Archive for July, 2010

A Drunkard Gets Bellowed

July 21, 2010

New Cure for Drunkenness.

Police of Paris are investigating a curious case. The wife of an engineer, whose husband was in the habit of beating her when he was drunk, reached the limit of patience the other day and determined to inflict a lesson on him.

When he arrived home about two o’clock in the morning in the usual condition she conducted him into the workshop, flung him face downward, fastened him securely, and, taking the bellows from the forge, proceeded to blow him up.

The pain he suffered brought him to his senses and his cries summoned the neighbors, who released him, seriously ill with peritonitis. His wife was arrested.

Daily Iowa State Press (Iowa City, Iowa) Nov 1, 1901

New Fangled School Books

July 21, 2010

Looking Into the Future.

“I guess I might as well quit school, papa,” said the boy.

“Why, my son?”

“Oh, there ain’t any use going, except to be able to help my little boy when I grow up, and if they have changed the way of doing things since you were a boy so that you can’t help me now, it’s likely I’m just wasting my time getting ready to help my little boy.”

He got the help he wanted, but it was a good thing he didn’t hear what his father had to say about new fangled school books after he had gone to bed.

— Chicago Post.

Idaho Daily Statesman (Boise City, Idaho) Oct 28, 1898

A West Virginia Tragedy: Black Bear Devours Three Children

July 20, 2010


Bear Seizes and Devours Three Children Who Had Become Lost in the Dense Woods.

Three dead bodies — the remains of Willie, Mary and Henry Porterfield, who wandered from their home at Job, W. Va., one Sunday — were discovered Tuesday by a party of searchers who had been out in the mountains looking for the children. Near the bodies, which were found in a dense thicket, was discovered a large black bear. A shot ended its existence. The bodies of the little children, aged respectively three, five and seven, had been mutilated by the bear, which is said to be one of the largest specimens ever seen in the locality. News of their disappearance spread among the mountaineers and a large searching party of volunteers was hurriedly formed. The members spread out in all directions and covered the territory thoroughly. Sunday night the search was kept up, and Monday and Monday night, without finding the slightest trace of the missing children.

Tuesday new searchers started in, and all redoubled their efforts. Several women had volunteered their services to help find the three babes in the woods.

John Weldon, a Maryland hunter who happened to be in the neighborhood, tendered his services and made a point of examining thoroughly the thickets and spots where underbrush was most dense. In one of these secluded spots he discovered a hat, and also noticed what appeared to be evidence of a body having been dragged over the ground. Following the tracks, he and his companion saw the dead children, or what was left of them, and also saw the bear which had killed the three little ones. The killing of the bear followed instantly, and then the remains of the babies were taken up and carried to their home, where a grief-crazed mother awaited their coming.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Jun 18, 1901


Their Mangled Bodies Found on the Mountain Side in West Virginia.

The three little children of Edward P. Porterfield, of near Job, W. Va., were killed by a black bear in the mountains twelve miles southeast of that town. The bodies were found on Tuesday on the mountain side where the children apparently lost themselves before falling into the clutches of the bear.

The children left home Monday, and as they did not return, searching parties were organized to scour the country. The last seen of the little ones was when they started into the country for a few hours’ frolic to rig ramps. One searching party came upon the torn and mangled bodies half way up the mountain.

The children had been fearfully mangled by the bear. Their ribs were crushed and their flesh torn. There was some evidence that Henry Porterfield, aged seven years, the eldest of the three, had made a struggle to defend the two smaller children — Mary, aged three, and William, aged five.

After the bodies were found, John Weldon, a Maryland hunter, started on the trail of the bear, hunted him down and killed him in a hand-to-hand encounter, in which Weldon escaped without injury. Before starting out on the trail Weldon vowed to bring in the pelt of the bear, and he did. A bullet and some knife thrust settled the brute. The bear was a monster of his kind, the largest ever killed in those mountains.

The News (Frederick, Maryland) May 25, 1901

Children Eaten by Bear.

Pittsburgh, Pa., May 23. — A Job (W. Va.) special says: To be crushed to death in the embrace of a monstrous black bear and their little bodies afterward mangled and partly devoured, was the frightful fate that befell the three young children of E.P. Porterfield, a mountaineer residing about 12 miles southeast of this place. The remains were found Tuesday by a searching party which has been out since Sunday evening.

Marble Rock Journal (Marble Rock, Iowa) May 30, 1901

No Headline, first paragraph the same as above:

Job, W. VA., May 22…..

The party included John Weldon, a Maryland hunter, who, within a few minutes after the discovery of the bodies, shot and killed the bear in a neighboring thicket. The children were Mary, aged 3; Willie, aged 5, and Henry, aged 7. Shortly after noon Sunday they left home to gather flowers in a clearing near the house. Nothing more is known, but it is supposed that they wandered into the woods and, becoming lost, continued on their way until they were overtaken by the bear, three miles distant from their parents’ home. The bear feasted on all three of the bodies. The bones of the children had been crushed like straws and the flesh stripped off with teeth and claws. The party divided and began a search. Within a few minutes Weldon discovered it in a thick clump of hemlock saplings near a small stream. A single shot ended its life. It was declared to be the largest bear ever seen in this neighborhood. The bodies of the children which presented a sickening sight, were carried home in sacks. The parents of the children are almost crazed with grief, their bereavement leaving them childless.

New Oxford Item (New Oxford, Pennsylvania) May 31, 1901


Mangled Remains Found in Woods In Wyoming.*

JOB, Wyo., May 22. — The three children of E.P. Porterfield, a mountaineer residing about twelve miles southwest of this place, while gathering flowers in the woods near their home, were killed and partially devoured by a bear. The remains were found by a searching party which had been out since Sunday evening.

The bear was discovered later and killed. The children were Mary, aged three; Willie, aged five, and Henry, aged seven. The parents are almost crazed with grief, the bereavement leaving them childless.

The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska) May 23, 1901

*Not Wyoming

NOTE: Job, West Virginia is in the Monongahela National Forest North-West of Harrisonburg, West Virginia.


Bear Images: cropped from postcards on

The Old Democratic Times and the Present

July 19, 2010

First Bank of United States (Image from

The readers may see what the people of the United States had to suffer after the war of 1812, we quote the following from Benton‘s “Thirty Years in the United States Senate.” He says:

Senator Thomas H. Benton

The years of 1819 and 1820 were a period of gloom and agony. No money, either gold or silver; no paper convertible into specie; no measure or standard of value left remaining. The local banks (all but those of New England) after a brief resumption of specie payments, again sank into a state of suspension. The Bank of the United States, created as a remedy for all these evils, now at the head of evil, prostrate and helpless, with no power left but that of suing its debtors and selling their property, and purchasing for itself at its own nominal price. No price for property or produce; no sale but those of the Sheriff and the Marshal; no purchasers at the execution-sales but the creditor, or some hoarder of money; no employment for industry; no demand for labor; no sale for the products of the farm; no sound of the hammer, but that of the auctioneer, knocking down property. Stop laws, property laws, replevin laws, the intervention of the legislature between the creditor and the debtor — this was the business of legislation in three-fourths of the States of the Union — of all south and west of New England. No medium of exchange, even, but little bits of foul paper, marked so many cents, and signed by some tradesman, barber, or inn-keeper; exchanges deranged to the extent of fifty or one hundred per cent. Distress the universal cry of the people; relief, the universal demand, thundered at the door of all Legislatures, State and Federal.

Now read the above and then mark the comparison between those good old Democratic times and the present. How do you like the contrast?

The Coshocton Age (Coshocton, Ohio) Nov 20, 1874

Philly Boy Kills for Candy

July 19, 2010

A Boy Murderer

PHILADELPHIA, March 11, 1878.

A very remarkable crime was committed in this city this evening. A boy of twelve years, with a precocious fiendishness which could scarcely be equalled by Jesse Pomeroy himself deliberately and in cold blood shot down and instantly killed a young playmate and companion of his own age. The affair has created the greatest excitement in the neighborhood in which it occurred, and hundreds of volunteers are helping the police to capture the youthful assassin, who cannot long evade arrest. The circumstances of the crime, as told by the young lads who witnessed it, seem to be as follows:

Robert McAdams, aged 12 years, whose parents live on a small street called Cambria street, near Lehigh avenue, was playing with six or eight other boys on Broad street, near the avenue, shortly after six this evening. McAdams had a piece of candy, which he was munching, when one of his playmates, Charles Parkman, aged 12 years, demanded a piece of the candy. McAdams refused. Thereupon Parkman said that if he did not give him some he would shoot him. McAdams still refused, and laughed, not dreaming apparently that Parkman was earnest in his threat.

Parkman then, without further warning, deliberately drew from his pocket a small, cheap revolver, and advancing close to his little companion, placed the muzzle near his forehead and fired. The boy dropped to the pavement and died almost instantly, with a bullet in his brain. The young assassin dropped his pistol and fled as his victim expired, the youthful witnesses having been too nearly paralyzed with surprise and fear to interfere.

Parkman, the boy murderer, has not yet been captured, but he probably will be before morning. He is said to have a very bad reputation in the neighborhood and to be generally regarded as a bad boy. His parents are neighbors of the McAdams people, and both families are respectable people in humble circumstances.

The Daily Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Mar 15, 1878

The Little Joker for the Benefit of the Verdant

July 17, 2010

The “Little Joker.”

EDS. NEWS — When I was more a juvenile than I now am, I occasionally played what was called seven up. In that game the queen ranked the jack, the king captured the queen, and the ace was the boss of the concern.

I was then told that the cards represented the potentates of the world — the jack taking the place of the premier, the queen and king representing the monarchs of that name, and the ace stood forth for His Holiness the Pope — all of which then seemed, and still seems, plausible.

But, since the days of Richelieu, Gortschakoff and Bismarck, the game of euchre has been invented, in which the gentleman in boots not only has the impudence of pretending to be superior to his mistress and his master, but can bid defiance to the descendant of St. Peter. I very seldom play at cards, and know just enough about euchre to get beat and pay for the cigars.
So much for preliminaries.

Coming down from Houston on the boat the other night, after the usual splendid supper, it being suggested that the nightmare, or sea-horse, or sea-serpent, or some other varmint might visit us if we went to bed on “an unbounded stomach,” a la Cardinal Woolsey, it was proposed that we have a game at euchre.

Like truthful James, “in the scene that ensued I did not take a hand,” but noticed that they played with one card white on its face, in addition to the old usual number, and that this card was not only superior to queen, king, ace and both bowers, but was always trump.

The called it the JOKER. Upon inquiry I was told that this variation of the old game was invented during the time Mr. Lincoln was President of the United States, and was called the Joker to signify that a government based upon republican and democratic principles was superior to any one administered by pope, priest, potentate or any other power.

Supposing that some of your readers, and perhaps yourself, may be as verdant as myself, I write for their and your benefit.


Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Nov 25, 1874

Some useful information about playing cards from SNOPES, of all places. It has a brief, easy to follow rundown.

Turtle Trouble

July 16, 2010


Causes Asphyxiation of Poultry and Pigs by Biting a Gas Pipe

South Norwalk, Conn., July 29. — A snapping turtle weighing forty pounds cost the lives of 100 chickens and three pigs in Herman Jacobs’ barn at Roton Point. Incidentally two of Jacobs’ farmhands were made ill by inhaling illuminating gas.

After a hard fight Jacobs captured the turtle in a swamp a few days ago. He chained it to a stake in his back yard and started to fatten it, intending to invite his friends to a turtle supper.

The turtle got loose yesterday and crawled into the model barn, which contains a gas plant. Without the slightest apparent inconvenience to itself the turtle snapped off a gas pipe.

The gas, escaping in large quantities, soon filled the barn. In the barn are a hennery and piggery; the unfortunate chickens and pigs were asphyxiated quickly; the farm hands, looking for the leak, inhaled much gas.

Jacobs will continue to fatten the turtle and finally will serve it to his friends if only for vengeance sake.

Portsmouth Herald (Portsmouth, New Hampshire) Jul 29, 1910


New Jersey Bather Recaptures Pet That Wandered Away Several Years Ago.

Upper Montville, N.J. — A snapping turtle that Hilliard Throckmorton had lost 22 years ago returned to him when he was bathing in Green pond. He long had mourned his loss, but he mourned its return still more.

Throckmorton was having his daily swim when suddenly a toe of his left foot was caught and held. He tried to shake off his new attachment, but it refused to let go. He swam to the shore, almost fainting from pain and exertion.

A cold chisel and a poker were necessary to make the snapper let go. Then the following inscription was found carved on the shell: “H.T., 1888.”

“Why,” gasped Throckmorton, “I made that on a pet turtle when I was fifteen years old.”

The Humeston New Era (Humeston, Iowa) Aug 3, 1910

Sally Poll the Clothespin Doll

July 16, 2010

The Nicest One.

I’ve got the dearest dolly,
and her name is Sally Poll.
She used to be a clothespin
‘Fore she got to be a doll.

Aunt Maggie made her for me
When I had the whooping cough,
And she marked her face with charcoal,
But it’s almost all come off.

Her dress is only gingham,
And she hasn’t any hair.
She ain’t a truly beauty,
But I tell her not to care.

For I’ve got a great big family
Of dollies, large and small,
And Sally Polly Clothespin is
The nicest doll of all.

— Gladys Hyatt in American Agriculturist.

Cambridge City Tribune (Cambridge City, Indiana) Dec 23, 1897


Two stately little ladies these, as ever you have known,
With petticoats so very stiff that they can stand alone.
Each has a smiling face upon her wooden head,
A dainty cap adoring each, with frills, and ribbon red.
Their gown, all made of scarlet silk, are beautiful to see;
Aunt Lou dressed them for Marjorie, when she was only three.
At night, the ladies are undressed, and each is then arrayed
In nightgown white, with cap and cape, and on the pillow laid.
When Marjorie jumps into bed, she takes them in her arms,
And hugs them tight to keep them safe from the dark’s alarms.
On birthdays, and at Christmas time, all kinds of dolls she gets;
But these, her little clothespin dolls, are still her dearest pets.

Title: Our Young People
Authors: St. John’s Institute for Deaf-Mutes, St. John’s School for the Deaf
Publisher: Young People Co., 1916
(Google book LINK)

The Our Canadian Girl website has easy-to-follow instructions (with pictures) for making a clothespin doll.

These instructions came from a magazine page posted by blueprairie on Flickr.

The pattern pieces:

Rustler Round-up

July 15, 2010

Springview Courthouse (Image from

On Monday, I posted about a woman who was raped and lynched by cattle rustlers from this same town, in this same time frame. I never found any articles about them catching and trying anyone for those heinous crimes. I think it is entirely possible that these men or some of their associates could have been responsible, but, if so, were never charged or tried. ( Link to the post.)


Forced to Surrender to Keya Paha Vigilantes.


Men Who Were Outspoken Against the Lynching of Barrett Scott Express the Hope That the Prisoners Will Be Lynched — One Hundred Stolen Cattle Were Found In Their Possession.

BUTTE, Neb., July 16. — The vigilantes made their raid on the rustlers’ camp Sunday. They found the rustlers in camp in the stockade at Fort Randall ready to protect their stolen property. The fort was quickly surrounded and the men, realizing the futility of resistance, surrendered to the vigilantes. They were quickly disarmed, bound hand and foot and placed on their horse and started west, presumably for Keya Paha county.

The men captured are Louis Zoadland, a resident of Spencer, Neb.; S.C. Clark, C.S. Murphy and C.H. Jackson, who live west of Springview.

Nearly 100 head of cattle were found, and over 40 head were identified by R. Austager, a resident living 16 miles west of Springview, as his property.

Charles White and his children, who were with the rustling party, were left in charge of the balance of the cattle until further investigation could be made, but as soon as the vigilantes left they took the stock and followed the men, driving the cattle before them.

N. Keeler of Spencer, one of the men suspected, could not be found, but a number of the regulators stayed behind to look him up, as well as some other parties who are thought to be connected with the stealing.

The vigilantes who conducted the captured men back to Keya Paha county are N. Taylor, captain; Fred Shattuck, William Charmas, John Wright, R. Austager, Mark Harvey, Stillman Lewis, Jack Woods and Carl Chiede. Young Murphy, one of the captured men, became frightened and told all he knew, implicating several parties. One of Clark’s daughters, a girl of 18 years, is engaged to Zoadland and was to be married in a few days, and when informed that Zoadland was a married man and had several children she was greatly distressed.

But few here think the rustlers reached Spring View, as the vigilantes are old ranchers and seldom bring a rustler back when they have a good chance to make away with him. Others believe that because of the publicity given to the affair the men in charge will not dare to make away with them, but will turn them over to the authorities at Spring View, when other parties will take them from the officers, and they will likely share the usual fate of rustlers.

Deputy United States Marshal Cogle of Springview arrived in town in search of the stolen cattle, but came too late to get them. One peculiar circumstance in this connection is the change of sentiment noticed in Butte since the report of the stealing. Men who were outspoken against the Holt county vigilantes during the Scott trial were heard to express the hope that the men captured would by hung by the vigilantes.

The Evening News (Lincoln, Nebraska) Jul 16, 1895

Springview (Image from


Cattle Thieves Thought to Have Been Lynched.


Captured by Nebraska Vigilants and May Have Been Strung Up to Save the County the Expense of a Trial.

Butte, Neb., July 16. — There is a general belief here that the rustlers captured by the vigilantes Sunday have been lynched. The vigilantes found the rustlers in camp in the stockade at Fair, prepared to protect their stolen property. The fort was quickly surrounded and the men, realizing the futility of resistance, surrendered to the vigilantes. They were quickly disarmed, bound hand and foot, and placed on their horses and started west, presumably for Keya Paha county. The men captured were: Louis Zouadland, a resident of Spencer, Neb.; S.C. Clark, C.S. Murphy, and C.H. Jackson, who lived west of Spring View.

Nearly 100 head of cattle were found.

But few here think the rustlers reached Spring View, as the vigilantes are old ranchers and seldom bring a rustler back when they have a good chance to make away with him. Others believe that because of the publicity given to the affair the men in charge will not dare to make away with them, but will turn them over to the authorities at Spring View, when other parties will take them from the officers, and they will likely share the usual fate of rustlers.

Davenport Daily Tribune (Davenport, Iowa) Jul 17, 1895

“Rustlers” Plead Guilty.

Omaha, Neb., July 19. — A special from Springview, Neb., says J. Voegel, S.T. Clark and C.H. Jackson pleaded guilty to cattle stealing and will go before the District court at Bassett Monday and receive their sentences. This will make six rustlers Keya Paha county has sent to Lincoln in four months.

Davenport Daily Tribune ( Davenport, Iowa) Jul 20, 1895

Fort Randall (#14)

Convicts Who Claim They Were Hurried Into the Pen Under Threats and False Pretenses.

Convicts Want Liberty.

Three penitentiary convicts, Salem Clark, Charles H. Jackson and Lewis Vogland, who are serving a six-year sentence for cattle stealing, are making an effort to regain their liberty through the medium of a writ of habeas corpus. The petition for a writ was filed in the supreme court yesterday afternoon by Judge J.H. Broady of this city. The petitioners assert that they pleaded guilty to Judge Kinkaid out of court in order to avoid being lynched and that the judge then upon sentenced them to a term of six years imprisonment. They claim that they were captured in South Dakota in March, 1895, by a band of vigilantes and brought to Springview. They were given a preliminary hearing and were intimidated by threats of mob violence into pleading guilty to stealing thirty-two head of cattle. They were then taken to Bassett, Rock county, and although no court was in session Judge Kinkaid imposed sentence upon them. The claim is made that these proceedings were all contrary to law and that the defendants are being unlawfully deprived of their liberty. The court made the writ returnable on March 2.

The Evening News (Lincoln, Nebraska) Feb 19, 1896


Men Who Had Plead Guilty Get Out On Habeas Corpus.

LINCOLN, Neb., April 11. — In the supreme court in re the application of Louis Vogeland, Salem T. Clark and Charles H. Jackson for a writ of habeas corpus, the writ was granted and the prisoners ordered discharged. This case excited considerable interest at the time application for the writ was made, and the facts brought to light. Then men have been in the penitentiary for several months, having pleaded guilty of cattle stealing in Keya Paha county, in January, 1895.

They claimed that they had been arrested in South Dakota without a warrant by a Nebraska officer, and brought down to the county judge of Keya Paha county and by him committed to await a hearing at the succeeding term of the district court of that county to be held at Springview, Neb. Subsequently they were brought before Judge Kincaid, sitting in chambers and advised by some one to plead guilty to cattle stealing. This, they claimed in their application was under duress, since a mob of vigilantes were standing outside the court to hang them if they did not. They, however, did so, and Judge Kincaid sentenced them to five and six years in the penitentiary.

The supreme court, in the syllabus, holds that “under the provisions of chapter CVIII of the Laws of Nebraska, passed 1885, the requirements that all informations shall be filed during the term of the court having jurisdiction of the offenses specified therein, is mandatory, and an information upon which the accused is to be tried for felony is void if filed in vacation.”

The prisoners were released, but immediately taken into custody again. They are likely to be taken back for a new trial.

Eau Claire Leader (Eau Claire, Wisconsin) Apr 12, 1896

The Knittin’ Needle and the Two Yolked Egg

July 14, 2010

An Old Story Retold.

Chicago News.

“Bill wuz old Jedge Hiram Cadwell’s oldest boy — you recollect the Cadwells — used to live on the toll road near the cemetery. Old Jedge Cadwell wuz about ez shif’less a man ez I ever see, but Bill had a great bizness head — calc’late he must hev inherited it from his mother, who come from the finest stock in Hampshire county. when he wuz a boy Bill wuz always tradin’ an’ swoppin’, an’ I s’pose he started out in life with more jackknives than’d stock a store. An’ Bill preserved in manhood all them talents which he exhibited in youth. Whenever you met a man ‘at looked ez if he’d been run through a sieve you’d feel mighty safe in bettin’ that he’d been havin’ business dealins with Bill Cadwell.

“One day Bill came into Eastman’s store an’ allowed as how he’d be powerful glad to git a knittin’ needle — his wife wanted one, he said.

“‘Mr. Cadwell,’ sez Eastman, ‘a knittin’ needle will cost you jest one cent.’

“Bill looked kind uv surprised like, an’ sez, ‘Knittin’ needles must hev gone up sence I come in for one last winter.’

“‘Wall,’ sez Eastman, ‘after payin’ freight an’ one thing an’ another I can’t afford to let knittin’ needles go for less ‘n a cent apiece.’

“Bill didn’t say anything for a minnit or two, but after lookin’ out uv the door at the scenery he turnt round an’ sez: — ‘Look here, Mr. Eastman, I tell you what I’ll do; I’ll trade you an egg for a knittin’ needle.’

“Eastman shook his head. ‘Why not?’ sez Bill. ‘You don’t suppose ‘at a darned old knittin’ needle is worth as much ez an egg, do ye?’

“‘I never heerd uv anybody payin’ freight on hens,’ sez Eastman; he wuz the most sarcastic cuss in the township, Eastman was.

“‘No, nor I never heerd uv feedin’ knittin’ needles,’ sez Bill. ‘It don’t cost nothin’ to raise knittin’ needles.’

“Well, Bill an’ Eastman argued an’ argued for more’n an hour about hens an’ knittin’ needles an’ things, until at last Eastman give in an’ sez” — ‘Well, I s’pose I might jest ez well swop ez not, although I hate to let anybody get the advantage uv me.’ so Eastman give Bill the knittin’ needle and Bill give Eastman the egg.

“But when Bill got to the door he turned round an’ come back again an’ sez: — ‘Mr. Eastman, isn’t it the custom for you to treat when you’ve settled with a customer? You an’ me hev had our dispute, but we’ve come to a settlement and an understandin’. Seems to me it would be the handsome thing for you to treat.’

“Eastman didn’t see it in just that light, but Bill hung on so an’ wuz so concillatin’ that finally Eastman handed out a tumbler an’ the bottle o’ Medford rum.

“‘I don’t want to seem particular,’ sez Bill, pourin’ out half a tumber full uv the liquor, ‘but I like to take my rum with an egg in it.’

“Now, this came pretty near breakin’ Eastman’s heart. He hed laid the egg on a shelf  behind the counter, an’ he reached for it, an’ handed it to Bill, sayin’, ‘Wall, I’m in for it, an’ there’s no use uv kickin’.’

“Bill broke the egg into the rum, an’ lo an’ behold, it was a double yolk egg! Gosh Bill was excited.

“‘Mr. Eastman,’ sez he, ‘you’ve been a takin’ an advantage over me.’

“‘How so?’ asked Eastman.

“‘Why, this egg has two yolks.’

“‘What uv that?’ sez Eastman.

“‘Well, simply this,’ sez Bill, ‘that if you’re inclined to do the fair thing you’ll hand me over another knittin’ needle.'”

The Landmark (Statesville, North Carolina) Nov 8, 1888