 1361 Thirteenth street reports that Everett Dolan, fourteen years of age, has disappeared. Everett is light complexioned and when he was last seen wore a dark coat and a soft hat.

George Marshall, a messenger, fourteen years of age, has left his home at 15 Eighth street. Young Marshall has been living with Mrs. Glud at the above address. Mrs. Glud called at the police station this morning and stated that she had been caring for the lad for some time and she asked that the police arrest him and place him in jail for a short time, so that he would learn not to run away. The third boy who ran away yesterday was Willie Sparks of 878 Lydia street.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Oct 11, 1906

I think the Oakland area is lucky the City Council did NOT choose the name suggested by Anna Glud:


“City and County of California” is the new suggestion of Mrs. A. Glud, of 1062 Oak street, for a name for the proposed consolidated city of Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley. Mrs. Glud sent her suggestion to the City Council, and it was referred by that body last night to the public improvement committee. Mrs. Glud believes that her suggestion for a name is a fitting one.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) May 21, 1907

Image from flickr - by Tom Spauling


OAKLAND, July 20. — A.E. Williams, a real estate agent with offices in the First National Bank building, is under arrest here on a charge of felony preferred by Mrs. Anna Glud. Williams is accused of having mulcted many victims of thousands of dollars by means of a fake prospectus and he sale of worthless stock in a fraudulent mining scheme.

The investigation resulting in the apprehension of Williams was made by H.W. Gray of the State Mining Bureau. According to Gray, Williams has cleaned up about $15,000 in his dealings with con???ing school teachers and others.

In a prospectus which was seized as evidence Williams calls himself secretary of the Calaveras Consolidated Mining Company, whose capitalization is named as being 16,000,000 shares.

Several weeks ago Mrs. Glud called on Captain of Inspectors W.J. Petersen. With her in this transaction were Alice Gerkle of Portland, Ore., Eleanor Hilbeard and Byron Hilbeard of Portland and Bertha Nitch and Charles Huntlee of Oakland.

Mrs. Glud says that she and the others owned 160 acres of mining land in Calavera county and that Williams offered to take it in exchange for 30,000 shares in his company, claiming that ultimately she and those associated with her would realize a fortune by the transaction.

Then, Mrs. Glud says, she “signed something,” and subsequently discovered that she had deeded the land to a Mrs. Lillian Martin, who has sold the property to a Mrs. Gleason for $7000.

Later she says she learned that the “shares” she held were worthless, and that the “Calaveras Consolidated Mining Company” did not own any land in Calavera county.

Modesto News (Modesto, California) Jul 20, 1911

Anna Glud even had an extremely green thumb!

“You can’t grow a calla lily in California over three feet in height,” contended a St. Louis woman. Mrs. A. Glud of 1120 Oak street, Oakland, promptly challenged this assertion, and offered to give her St. Louis friend tangible proof that calla lillies, like other flowers, grow at their best in sunny California. In her garden in Oakland Mrs. Glud has grown a calla lily plant, two of the stalks of which are five feet three inches in height, while the giant leaves are 22 inches long. These stalks grew in 22 days.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Jun 18, 1913

I wonder where Anna got this bear, and how she knew who carved it? I tried to find an image of it online, but had no luck. I would be curious to know if this Cinnamon Bear carving is still at the White House or on display somewhere. I did run across an index of Warren Harding’s papers that had her name listed. It would be interesting to read the letter she wrote him.


Presentation to Be Made by Organization of Women and Girls of ’61.

The historic cinnamon bear carved by James Marshall, discoverer of gold in California, from California redwood, is to be presented to Warren G. Harding, President of the United States, as a token of respect from Oakland Chapter of the Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War of ’61 and ’65, it was announced today.

The bear, which was carved by Marshall in ’48, the same year that gold was discovered in this state, has long been the property of Mrs. Annie Glud of Oak street, a pioneer worker of the civil war, who has become nationally famous since her recent disclosure that she served in the war as a “drummer boy,” masquerading in male clothing.

Mrs. Glud recently decided to give the treasured relic to President Harding, but chose rather to give it first to the local organization in order that it might be presented in the name of the organization to the nation’s executive.

Local engravers are preparing two plates for the base of the bear, which will read:

“This cinnamon bear was carved by James Marshall in 1848 with a penknife out of redwood grown in Yosemite valley, California.”

“Presented to President Warren G. Harding, by the Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War of ’61 and ’65 (also served in three wars). Oakland, Cal., June 7, 1921.”

A letter offering the bear to the President was sent some weeks ago and has just been answered by the President, carrying his appreciation of the memento and accepting the gift.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Jun 2, 1921

Census Records for Anna Glud

Finding Anna prior to 1900 has proven to be a bit difficult. Based on information I found on a HUNLEY family tree, I was able to locate her in 1860,  living with someone other than her family, in Gibson County, Indiana,  and listed as age 12, and  a servant. Here are the census records from 1900 forward:

(click to enlarge):

In 1900, Anna and husband, Paul and her son, Charles were living on Franklin St, Oakland, CA. It lists Charles T Hunley as a step-son.

In 1910, Anna, Paul and Charles (listed as son) are living on Oak St., Oakland, CA. I am not sure why Charles is still listed as living with them. He married a woman by the name of Henrietta Drennon,  and had two daughters. He must have married about 1903/1904, because Florence Ann Hunley was born about 1904/1905 and Louise E. Hunley was born in 1907. Notice Louise’s name is on the gravestone with Anna and Paul Glud.

In 1920, Anna and Paul are still living on Oak St., Oakland, CA, but Charles Hunley is no longer listed as living with them.


Paul C. Glud, 3764 Ruby street, Oakland, is retired after nearly 35 years of service as bridgetender at the pier and at the Ferry building.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Aug 7, 1927

In 1930, Anna had already passed away, but Paul is living on Ruby St. in Oakland, CA, and with him….another Hunley. This time it is a great-nephew (listed as great-uncle) named Arch Hunley, who, according to a family tree online, was the son of Ira, one of Anna’s nephews.

1894 County Directory

Anna is not listed with Paul in 1894,  but Charles T. Hunley is:

City Directory - 1894

So, it would seem Paul and Anna were probably married by that time. She was listed with Paul in 1895, also as matron of the Children’s Home as she is below in 1897:

City Directory - 1897

Anna’s son, Charles T. Hunley,  was a police officer in Oakland. He arrested lots of bad guys, per the news reports. (Prior to that, he was an electrician, and then a motorman for the A O & P E Ry Co.) I don’t know what happened to him; he was last registered to vote in 1922.  His wife was listed as a widow in 1930, worked as a seamstress, and  her daughter, Louise was still living with her. The older daughter, Florence, was shown living with a maternal aunt, Vina McDonald, and her occupation was listed as news writer for a newspaper.


Now, as to my title of this post: Was Anna Glue really a drummer boy in the Civil War?

No doubt, she was a very interesting lady, who seemed to have been willing to try her hand at anything.

She did have four brothers, two of which there seems to be documentation  showing they served in the Civil War, on the side of the Union, so it is possible the other two were the ones who served on the Confederate side.

Regarding her father, Jeremiah, I did not find any proof he served, and it appears others have looked and have not found any either. According to a family tree for this family, Jeremiah may have been married six times! And he may have been married to two of them at the same time. (The family tree linked above is not the one on, but it has some of the information I used for reference.)

Another controversial issue with him is his date of death:

Widows Pension Records Mary E. Densmore
Detail:  Death Dates
Date:     1870 to 1871
Notes:     Thomas R. Hunley his son, told Mrs. Mary Murray who was married to Jeremiah Hunley that his father died in Dec 1863 then later told her April 1864 and that he died in prison. It was later voice in court proceedings that Thomas later said he died in 1870 or 1871, but was later reported to be alive.

From: Fletcher-Ammons, Hunley family tree on

In her book linked above, Anna “Hundley” Glud states that her father knew he was dying, and told her to marry his old friend, Joe Dalton, who turned out to be a drunken wife beater who abused her. According to her story, she had a baby boy, (Charles Thomas Hunley?) and was so afraid for their lives, she took him and ran away. Eventually, she somehow ended up in California, but doesn’t say how she got there, or with whom she made the journey.

So, according to the news stories, Anna managed to hang on to her drum all these years. This is a red flag for me. She ran away from an abusive relationship, with child in arms, and still had her drum?

If she had been married, did she get a divorce before marrying Paul Glud? Did Joe Dalton die? How would she know if she ran away? I suppose that information might be found on her marriage license application for her marriage to Paul.

The accounts of her father, in her book and all the news articles don’t seem to jive with the few facts about him that are available. Clearly, he seemed to have been busy getting hitched and unhitched, while the children apparently were farmed out.  He doesn’t sound like the kind of man who “couldn’t bare to leave his little girl behind.”

In addition, the part of the story where she states that General Grant, once he heard the touching story, let her stay in, just seems too much like a romance to be true. Sure, it could have happened, but why did she wait until everyone involved was dead to tell the story? She seemed to be a lady who liked the attention the story would have brought her.

From the 1873 Memorial Day address (Fitchburg, MA) by General Devons:

That there are imposters and pretenders now, just as there were shirks and deserters during the war, cannot be denied…

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) May 31, 1873

My intent is not to disparage a good lady’s name. When I ran across the first article about her being a drummer boy, I was excited and had planned to add it to my post on drummer boys. So I started looking for more. After reading a few of the articles, I began to question the authenticity of her story. Obviously, she lived through the Civil War, and live was rough for her in her early years. She was very active in G.A.R. related groups, had brothers who fought in the war, and had access to all kinds of stories about the war. While her “war” story was interesting to read, I think it was just that, a story.

To Readers: Any additional information that might support her story would be welcome.

Dee-Vine and Jaunty Togs and Frocks: More Etta Kett Paper Dolls

May 16, 2010

Etta Kett Paper Doll - 1933

Etta Kett, Our New Paper Doll Visits You

This smart young lady is Etta Kett, Paul Robinson, who draws the famous comic strip in the newspapers, has given us Etta Kett in paper doll form. She is coming to visit you girls in your own home and bringing with her some of her prettiest clothes. Etta is called the best dressed girl in the newspapers.

As soon as Etta arrives cut her carefully from the square in which she is enclosed, taking care not to cut the dresses, pasted on a piece of cardboard, then cut out. Fold back on dotted line and she will stand up. When cutting out her dresses be sure to leave the little tabs with the dotted lines and fold back on the edge of the garment. These tabs will hold the dress on.

You will enjoy dressing Etta much more if you color the frocks and hats with crayon or water colors. In using the latter, care must be taken not to mix too much water or the dress will be so wet it will tear. You might color the sports dress at the left a bright blue with dark blue tie and white cuffs and the belt left black for patent leather. The jumper would be pretty brown with bright colors in the plaid jacket lining and tie. Color hats to match. A bit of gold or silver paint for belt buckles will set off the dresses. If you wish to touch Etta’s cheeks and lips with a bit of color be careful not to get on too much make-up. Evidently she is a brunette. You will notice that Etta has with her today only sports and day dresses but others will come next week.

Lewiston Evening Journal – Apr 8, 1933

Etta Kett Play Fashions - 1933


Etta Kett Shows New Togs - 1935


Easter Isn’t Far Away — and Here’s an Etta Kett Cut-Out Doll With a Tailored Outfit and New Sports Costumes

EDITOR’S NOTE — So many youthful Globe-Gazette readers wrote to the managing editor asking for more Etta Kett dolls he felt it his duty to publish another one today and hopes you like it.

Just as he promised some time ago the editor of the Globe-Gazette today publishes another Etta Kett cut-out paper doll — with several jaunty new costumes. Etta is shown wearing her latest bathing suit, a trick little affair with a cute anchor right over her heart to prove that Etta loves the sea. In upper left you’ll find a sweater which Etta dons over her bathing outfit when the beach breezes become a trifle chilly. In lower left is a tailored suit with tight-fitting jacket and lengthy herringbone skirt. That’s quite a swagger coat too. In upper right is some of Etta’s new millinery — the hat with front bow will look well with the tailored outfit and the little tam is for beach wear or with the riding habit. In lower right is the riding habit — the very latest word in this type of toggery. Now, if you are all good children, perhaps, within a few days, the editor will print another charming Etta Kett cut-out paper doll.

Mason City Globe Gazette (Mason City, Iowa) Mar 26, 1935

Etta Kett - Another Clever Cut-Out - 1936

Here’s New Etta Kett Doll

Get Scissors and Paste! Another Clever Cut Out — Just for You!

JUST AS HE PROMISED he would the editor of the Globe-Gazette today publishes another Etta Kett cut-out paper doll, featuring the famous comic strip heroine and some of her new togs for spring.

Don’t you imagine Etta will look lovely in them? Especially that pretty party frock!

Well, here’s how you can find out. Paste the entire picture on this cardboard. Then cut the dresses and hat and try them on her.

Mason City Globe Gazette (Mason City, Iowa) Mar 26, 1936


Previous Etta Kett Posts:

Paul Robinson: Comic Strip Creator

Swanky, Dandy, Trick and Chic: Etta Kett Paper Dolls are All the Rage

For Slang Addicts

May 15, 2010

Slang Addicts Find Good News in New Dictionary

Gold Expressions, Underworld and War Terms Creep Into Good Usage, 1932 Editions Reveal.

The 1932 editions of dictionaries contain good news for slang-addicts, if they are inclined to express their moments of gaiety and hilarity with such exclamations as “whoopee” for henceforth this trite expression will be found in the better lexicons, and will not be considered as slang.

Golfers will be able to express their game in the good old lingo, and know they are above reproach, grammatically speaking, when they boast of the number of “birdies” and “eagles” credited to their score.

If you have a weakness for speaking in terms of gangland and the underworld, choose your words from the following list and know you will not stand correction, “blind pig” or “blind tiger”, “bootleg”, “gat”, “gyp”, “hijacker”, “hooch”, “hoosegow”, “monicker”, “racket”, “racketeer”, “rough-neck”, “rum-runner”, “speakeasy” and “punk.”

As an outgrowth of the World war we are permitted such words as “Bertha”, “Black Maria“, “buddy”, “Sammy” (A soldier of the United States) “war-bride”, “gob” and “No Man’s Land.”

League of Nations and Legionnaire also are included in the new books.

WOMEN weren’t forgotten when the new data was compiled for there are such words as “beauty shop”, “combination” (referring to an article of under-clothing) and “flapper.”

Moom-pitchers” come in for their share of free publicity too. Note the following words: “scenario”, “script”, “set”, “vampire”, “kleig light”, “photo-player” and “revue.”

Other words included in the new dictionaries are “booster”, “blimp”, “broadcast”, “Einstein Theory”, “jaywalker”, “flivver,” and “highbrow”, “intelligentsia”, “peeve”, “Schick test“, “Rhodes scholarship”, “weiner-wurst”, “crossword puzzle”, “robot”, “static”, “straw-boss”, “syndicate”, “Social Democratic party”, “Social Revolutionary Party”, “community chest”, “column” and “columnists”, “Soviet”, “traffic” and numerous others.

You may be a little disappointed not to find “jig-saw puzzle”, “hotcha-cha” and like phrases in the new make-up but the editors DID have to have some words left over for the next edition.

Mansfield News (Mansfield, Ohio) Feb 2, 1933

Drummer Boys of the Civil War

May 13, 2010

From the Home Journal.
The Drummer Boy of Tennessee.


When called the fife and drum at morn
The soldier from his rest,
And those to higher honors born
With softer couches blest,
There came; a captain brave to seek,
Deep in her mourning clad,
By loss made sad, and journeying weak,
A mother and a lad —
And they had come from Tennessee,
Waiting the beat of reveille.

But, penniless and widowed,
Her story soon she told:
The hand of traitor had not spared
Her husband’s life nor gold;
And now she brought her only son,
To fill the drummer’s place;
Thus young his daily bread to earn,
His country’s foes to face;
For he had leaned in Tennessee,
To beat the call of reveille.

The boy upturned his eager gaze,
And, with a beating heart,
He read upon the captain’s face
Both kindliness and doubt;
For he had marked his tender years,
His little fragile form —
“Don’t be afraid,” he boldly cried,
“For, captain, I can drum!”
And I have come from Tennessee,
To sound for you the reveille.

“Well, call the fifer! — bring the drum,
To test this noble youth!”
And well his part he did perform,
A “Drummer Boy,” in truth!
“Yes, madam, I will take your boy,”
The captain kindly said.
“Oh! bring him back,” [her] quick reply,
“Unnumbered with the dead!
And EDDIE LEE, of Tennessee,
Shall play for you the reveille.”

‘Twas many a weary march was made,
To sound of drum and fife,
And well the “Drummer Boy” essayed
To play the “march of life;”
Each soldier loved and sought to share
Their part of good with him;
The fifer on his back did bear
Across each swollen stream,
This “Drummer Boy” from Tennessee,
Who beat with him the reveille.

But, came the battle shock, and doom
Of one great “LYON” heart,
The victor’s shout — the victim’s groan,
Fulfilled their fearful part!
And, on that blood-stained field of woe
The darkness spread its pall!
The morning dawned on flying foe;
When, list! the “morning call!”
Our drummer Boy from Tennessee,
Beating for help the reveille!

Upon the valley sod he lay,
Besides a lifeless foe,
Whose dying hand had sought to stay
The life-blood’s ebbing flow;
The quivering drum yet echoing
The beating of his heart –
The encamping angel beckoning
From drum and fife to part!
And Eddie Lee, of Tennessee,
Awaits the final reveille!

The Indiana Democrat (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Jul 10, 1862


In the following book, you can read about “the littlest hero of the war,”  Eddie Lee :

Title: Brave Deeds of Union Soldiers (pg 63 – Google book LINK)
Author: Samuel Scoville
Publisher: G. W. Jacobs & company, 1915

Regimental Fife and Drum Corps (Image from

Civil War Sources (Link to posts tagged Drummer Boys) is a blog that uses primary documents as sources for its Civil War posts. While they don’t seem to have posted anything about Eddie Lee, they have covered several other drummer boys, including Johnny Clem, who I have also posted about previously.

Gravestone Image from Find-A-Grave.

The Youngest Drummer-Boy.

The Twelfth Indiana regiment possessed a pet of whom it may be said that he enjoyed renown scarcely second to that of the wide-famed Wisconsin eagle. This was “Little Tommy,” as he was familiarly called in those days — the youngest drummer boy and, so far as the writer’s knowledge goes, the youngest enlisted man in the Union army. the writer well remembers having seen him on several occasions. His diminutive size and child-like appearance, as well as his remarkable skill and grace in handling the drumsticks, never failed to fade from the memory. Some brief and honorable mention of “Little Tommy,” the pride of the Twelfth Indiana regiment, should not be omitted in these “Recollections of a Drummer-boy.”

Thomas Hubler was born in Fort Wayne, Allen county, Indiana, October 9, 1851. When two years of age the family removed to Warsaw, Indiana. On the outbreak of the war, his father, who had been a German soldier of the truest type, raised a company of men in response to President Lincoln’s first call for 75,000 troops. “Little Tommy” was the first to enlist in his father’s company, the date of enrollment being April 19, 1861. He was then nine years and six months old.

The regiment to which the company was assigned was with the Army of the Potomac throughout all its campaigns in Maryland and Virginia. At the expiration of its term of service, in August, 1862, “Little Tommy” re-enlisted and served to the end of the war, having been present in some twenty-six battles. He was greatly beloved by all the men of his regiment, with whom he was a constant favorite. It is thought that he beat the first “long roll” of the great civil war. He is still living in Warsaw, Indiana, and bids fair to be the latest survivor of the great army of which he was the youngest member. With the swift advancing years, the ranks of the soldiers of the late war are rapidly being thinned out, and those who yet remain are fast showing signs of age. “The boys in blue” are thus, as the years go by, almost imperceptibly turning into “the boys in gray;” and as “Little Tommy,” the youngest of them all, sounded their first reveille, so may he yet live to beat their last tattoo. — St. Nicholas for October.

The Indiana Democrat (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Nov 15, 1883

You can read more about Tommy Hubler in this book:

Title: The Recollections of a Drummer-Boy 6th Edition (pg 160 – Google book LINK)
Author: Henry Martyn Kieffer
Publisher: Ticknor and Company, 1889

The Drummer Boy of Shiloh was a popular play that ran for many years.


On Shiloh’s dark and bloody ground the dead and wounded lay,
Amongst them was a drummer boy that beat the drum that day;
A wounded soldier raised him up — his drum was by his side —
He clasped his hands, and raised his eyes, and prayed before he died.

“Look down upon the battlefield, O Thou our heavenly Friend,
Have mercy on our sinful souls” — the soldiers cried, “Amen!”
For gathered ’round, a little group, each brave man knelt and cried —
They listened to the drummer boy who prayed before he died.

“Oh, Mother,” said the dying boy, “Look down from Heaven on me!
Receive me to thy fond embrace! Oh, take me home to thee!
I’ve loved my country as my God, to serve them both I’ve tried,”
He smiled, shook hands, death seized the boy who prayed before he died.

Each soldier wept then like a child — stout hearts were they and brave —
The Flag his winding-sheet! God’s Book the key unto his grave;
They wrote upon a simple board these words, “This is a guide,
To those who mourn the drummer boy who prayed before he died.”

Alabama Volunteer Corps.

Title: Southern War songs: Camp-Fire, Patriotic and Sentimental
Compiled by: William Long Fagan
Publisher: M. T. Richardson, 1892
Page 336 (Google book link)

Raphael Semmes - CSS ALABAMA - 1863 (Image from

Title: Minutes of the Seventh Annual Meeting and Reunion
Author: Stephen D. Lee
Published :1907
Page 23 (Google book link)

Image from The Goat Whisperer on flickr

Title: A History of Hardin County, Tennessee
Author: B. G. Brazelton
Publisher: Cumberland Presbyterian Publishing House, 1885
Page 75 (Google book link)

Drum Corps, 93rd New York Infantry- Bealeton, VA, August 1863

I found a William H. Mershon who was listed as a musician in the 30th Indiana Infantry, Company I,  but no A.W. Mershon.

Title: Indiana at Shiloh: Report of the Commission
Compiled by: John W. Coons
Publisher: Indiana Shiloh National Park Commission, 1904
Page 282 (Google book link)

Drummer Gilbert A. Marbury, 22nd New York Infantry

This next one doesn’t claim to be THE drummer boy of Shiloh, but he was a drummer boy at Shiloh, and died there:

Title: History of the Forty-Eighth Ohio Vet. Vol. Inf. Giving a Complete Account of the Regiment
Authors: John A. Bering, Thomas Montgomery
Publisher: Highland News Office, 1880
Page 28 (Google book link)

Wilson's Soldiers Monument

Title: A history of Adams County, Ohio
Authors: Nelson Wiley Evans, Emmons B. Stivers
Publisher: E B. Stivers, 1900
Page 480

The Englishmen at Bunker Hill

May 12, 2010

Image from Wikimedia

Two strangers recently visited Bunker Hill, and ascended to the top of the Monument. After they had asked a number of questions, which the superintendent answered very politely, he told them it was customary to pay a small sum for ascending the Monument. At this they were highly indignant, and said they thought it was a free country, and this place should be free to all; — they would not be gulled out of their money by a Yankee! an Englishman ought to be allowed to go free to such public places, &c.

The superintendent bowed very politely, and said, ‘I wish you had mentioned that you were Englishmen before, for they are the only persons we admit free; we consider that THEY paid dear enough for ascending this hill on the 17th of June, 1776!’

The Adams Sentinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) May 10, 1841

The Broom Brigade and Broom Drill

May 11, 2010


A Broom Drill.

A new idea in amusements this, and its inventors were some girls in Lowell, Mass. Twelve young ladies, commanded by a captain, gave a public drill of their proficiency in handling the broom. The girls were uniformed in red, white and blue. The brooms were decorated with colored ribbons, and as the young women marched with the streamers behind them they looked very martial and were warmly applauded. A young lady, dressed in the national colors, was the “drummer boy” of the broom corps. A fan drill is performed in somewhat the same fashion, only the fan can be used more gracefully and effectively than the broom.

But, after all, perhaps, the best broom drill is the one that takes place in the kitchen, where there is only one broom and no streamers.

The Indiana Democrat (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Apr 14, 1881

Pasadena Broom Brigade - 1886

The above picture is from the Revolution blog, which appears to be an L.A. Times site?  The article that accompanies  this picture is from the L.A. Times. Hopefully, Carla is not a journalist. It seems like a few minutes of GOOGLING might have answered her questions about the mysterious photograph:

An 1886 photograph shown at the L.A. archives bazaar is a bit of a mystery. The man at their feet is identified as Lt. Rockwood, but why did members of the Pasadena Broom Brigade gather? (Pasadena Museum of History / October 17, 2009)

The women are lined up in a row–straight backs, dark starched dresses, sober faces. They clutch long-handled brooms to their sides, bristles up, as if they were rifles. The black-and-white photo is dated 1886.

A cleaning crew? Unlikely. For one thing, the women are too well dressed. For another, they look ready to march into battle or, at least, a parade.

“Isn’t it neat?” asked Laura Verlaque, collection manager at the Pasadena Museum of History, which counts the photograph of the Pasadena Broom Brigade in its archives. “We don’t really know what it was. We think it was a social group. Whether they marched in brigades, we don’t know.”

The mysterious photo was one of the artifacts that the museum displayed at the fourth annual Los Angeles Archives Bazaar held Saturday at USC’s Davidson Conference Center.

Spencerport Broom Brigade, 1883

Image from Town of Ogden‘s photostream on Flickr.


The Broom Drill.

The most recent device for raising a church fund is an entertainment known as “the broom drill,” in which a number of young ladies, attired in pure white, with jaunty red caps, crimson collars and girdles of the same tint, go through the regular regimental evolutions, armed with brooms instead of guns. The young ladies, it is said, at some of these entertainments exhibit great precision in the manual and marching, and far more grace than half the crack military corps of the country.
New Orleans Democrat.

The Marion Daily Star (Marion, Ohio) Apr 18, 1882

The Universalist sociable, this evening, will be held in the hall over the church. The program includes a supper and other attractions, but the “broom drill” has been given up. The ladies do not propose to make the “broom” prominent so early in leap year.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Mar 10, 1880

The Fair, Tuesday Evening

The fair of the Ladies’ Union Aid society in city hall, Tuesday evening, was well attended, the refreshment tables were liberally patronized, and the tables loaded with fancy articles, confectionery, etc., added considerable to the receipts of the evening. The musical entertainment included a piano solo by Miss Ida Smith, solos by Misses Carrie L. Davis and Hattie M. Goodwin, a duet by Misses Nellie M. Howland and Cora Goff, and two trios by Misses Howland and C. Jennie Jackson and Mrs. E.R. Farnsworth. All who took part in the concert gained the appreciative applause of the audience.

The great attraction of the evening was the “Broom Drill,” in which 17 young ladies, commanded by Capt. George Burford of the Fusihers, appeared on the stage in neat white sailor suits with red trimmings. The brooms were also decorated with red trimmings, and as the ladies marched with colors flying, keeping perfect time to the piano (Miss Kate Chaffin, pianist,) they presented quite a warlike appearance and fairly took the house by storm. They showed a proficiency in the usual military tactics which was truly surprising. At the close of the drill, the brooms were sold at auction by D.F. McIntire, bringing from 50 cents to $1 each.

The following is a list of the ladies who took part in the broom drill: Misses S el-la Lowe, Susie Cushing, Jennie Colony, Addie Putnam, Marion Putnam, Anna Putnam, Minnie Wallace, Fannie Smith, Mary Miles, Hester Miles, Gertie Chaffin, Annie Crocker, Nellie Wilder, Nellie Burr, Nellie Hewins, Flora Wright and Mrs. Caswell.

Album Quilt - 1868-1880

Image from the Nebraska State Historical Society

The net proceeds of the fair will be about $150, to which will be added the $75 obtained for the album quilt.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Mar 29, 1882

Patience (Image from


Eighteen Young Women in Novel and Effective Evolutions on the Stage.

A broom drill by eighteen young women students in the Normal College and residents of Harlem was a unique feature of the concert at Chickering Hall last night for the benefit of the Harlem Congregational Church. The broom drill was invented by a Captain in the Seventh Regiment, and is founded on Upton’s tactics.

At the notes of a march from “Patience,” played on the piano, the door of the stage opened and Capt. Florence J. Timpson led her company before the footlights. The uniform of the company was a short and beautiful white dress, with a cardinal red ribbon around the waist, a red cape around the shoulders, a jaunty red cap on the head, low slippers, cardinal red stockings, and white kid gloves. A red dust pan, with a letter C in white, did duty instead of a cartridge box, and a cardinal red handkerchief tucked in the belt passed for a dust cloth. Finally, each soldieress carried a broom, beribboned.

Capt. Timpson was distinguished by gold epaulets and a gilt band around her hat but chiefly by an enormous feather duster. A guard with a smaller feather duster did ornamental duty by hovering around the little squad as it maneuvred.

At the command “Order brooms!” the brushes whacked the floor in unison. When the recruits were commanded to they whacked the dustpans with their right hand and then whacked the brush of the broom. At the command “Fire!” they sang out “Bang!” in a tone calculated to convey terror. Then they marched by fours and by sections back and forth on the stage and were applauded for their precise execution of the evolutions. The evolution most applauded consisted in marching up and down the stage with measured steps and sweeping the floor. Finally brooms were stacked and held in place by a pretty red ribbon and slipped over the broom handles.

Chester Times (Chester, Pennsylvania) Mar 15, 1882


The understanding is that the “broom drill” will be repeated at the opera house.

One Dr. J.D. Words, says:

“But here’s to the ladies ‘Broom Brigade,’
Whether awake or sleeping,
May all your campaigns be well weighed,
Your victories be ‘sweeping,’
And may you, girls, whatever befall,
Amid your fun and laughter,
Secure, while in the manual,
The man u al (1) are after.”

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Sep 3, 1882

Red Stockings are for heretics? This is something else:


About two weeks ago, just after a successful strawberry festival, the Managing Committee of the “Twenty-ninth Congregational Church” under took to produce the Broom Drill spectacle, latterly so popular through the country, and for that purpose engaged the “John Calvin Broomstick Combination” — a company consisting of 45 young ladies, all of whom are experienced and capable artists. The spectacle was placed on the platform with the thoroughness characteristic of the house, and although speculators sold tickets at three times the usual price, every seat was occupied. The proficiency of the company in the drill act left nothing to be desired, and the singing of Miss Geneva Knox, who sang the famous “J’aime les militaires” from the “Grand Duchess,” was enthusiastically applauded. Pecuniarily the affair was a brilliant success, but on the following day a formal charge of heresy was brought against the managers by Deacon Bradford, who was elected to the Deaconate six weeks ago.

The specification under the charge of heresy was to the effect that the managers had knowingly and willfully permitted the ladies of the “John Calvin Broomstick Combination” to appear in red stockings. Deacon Bradford maintained that red stockings are one of the worst errors of the Roman Church, and that to substitute them for the pure white stockings of Protestantism in a spectacle produced in an orthodox evangelical business church is to cast contempt upon Protestantism and to lead the minds of the young and ignorant into Romanism.

The accused managers maintain that there is nothing in the creed of the “Twenty-ninth Congregational Church” which condemns red stockings, and that a member of the society may not only gaze upon, but may actually wear red stockings without being guilty of heresy; that the red stockings worn by the “John Calvin Broomstick Combination” were advertised by colored posters several days in advance of the entertainment, and no objection was then made to them by any one; that the pecuniary success of the entertainment was unquestionably largely due to the red stockings, and that if religious freedom is to be cramped by the success of bigots like Deacon Bradford, no church can carry on its business for six months — not to speak of paying dividends.

The accused managers are to be brought to trial for heresy next October, and in the meantime the “Twenty-ninth Congregational Church” will be closed, although it can be hired by worldly people for balls and other non-religious entertainments. It is a great pity that a thriving business church should have its prosperity checked in this sudden and painful way, and it is earnestly to be hoped that the efforts of Deacon Bradford will be in vain, and that Potterville will not be long deprived of its favorite place of amusement.

The New York Times (New York, New York) Jun 9, 1883

THE broom-drill mania is extending all over the country, but it is noticed that the young ladies who are most expert in the drill generally go off on a visit when house-cleaning commences.

Title    The Odd Fellow’s Talisman and Literary Journal
Publisher    John Reynolds, 1882
Page 454

Broom Brigade - Union, Oregon (Image


The seating capacity of Turn Halle was taken up last night with a very fine audience to witness the entertainment by the ladies of Trinity church. In the broom drill were the following young ladies: Captain, Miss DeHart; drummer, Miss Katharine Grecu; sergeant, Miss Green; and Miss Savier, Miss Burnside, Miss Beck, Miss Wygart, Miss Myrick, Miss Teal, Miss Yarndley, Miss Eva Lewis, Miss Story, Miss McCraken, and Miss Effinger.

The uniforms were strikingly neat. The skirt was of black, reaching to the top of high-buttoned boots, and trimmed with a broad band of scarlet bordered with gold braid; black waistcoat; scarlet Zouave jacket, trimmed with gold braid a la militaire; scarlet Zouave cap, trimmed with gold bands and tassel. A dust pan and wisp-broom for a knapsack, with a broom for arms, completed the m????ic soldier. The drill, both in use of arms and marching, was nearly the acme of precision and grace, and each movement was received with loud applause. General surprise at the proficiency of the young ladies was shown, and after two encores had been demanded and answered, many congratulations were offered to those who had taken part. The floor was then cleared and all present danced until midnight.

Morning Oregonian (Portland, Oregon) Feb 4. 1883

A Broom Brigade (Image from


The Girls with Their Brooms and Boys with Their Guns.

A gay crowd, as well as a very fashionable and select one, assembled early at Turner hall last night to witness the broom drill and the drill given by the Belkamp Rifles.

The Broom Brigade executed their maneuvres very well, but seemed to have grown careless since last drill and were not as perfect as before. The Belkamp Rifles surpassed themselves in any previous effort they have made and won golden opinions and rounds of applause from the spectators. All their movements were nearly as perfect as regulars, and the drill they were put through by Captain Bob Green was particularly severe.

The silent manual put up by a squad composed of Messrs. Maybry, Shook, Vaitz, Lingan, Dittmar, Jonas, Richardson, Truax, Rote, Tobin, Watts and J. Green. Then manual was gone through with simply at the tap of the drum, and the perfect manner of its execution, fairly brought down the house.

After the drill the hall was turned into a ball room, and the remainder of the evening was spent in tripping the light fantastic. There were at one time over 200 couples on the floor, and one of the quadrilles danced was the largest ever seen in Turner hall.

Refreshments were served in the club room adjoining the hall, and the boys realized quite a nice little sum of money towards the purchase of their new fatigue uniform, which they will take with them to Lampasas.

San Antonio Light (San Antonio, Texas) Jun 6, 1885


There is a stagnation of news. Nobody seems willing to get into trouble for the public benefit. In the meantime the Broom Drill goes bravely on.

Daily Miner, The (Butte, Montana) May 9, 1882


All sport should be amusement, but it does not follow that all amusements can be called sporting events, the broom drill to-morrow evening for instance.

Daily Miner, The (Butte, Montana) May 26, 1882

Image from Calisthenics and Light Gymnastics for Home and School (Google book link)


Successfully Rendered a Third Time.

It is much to be regretted that the audiences at the performances of Penelope have not been larger. Taking into consideration the broom drill and the concerts, the inducements to attend an amateur entertainment have not been greater this winter. Last night the broom brigade, headed by the little drummer girl in dainty costume, was again the cynosure of all eyes. So sweeping was the applause that these fair daughters of the regiment actually underwent the fatigues of a campaign in marching on and off the stage, in response to the repeated encores. Penelope was for the third time rendered with spirit and effect, the dramatic talent displayed by Miss McIntyre, as well as by her support, Miss Lincoln, Mr. Duffet and the Messrs Pensrose, proving an agreeable surprise.

The actors and the audience were in equally good spirits, and the charming melange of popular music was well rendered and received. After the performances Fred Taylor auctioned off the brooms, dust pans, tassels-on-the-boots and other paraphernalia of the regiment so gayly mustered out of service, the whole thing realizing a total of about eighty-five dollars and thus testifying the generous appreciation of the audience. The dance and refreshments came last of all, happily closing a pleasant evening.

Daily Miner, The (Butte, Montana) May 31, 1882

I have included this next article, not so much for the “Broom Drill” reference, but for the “A Look into the Future” performance further down in the article. It is set in the 1950’s, and is rather humorous.


The Young Ladies of the University Give a Splendid Performance at the Opera House.

A few such entertainments as that given by the young ladies of the University at the Opera House Saturday night and the gymnasium fund will be large enough to begin operations immediately. There was not a vacant seat in the house and standing room was at a premium. It was one of the largest audiences ever seen in the theatre, and best of it all they were well pleased with their night’s entertainment.

The program was very interesting from beginning to end and considering the short time spent in getting it up, the young ladies are entitled to a great deal of credit.

The music was furnished by the University orchestra, Professor Hillman director. Finer music was never heard at a theatre in Reno, and the applause that followed the first overture showed that the audience highly appreciated it.

The military drill, by privates Misses Gould, Maxwell, Saddler, Shafer, Allen, Mayberry, Fanning, Grimes, Longley, Hart, Evans and Jones, commanded by Miss Bender, was a complete success. The young ladies were dressed in their regulation uniform and carried the cadet rifles. They marched and drilled exceedingly well, and were frequently applauded on executing some new movement.

The sweet voice of Miss Mabel Stanaway always calls for an encore, but the solo rendered Saturday evening was received with more than the usual applause.

The next feature on the program was entitled Bellamy’s (Looking Backward). Nine young ladies with ghostly appearance, in flowing white robes and with masks on the back of their heads and their hair combed over their faces, went through with a sort of a quadrille.

This pleased the audience hugely and received a hearty encore.

The next was a broom drill, Captain Linnscott commanding, color sergeant, Miss North; privates, Misses Irwin, Steiner, Robinson, Bradshaw, Stubbs, Edmunds, Twombly, Patton, Virgin, Ward, Linn, Edmunds, Murphy, Douglas and Haines.

The young ladies were all dressed in red with white aprons, which made a very nice effect. They all carried brooms except the sergeant, who held aloft a large feather duster. Hanging at the side of each where the cartridge box is worn, was a dustpan.

This drill was exceptionally good, the young ladies going through with some very difficult evolutions. A very pretty effect was produced when different colored lights were thrown on them, especially the purple light, which changed the color of their uniforms from red to orange.

This drill also received a hearty encore.

The Soldier's Departure by Charles Hunt - 1868

Living Pictures, “The Soldier’s Farwell,” “The Soldier’s Dream” and “The Soldier’s Return,” by the Misses Douglas and Virgin, was well received, the first two pictures being exceedingly good.

“A Look into the Future,” (scene in the United States Senate, 1950) probably pleased the audience more than any other feature of the program. It was woman suffrage illustrated in the superlative degree. The audience having for some time been reading the GAZETTE’s articles on woman suffrage was the better prepared to appreciate it. It illustrated the Senate after women had secured the right of suffrage and had disenfranchised the men. The Senate was represented complete, from the Vice President, who presides, to the pages. There were also present the general of the army, foreign ambassadors and others. Bills were introduced for the remonetization of gold, for the granting of suffrage to men and various other measures. Speeches were made which were well delivered and highly humorous. The dignity of the Senate was occasionally interrupted by the chaplain falling asleep and it becoming necessary to awaken her. Everything was progressing quite smoothly until a spider dropped down from the ceiling, which created a panic for a few minutes. But at last a rat ran across the floor for which reason it became necessary to adjourn for the day. A man was finally produced to kill the rat.

The Fan drill, Captain — Miss Catlin — Privates Frey, Hironymous, Martin, Wheeler, Parker, Bruette, Robb and Phillips, was one of the prettiest parts of the whole program. The young ladies were tastily dressed, wore their hair powdered and carried large Japanese fans. They were exceedingly graceful in their movements and deserved the applause and encore they received.

The performance was closed by “The Famous Oklahoma Jubilee Singers,” who rendered some old plantation songs in good style.

The next performance will be by the boys, who will have to work hard if they outdo the young ladies.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Dec 17, 1894

Learn how to do the Broom Drill:

Title: New Games for Parlor and Lawn
Author: George Bradford Bartlett
Publisher: Harper & brothers, 1882
Page 127

Murdered by a Moonshiner

May 10, 2010


Frank Moon Pays Penalty for Acting as Guide on Chestnut Ridge.


By Strange Man While Drinking in A Scottdale Bar — Died This Morning at the Cottage State Hospital — Deputy Collector Dixon’s Statement.

Frank Moon, who was shot by an unknown man in the bar room of the Scottdale House at Scottdale last Thursday evening, died at the Cottage State Hospital this morning at 3:30 o’clock. Septic peritonitis caused his death. This afternoon a post mortem examination and inquest will be held by Coroner A.S. Hagan of Fairchance. The remains will be buried by friends.

With the death of Moon comes light on the mysterious circumstances which surround his murder. It is believed in police circles that he was killed by a moonshiner sent down from the mountains. This morning United States Deputy Collector W.J. Dixon of Uniontown was here, and said: “I believe it probable that Moon was shot by a man specially sent down from the mountain for the purpose. We revenue men do not tell the names of our guides, but I will say that three years ago, when Frank Campbell was United States Marshal, we had a guide who lived at Broad Ford. He had a long standing feud with the moonshiners and several times when excursions into the district were planned, he backed out at the last moment, fearful of his life. He has worked for us, off and on, for the past three years. He realized that his life was in danger. That’s all I’ll say about it.”

On Thursday night, Moon, with some companions, was drinking in the bar of the Scottdale House. At the hospital Sunday he told the following story: “I had been drinking and chatting with my friends in the bar when a young looking stranger came in and walked the length of the room, evidently looking for some one. After a time he asked me to take a drink. He said all bar room whisky was impure; that the mountain dew, made on Laurel Hill, was the only pure stuff. Talk rambled on, the subject of moonshine and moonshiners keeping prominent. I mentioned the name of a well known moonshiner several times, perhaps not in a complimentary way, and the stranger seemed to resent this. Then the talk lagged and my companion seemed to be thinking of something else. He suddenly pulled a revolver from his pocket and twirled it around his hand as if familiar with the weapon. ‘That’s a dangerous thing for a young fellow,’ I remarked, and staring at me he answered ‘I’m a moonshiner and we need protection.’ Then he suddenly dropped the weapon to the level of my breast, and without a word, he fired.”

The stranger said “Someone from the outside shot him through the window.” The smoke of the shot was still wreathing in the room, but none contradicted his statement as they crowded around the wounded man. Then the stranger walked the length of the bar, out into the street and was gone.

Moon was hurried to the office of Dr. Rogers of Scottdale, who pronounced his wound fatal. Then he was brought to the Cottage hospital to die.

Frank Moon was a coke worker, 38 years old, a widower, who for some months past has lived near Broad Ford. He was born not far from Confluence.

The man who shot Moon is described as small in stature, perhaps 23 years of age; wearing a light suit and a rough, slouch hat.

The Daily Courier (Connellsville, Pennsylvania) Nov 10, 1902

Confluence, PA (postcard image from ebay)


Post Mortem Held on Frank Moon.

Inquest Later.

Acting Surgeon Dr. L.P. McCormick and Coroner A.S. Hagan on Monday held a post mortem examination on the body of Frank Moon, the story of whose tragic death has already appeared in these columns. A very complete dissection of the affected parts was made, but the surgeons were unable to locate the bullet that claimed Moon’s life. It penetrated the upper portion of the abdomen, passing through one lobe of the liver and the kidney, and then, taking a slightly downward course, lodged in the intricate muscles of the back. The inquest will be held by Coroner Hagan as soon as the necessary witnesses can be secured.

Undertaker J.E. Sims this morning shipped the remains of Moon to his former home, Draketown, back of Confluence and near the Somerset county line. The remains will be interred at the Jersey Church Cemetery. Several Connellsville people relatives of the dead man, attended the funeral.

The Daily Courier (Connellsville, Pennsylvania) Nov 11, 1902


The only new development in the case of Frank Moon, who was shot at Scottdale, comes from a friend of Moon, who says that the name of the man who did the shooting is Rankin. He said that some time ago Moon caused the arrest of Rankin and another man for “moonshining,” and that Rankin threatened to get even with him.

The Indiana Democrat (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Nov 19, 1902


In Murder Cases of Frank Moon at Scottdale and James Leonard.


Verdicts Rendered on Thursday That Both Victims Came to Their Deaths by Hands of Unknown Persons — Testimony Before Coroner Hagan

Coroner Arthur S. Hagan of Fairchance held two inquests yesterday in City Hall. One was on the death of William Frank Moon who was shot down in the bar room of the New Scottdale House in Scottdale on the evening of November 7th and the other long delayed was on the death of James Leonard a young man of town who was assaulted by three strangers on the North Side on the night of July 21st and who died eight days later as a result of the injuries he received.

In the Moon inquest a number of witnesses from Scottdale were present. Among these were Jorn O’Neil, the bartender on duty when the shooting occurred, Joseph Ghrist a mill worker who knows more about the case than all the others combined, John Sellers, A.C. Bell and others who were in the bar at the time, but who know little or nothing of the circumstance of the shooting. Constable Everhart of Scottdale testified that he had investigated the case in Scottdale and had taken a statement from Moon while he lingered at the Cottage State Hospital but had utterly failed to find an explanation of the mystery.

Joseph Ghrist was the star witness and furnished a tip which if it is followed out may locate the slayer of Moon. Ghrist was passing through the bar when the shot was fired and was sober. He helped raise Moon from the floor and later asked him who shot him. Was it the man who was with you? asked Ghrist, and Moon groaned Yes, yes. Then William Keffer of Summit mines commonly known as Rats said “Why I know that man. He is ________ and I used to work with him. He was with Moon all afternoon. Ghrist does not remember the name Keffer said but thinks it sounded like Rankin or Larkin. If Ghrist’s story is true, then the secret of the killing rests with Rats of Summit mines.

Other testimony brought out the fact that Moon and his murderer were standing in the rear of the saloon behind a big refrigerator when the shot was fired and that no one save Moon and his slayer actually witnessed the tragedy.

Bartender O’Neil explained how in the excitement that followed the shooting, the murderer escaped through the front door saying the shot was fired from the outside.

After the evidence was in Coroner Hagan said that no more witnesses would be called, that if the Westmoreland county officers wanted to interview Keffer they could do so.

Then a verdict to the effect that Moon was shot by a party unknown was signed by the jurymen: J.H. Risbeck, C.W. Patterson, L.W. Port, David Blackburn, A.W. Hood and S.K. Ree.

The Courier (Connellsville, Pennsylvania) Nov 21, 1902


Scottdale Witness Retracts What He Said at Coroner’s Inquest

Another feature of the mysterious murder of Frank Moon in the bar room of the New Scottdale House a month ago came to light Friday in a communication sent to The Daily Courier by J.B. Ghrist of Scottdale, who was a witness before Coroner Hagan at the inquest held here after the killing. On the stand Ghrist said that a man named William Keffer of Summit Mines knew Moon’s assailant and mentioned his name. The following letter was received from Ghrist by The Courier today.

‘Having been quoted in the Connellsville papers as saying that William Keffer of Summit Mines knew the man who shot Frank Moon in the Scottdale House on November 7, I wish to make a correction. I said that Keffer mentioned the name of the man who was with Moon on the afternoon of the shooting. Mr. Keffer informs me that he did not say the words attributed to him but that they were said by some one near him. I make this correction in justice to Mr. Keffer for I made the mistake in the excitement of the moment. I want to set Mr. Keffer right in the eyes of the public. I have apologized to him personally. I hope the community will forgive me for the mistake I made.’

The Courier (Connellsville, Pennsylvania) Dec 19, 1902

"Old Jersey Church, Turkeyfoot Baptist Cemetery," located on the south side of the Jersey Baptist Church, commonly called the "Old Cemetery." (Photo, Nov 2006, by Glen Swartz)

Cemetery image from Find-A-Grave.

An Ill-Fated Family.

William Moon is dead at Confluence. He is the last of three brothers to died within a year. Two others met violent deaths. Elmer Moon was killed in a railroad accident last September. About two months ago Frank Moon was mysteriously murdered in the Scottdale House. Hemorrhage of the lungs was the cause of William Moon’s death.

The Courier (Connellsville, Pennsylvania) Dec 30, 1902


I don’t know if they ever found Frank Moon’s killer; I couldn’t locate any news articles stating they did, so maybe he got off Scott Free.

As an aside, while looking for a picture of the Scottdale House (which I never found) I ran across three articles about it catching fire. Here they are:



Mashed to a Mummy

May 7, 2010

Steam Driven Rolling Mill

Image from the  Youngstown Steel Heritage Foundation website. They have an interesting project going on, which is explained on the website and includes pictures.  Here is their mission statement:

The mission of the Tod Engine Foundation is to preserve the steelmaking heritage of the Youngstown steelmaking district, and to preserve the history and technology of large reciprocating engines in the steel industry.   Our major project is the construction of the Tod Engine Heritage Park in Youngstown, where we have preserved the Tod Engine, a 260 ton rolling mill steam engine built in Youngstown.

Screaming Man Mummy

Mummy image from the article, The Mother of All Mysteries.

Horrible Death.

We learn by the Morgantown, (Pa.) Republican, that a young man by the name of James Weerman, by imprudently trying to jump from one side of a machine to the other, in Messrs. E.C. Ellicott & Co.’s Rolling Mill, on Cheat river, was caught between the rollers and drawn through in the twinkling of an eye, and thus was mashed to a mummy — the result of sheer carelessness on his part.

The Adams Sentinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) May 3, 1841

OPINION: The description of  “mashed like a mummy” seems odd, since mummies aren’t usually flat, but I guess they were trying to stretch a very short news item by adding all the figurative language. Sort of like how I have managed to take this very short news article and stretch it out even further! haha!