Archive for February, 2011

Paper Dolls for Valentine’s Day

February 13, 2011

This paper doll is VALERIE, drawn by Helen Mallard, age 14. [click to enlarge]

Oakland Tribune – Feb 9, 1930

This is Martha, an old-fashioned Valentine maid, drawn by Edythe Klubauer, age 15. It includes a Valentine Masquerade Costume and an Afternoon Valentine Gown.

Oakland Tribune – Feb 16, 1930

In the same Aunt Elsie section of the paper on the 16th, was this poem:


Old St. Valentine is here,
With his signs of happy cheer;
Valentines with colors bright,
Lacy frills so fine and light;
Cupid’s darting here and there,
Little doves so white and fair,
Make a valentine complete,
With an envelope so neat.

By Winifred Lewis, age 12

What are We Coming to?

February 13, 2011

{The following is the PRIZE POEM read at the County Fair. Composed by Mrs. E.S. KELLOGG, Janesville.}



Hark! whence that sound of chariot wheels,
Rumbling along like muttering peals
Of distant thunder?

Nearer and nearer the echo steals,
Earth, with the shock, like a drunkard reals,
As though the Book with the seven seals
Were rent asunder.

‘Tis the march of mind with the world in tow;
Through tickets for all — the high and the low,
Onward and upward, away we go
In wild commotion,

As when some sudden volcanic throe
Hurls burning rocks on the plains below
And rivers of lava quench their flow
In th’ boiling ocean.

No manual force can hold her back;
No moral suasion her speed can slack;
For ourself, alone, we could stand the rack
With stern endurance.

But oh! if some of the gear should crack,
and throw the engine off from the track,
Turning all upside down — alack,
Who’d pay the insurance?

‘Twill be in vain, when our race is run,
To wish we had still kept plodding on
Steady, sure, and slow,

As in the days when each duteous son
Finished the work his father begun;
And the daughters wove and carded and spun,
Just as their dear old mothers had done
Fifty years ago.

Each generation (in their own eyes),
As time progresses, become more wise;
(Mere self-deceivings,)

And thus the heir, when the father dies,
Begins to re-model, re-build, revise,
Till very soon he learns to despise
The old man’s leavings.

Plotting and planning, with all his might
He works away from morning to night,
At new inventions.

The precious models are locked from sight
Until he obtains a patent right;
Then, they are ushered into light
With great pretensions.

They chain the lightning, and harness steam;
“The one hoss shay” and the old ox team
In quiet slumber

Have passed away, like a poet’s dream;
And thus, in turn, what now we deem
Perfection’s hight, will float down stream
Like useless lumber.

Just take a peep at a County Fair,
You’ll find a medley collected ahere,
In proud array, sir.

Beasts of the field and birds of the air,
Fruits of the earth, and specimens rare
Of Yankee invention, everywhere;
But if you are verdant, friend, take care!
You may get shaved before you’re aware,
Without a razor.

An Agricultural show, they call
The exhibition at Floral Hall;
Take a turn around —

Examine those pictures upon the wall;
This milliner’s shop, that jeweler’s stall;
And do you suppose they raised them all
By tilling the ground?

Another improvement of the day —
The Ladies’ Equestrian Display;
Fearless and free they gallop away
Cheered by the million.

What would a modern Amazon say
To yielding the reins of her gallant grey,
And mounting behind a Cavalier gay,
On grand-mother’s pillion?

A flourish of trumpets from the band,
The crowd are assembling before the stand
To hear the address.

The speech abounds in sentiments grand —
“We live in a favored age and land;
Art, Science and Labor, hand in hand,
Are circling the earth with a three-fold band;
Nations are bowing to our command,
And Young America’s potent wand
The world will bless.”

‘Mid loud applause the speaker retires,
But, Phoenix like, from his smouldering fires,
Lo, a Poet ascends!

The Orator’s theme his muse inspires,
Rhyme piles on rhyme while the crowd admires,
And the critic’s brow, like spiral wires
Contracts or expands as the case requires,
But never unbends.

What though he pronounce the measure lame,
The subject trite, and the language tame,
The One Idea is ever the same —
Our Country’s Glory.

The Union is one stupendous frame;
Each state a pillar supporting the same;
Inscribed all over with honor and fame,
And none can boast a prouder name
Than Old Rock County, whose highest claim
Winds up the story.

Then let the Orator’s thoughts profound,
From Mount Parnassus again resound
In echoing verse.

But woe to the Muse! while riding around,
Unruly Pegassus starts off with a bound,
Throwing her ladyship flat on the ground;
But, nevertheless, the Poet gets crowned,
And the throng disperse.

Faster and faster the startled world,
Like Pelion from Olympus hurled,
Rushes through the air;

And Freedom’s car with banners unfurled,
Is over the neck of tyranny whirled;
While brooding Fear, in a corner curled,
Cries out in despair,

What are we coming to?

Janesville Daily Gazette (Janesville, Wisconsin) Sep 27, 1859


NEW MUSIC. — We have received from the author, Mr. T. Martin Towne, of this city, two pieces of music just published — one entitled “Blue Eyed Jennie; or our Household Treasure,”” and the other, “O, Touch Not My Sister’s Picture; or the Confession of a Rebel Prisoner.” Both are songs with choruses. The words are also of home production; those to the first named piece are by Mrs. C.M. Stowe and to the other by Mrs. E.S. Kellogg, and are creditable to the authors. The music is very pretty — particularly “Blue Eyes Jennie” — and ought to meet with large sale.

Janesville Daily Gazette – Jan 21, 1864

NOTE: I believe Mrs. E.S. Kellogg was Electa S. Kellogg (Electa Stratton Washburn,) wife of Seth H. Kellogg, a fruit grower and nurseryman. She wrote the lyrics to several songs that were put to music by Mr. Towne. The link on his name goes to The Music of Thomas Martin Towne webpage, which has several of the songs by Mrs. Kellogg. There are music files as well as lyric files for the songs listed on the website.

Abe Lincoln, Remembered

February 12, 2011

Happy Birthday, Mr. Lincoln!

An Abe Lincoln Story.

Senator Mills has a new story about Lincoln. It was told to him by a son of John L. Helm of Kentucky, who lives in Corsicana.

“Old John L. Helm,” said the senator, “was a famous character in Kentucky. He was, if I remember rightly, a governor of the state, but at any rate his position was a most prominent one. When the civil war came on, Helm was a rabid secessionist. He could not praise the south too highly, and could not heap enough abuse upon the north. He was too old to go into the war with is sons, and remained at home, doing all he could to help the confederate cause and harass the Yankees who invaded the state. Finally he became so obstreperous that the federal general who was in command near Helm’s home put him in prison. The old man’s age, the high position which he occupied in the state, his wide connection, and, especially his inability to do any actual harm, were all pleaded in his extenuation and he was released.

Instead of profiting by the warning, the old man became more persistent than ever in his course. Once more he was clapped into jail. This happened two or three times, and finally, while he was still locked up, the matter was brought to the attention of the federal authorities. Even President Lincoln was appealed to, and asked to commit the ardent southerner to an indefinite confinement in order that he might be curbed.

“Lincoln listened to the statement of the case with more than usual interest. Then he leaned back and began to speak with a smile upon his face. “You are talking about old man John Helm? Well, did you know that I used to live, when I was a boy, in Helm’s town. He was kind to me. He seemed to like me as a boy, and he never lost an opportunity to help me. He seemed to think,” said Lincoln, with another of his almost pathetic smiles, “that I would probably make something of a man. Why, when I went out to Illinois, poor and unknown, that man gave me the money to pay my way and keep me until I got a start. John Helm? O, yes, I know him And I know what I owe to him. I think I can fix his case.”

“And then,” said Senator Mills, “Lincoln went to a desk and wrote a few words. The bit of writing is treasured in the Helm household to this day. This is what the president wrote:

“I hereby pardon John L. Helm of Kentucky for all that he has ever done against the United States, and all that he ever will do.


The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska) Dec 20, 1897


This man, whose homely face you look upon,
Was one of Nature’s masterful great men;
Born with strong arms, that unfought battles won;
Direct of speech and cunning with pen.

Chosen for large designs, he had the art
Of winning with his humor, and he went
Straight to his mark, which was the human heart.
Wise, too, for what he could not break he bent.

Upon his back a more than Atlas load,
The burden of the commonwealth was laid;
He stooped and rose up to it, though the road
Shot suddenly downward, not a whit dismayed.

Hold, warriors, counselors, kings! — All now give place
To this dear benefactor of the race.


The News (Frederick, Maryland) Apr 10, 1886

Image from the Haunted Hudson Valley website.


A writer in the Albany [Evening Times] relates a conversation with a superstitious night watchman on the New York Central Railroad. Said the watchman: “I believe in spirits and ghosts. I know such things exist. If you will come up in April I will convince you.” He then told of the phantom train that every year comes up the road with the body of Abraham Lincoln. Regularly in the month of April, about midnight, the air on the track becomes very keen and cutting. On either side it is warm and still. Every watchman when he feels this air steps off the track and sits down to watch.

Soon after the pilot engine, with long black streamers, and a band with black instruments, playing dirges, grinning skeletons sitting all about, will pass up noiselessly, and the very air grows black. If it is moonlight, clouds always come over the moon, and the music seems to linger, as if frozen with horror. A few moments after and the phantom train glides by. Flags and streamers hang about. The track ahead seems covered with a black carpet, and the wheels are draped with the same. The coffin of the murdered Lincoln is seen lying on the center car, and all about it in the air and the train behind are vast numbers of blue-coated men, others leaning on them. It seems then, that all the vast armies of men who died during the war are escorting the phantom train of the President.

The wind, if blowing, dies away at once, and over all the solemn air a solemn hush, almost stifling prevails. It a train were passing, its noise would be drowned in the silence, and the phantom train would ride over it. Clocks and watches always stop, and when looked at are found to be from five to eight minutes behind. Everywhere on the road, about the 27th of April, the time of the watches and trains is found suddenly behind. This, said the leading watchman, was from the passage of the phantom train.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Dec 21, 1872

Watertown Boys Head For California

February 11, 2011

“We’re bound for Californy,
Our pockets for to fill!”

Yesterday morning seven of our own citizens and two of neighboring towns, took up their line of march for California. They are to proceed by wagon to Galena, thence by steamboat to St. Louis and Independence, and thence as “circumstances” may dictate to the “diggings.” Their names are —

Stephen Stimpson,       Louis Meyer,
Henry Waldron,        James Stevens,
Martin P. Glines,         Luke Colburn,
Amos Steck,               Ole Hanson.
Nelson Whitney,

Among this list will be recognized some of our oldest and most respectable citizens. They leave in high spirits, hardly realizing, we fear, the hardships and privations before them. While we regret to part with them, we cannot but hope that their most extravagant expectations may be fully realized, and that within two years from this time, we may hail the return of each, with “all their pockets” well filled with the precious metal.

They intend celebrating the 4th of July at the South Pass, making those wild and distant hills and valleys re-echo, for the first time, the songs and the sentiments of liberty.

Watertown has contributed liberally to the mighty stream of emigration that is setting toward California. In addition to those given above, five others have left within a few weeks past, viz:

Francis McCluskey,        Henry Helman,
Philip Johnson,        Bernard Crangle.
Darius Gibbs,

There are others here who have caught the fever, and we should not wonder if they, too, should soon be “carried off.”

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Apr 11, 1849

Image of the Pony Express Route – click to enlarge – Find the Forts etc. mentioned by the Watertown Boys.

A Californian’s Epistle.

[Correspondence of the Watertown Chronicle]

May 10, 1849.}

FRIEND H. — According to your request, I drop you a hasty line, informing you of the whereabouts and success of the Watertown boys. We all reached St. Louis at dark on Monday evening, April 16th. I left the boys there and proceeded on my way up the Missouri river to this point. After leaving St. Louis the third day of our passage, a poston rod broke, and detained up six days. We reached St. Joseph on Monday the 30th of April, where I found all the Watertown boys except my mess, they having passed up the river while we were lying to below for repairs. They were all in fine spirits, and said the Elephant had not yet been discovered. Thursday or Friday following they intended to leave for the plains, crossing the river at Fort Kearney. But I had to leave them and find my mess. I reached here May 3d and found Mack and Phil in the tallest kind of clover, they having reached here two weeks before, and were “camped out” and going through the regular routine of camp duty in order to get “broke in” before leaving for the plains. They had a very hard time while on their way — all bridges through the country where they traveled were gone, the streams were high, and the water very cold. But they were in good health and spirits, and bound to go-ahead. They have seen harder times than they will again see on their route to California, at least so the old guides tell us.

The hardships and dangers of the trip have been greatly magnified by those who know nothing about it. We are told that the road for 500 or 600 miles on this end of the route is of the best description. There is very little danger to be apprehended from the Indians, if a vigilant watch is kept up. It is impossible to tell how many emigrants are intending to cross the plains this season. But from what I have seen and heard others say, I should think 15,000 to be a high estimate. Of these some 3,000 are Mormons destined for the Salt Lake. A few teams have already crossed the river and are on their way, but it is yet full early, on account of the grass, as it is not much grown, the spring having been backward. Our company are now ferrying some of their wagons and teams over, and on Saturday, I think, our team will cross, when we take up our march over the plains.

But this California life is a great one shirt and pants, hat and boots, knife and pistol — them’s your rig. No coat, no vest, no neck handkerchief, no suspenders, a belt round your waist — haven’t shaved for a month, eat like a trooper, sleep like a brick, don’t care a snap for any body, no body cares a fig for you. That is what you may call independence.

There is generally a very good feeling existing among the Californians, but now and then they have a brush among themselves. I hear this morning of a company who crossed at a point about 20 miles above this, after proceeding 15 miles on their way, fell out and had a regular fist-fight. Some of them were sadly bruised, and part of the company broke up, and turned back for home. The reason of this is, that a parcel of wagons combine and form a company, and before forming, the parties may have been acquainted for but two or three days, and they soon disagree. If possible, companies should be formed of teams who are from the same state or section of country. There are several teams from Dodge county in our company. Hillyer of Wapun and his company are here, and a man from Rubicon arrived here last night. I think his name is McCune. I have had no opportunity of seeing him. P.C. and B. Crangle were at St. Joseph. Thompson and boys of Waterloo will cross the river 20 miles above here. Fitzgerald of the same place, formerly of Johnson’s Creek, is in our company. Ingersoll, who left Watertown some time before we did, we saw in Galena on his way to California. These are all I can now think of who you may know, that are in this section. When an opportunity offers I shall write you again, which will be at Salt Lake probably.

Yours, &c.,

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) May 30, 1849

Fort Laramie image from the Wyoming Photographs website.

Watertown Californians.

During the past week, letters have been received in this village from Messrs. GILMAN, STIMPSON, STECK and GLINES, dated June 19th, at Fort Laramie, the last fort they will pass before reaching California. These letters were more or less blackened and charred by fire, having been recovered, according to a printed endorsement of the Postmaster at St. Louis, “from the wreck of the steamer Algoma, burned at the wharf at St. Louis July 29th — said boat having a large California mail, a large portion of which was entirely consumed.”

From the letter of Mr. GLINES we learn that the Watertown boys still remain in good health and most of them in good spirits, and that their oxen are all in “better heart than when they started from St. Jo.” But other emigrants had been less fortunate, “You cannot imagine,” says Mr. G., “the suffering and distress on this road. Men, women, children and teams are giving out and dying every day. The road is lined with dead oxen and mules.”

For 75 or 80 miles before reaching Fort Laramie, Mr. G. says the roads were “very heavy and sandy, water scarce and bad, and no whisky!” He concludes his letter by saying: “I would never advise any one to take this route for California.”

Judging from the rate at which the company have traveled since leaving Fort Kearney, they will probably reach the ‘diggings,’ if no misfortune befals them, early in September. But the worst part of the route is yet before them, if we have anything like a correct knowledge of the country. The desert portions of it have still to be passed. — Heavy wheeling and scarcity of water, food and fuel, are in reserve for the company. — But stout nerves and a determined spirit can triumph over all these; and the next intelligence we receive from our “boys,” will doubtless be to the effect that they are “feeding in tall clover,” with both pockets rapidly filling with “the rock.”

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Aug 15, 1849

Image from the Fine Books & Collections website.

From California.

We have received from a friend at San Francisco, the Alta California of Aug 2d. It contains the very latest news that has been received in the states, from that point of attraction. We give below a bird’s-eye view of its contents:

Seventeen of the twenty columns of the paper, are devoted to the trial of the persons concerned in the riot mentioned in our last issue. Then follows half a column of placer intelligence, in which new and extensive discoveries of the precious metal are given. Next, a table of immigration during the month of July, the total number being 3,614, of whom 49 were females, and about 3,000 Americans. Next, an account of the arrival of the pioneer overland companies, with news of 5,000 or 6,000 wagons having nearly reached Pleasant Valley. [We hope the Watertown boys may be of the crowd.] — Then, an account of new gold discoveries on Trinity river, 500 miles above San Francisco; the announcement that the dedication of the new Baptist church, “on Washington street,”  will take place the following Sabbath; a journal of the arrival and departure of vessels, as well as a list of the vessels in port; winding up with the San Francisco Price Current for July. We quote the prices of a few articles: Flour $12,00a13,00, Oregon corn 1,50a2,00, mess pork, new, 18,00a22,00, old 14,00a16,00, Am. cheese 37 1/2a42c., Am. butter 75a80, sugar 9a12 1/2, coffee 5 1/2a8 1/2, young hyson tea 27 1/2a45, brandy per gallon 1,00a2,00, gin 1,00a1,10, champagne per doz. 15,00a18,00, whisky per gallon 60a1,00, am. brogans 1.23a1,35, pine lumber 300a350 per M., house frames 1,200a2,500.

A little paragraph at the bottom of a column, states, that “the average passage of vessels which have reached San Francisco from the various Atlantic ports, is 163 days.”

The Alta California is printed on very yellow paper — just for fashion’s sake, we suppose!

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin)Sep 26, 1849

Fort Bridger, Wyoming – 1873 from the Wyoming Photographs website.


Our townsman, ROBERT CRANGLE, has just received a letter from his two brothers, dated at Fort Bridges[r], July 1st. They were in good health, and had no fears of being able to get through. They were about 100 miles from the Mormon city, and 800 from the diggings. They estimate the number of teams in advance of them at 400, and in read at 1200. Of the latter, they think many will not be able to get through, owing to the scarcity of feed.

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Oct 3, 1849

The Great Salt Lake Valley

From Salt Lake.

[Correspondence of the Watertown Chronicle.]

July 12, 1849.}

FRIEND H. — When I wrote you last, our train did not expect to take the route to this place, and I placed a letter in the hands of a gentleman who was packing through, and intended to go by the way of the city. When we arrived at the junction of the Fort Hall and Salt Lake trails, our company had not decided which route should be taken, and after debating half an hour on the subject, a part took the Fort Hall road, the remainder taking the road to this place.

It is not known to emigrants that there is a waggon trail from Salt Lake to the gold region, nor were our company aware of it until we were within 80 miles of the lake and very few teams take this route, and those who take it do so with the intention of exchanging their oxen and wagons for pack mules; but we are told that there is a good road from here to Sutter’s Fort, and plenty of grass and water, the distance being about 850 miles through — 600 miles of the road of the best description, when we reach the California mountains, the road over these being hilly and rough for a portion of the distance. We again strike the great trail by Fort Hall 180 or 190 miles from this place.

We reached this place yesterday, at noon, and shall leave Saturday or Monday morning. The distance traveled is 1049 miles, over a very good road, with the exception of the last 40 or 50 miles, where we had to climb two high mountains, both the ascent and descent being very steep and rocky, and I think, rather harder than your Rock river woods’ road at its worse stage.

The “glourious fourth” was spent in a manner rather derogatory to Yankee character. Some of the boys felt like having a little glorification in the morning, and banged their rifles, and hurrahed a little. But it was “no go;” their enthusiasm soon vanished, all saying that the next fourth should have a double dose. We traveled 23 miles that day, a very warm day, and taking a new and different road from that laid down in our guide book, to avoid crossing several streams, were without water for 13 miles, and camped at night within three miles of Fort Bridger.

If there is a beautiful spot on the earth’s face, it is the valley of the Great Salt Lake. The best description of it I can give you is to tell you climb some high mountain and look upon a beautiful lake, and the valley will be pictured to you. It is about 40 miles long, with a width of 22 miles, and is surrounded by high mountains, with the exception of a small space at the north, many of whose summits are capped with snow the year round. The soil is very good, (I have seen much better in Wisconsin,) and the climate delightful; at least it has proved so the short time I have remained here, and I am told it is but a fair specimen of the summer season. The mountain breezes, cooled by the snowy banks which cap their sides and summits, temper the hot air to that deliciousness which makes existence an enjoyment which man can hardly be said to possess in any portion of the eastern world in which I have resided. And this breeze is never idle; its mighty fan is ever in motion. The winters are mild, and but little snow falls. The last winter snow fell to the depth of 20 inches in the valley, and the old trappers and traders say that it was the most severe winter season that has been experienced in this region for the last 16 years.

The great city is regularly laid out in blocks or squares, the streets being very wide, and is most beautifully located, 22 miles from the lake. As yet, nothing very extensive in the way of building has been done, and it presents rather a mean appearance. I do not recollect having seen a house higher than a single story, and very many of them are mere cabins, whose dimensions will not exceed 12 or 16 feet square. They are built of “adobes” (sun-baked, or Spanish brick) and logs. Some of the inhabitants are still living in tents and wagons. There is no timber in the valley, the inhabitants hauling it from the mountains, a distance of from five to twenty miles. They have not yet commenced their great temple, and how soon they will do so, is not yet determined.

It is estimated that there are from 17 to 20,000 people in the valley — Mormons — most of them handling the plough and hoe for a subsistence. Irrigation is resorted to to produce crops. Their crops look very well. Yesterday I saw a man threshing wheat grown this season, but the harvest season will not properly commence for 6 or 8 days yet. Corn does not appear to thrive very well, the nights being too cold and frosty, the air being cooled by the mountains. — Crops of other descriptions appear to do very well, and we are now regaling ourselves upon green peas, beans, turnips, onions, small cabbage, &c. Cattle are very plenty, and will make the fattest beef by merely feeding upon the grasses with which the valley abounds. Six run of stone for grinding purposes, and 7 or 8 saws are in operation in the valley very little can be learned of this singular people, and the most I have been able to learn is, that Brigham Young, their present leader, has 32 wives, and very many of the “sterner sex” having 2, 5 or 6 wives, and others divide their affections among a still greater number of the “gentler ones.”

But what interests the Californians the most, are the gold stories told us. There are a great number of Mormons here who have had practical experience in the mines, and are now shaking the “gold dust” in their pockets. They tell us that gold is plenty in the mountains of California, and is inexhaustible. When a digger could not procure his $100 per day, he was off for a new prospect, and many men would find $200, $500 and some $1000 per day. Then why did you not stay and dig for a while? we ask them. The reply is that, “the church called them home, and they must return.” — And why not get leave to go again? “We are in no hurry, the gold will hold out, many richer deposits will be found, a great number of our brethren have already gone out, and we are required to stay at home to attend the crops, &c.” So much for so much.

It is said that gold has been found on “Goose creek,” 200 miles from here, on our route to California. I have seen several specimens of the dust. It is in thin, flat, small scales, presenting a dark appearance. The Mormons have established a mint here, and will commence coining gold in a few days. A few pieces have already been struck off. The device is the “Masonic Grip,” the value of the piece, the words, “God and Liberty,” and date, and words, “City of the Great Salt Lake,” are found upon its sides. They will coin $20, $10, $5 and $2.50 pieces. They have sent a representative to Washington to advocate their interests. He left a few days since.

I have not heard from the other company of Watertown Californians, and do not expect to until I reach the golden world. I have made the acquaintance of Mr. Stephens, of Fort Atkinson. He tells me he traveled tow days in company with Charley Bristol, of Beaver Dam. Lieut. Wright was two or three hours ahead of us at the junction. He goes by the way of Fort Hall. Jacob Rapalje, of Milwaukee, died here about a week since, of mountain fever. He had good attention from the Mormons. Dr. Evans, also of Milwaukee, I think, will go no further. It is said he will join the Mormons, and be baptised next Sunday. My two Watertown companions, McClusky and Phil. Johnson, have both had mountain fever, but are now quite recovered. This is a queer disease. A man is taken with vomiting, followed by a terribly severe headache and high fever, which are not usually worked off under four or five days. It is not considered dangerous.

We expect to reach the end of our journey in 45 or 50 days. But there is one thing, the emigration on the Fort Hall route will suffer terribly. There were only 12 or 14 wagons ahead of us on the great trail, and we had hard times to get enough feed for our cattle, and there were 6000 wagons yet to get through.

Yours truly,
A letter from Mr. P.C. CRANGLE, dated at Salt Lake city on the 8th July, was received by his brother ROBERT, of this village, last week. He speaks in high terms of the city, and says the temple was about to be commenced. An accompanying brother, BERNARD, was offered $5 per day and board, as a carpenter, but refused, preferring his chances at the mines.

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Oct 10, 1849

Letter from the Gold Diggins.

[Correspondence of the Watertown Chronicle.]

September 7, 1859.}

FRIEND H. — The journey is ended. The goal(d) is won — for the gold stories are no humbug, though many of them are much exaggerated. August 31st we arrived at the first “diggings,” and September 3d, reached this city, which is situated at the junction of the American river with the Sacramento, 2 miles west of Sutter’s Fort, and 200 miles from San Francisco. Its streets are regularly laid out, crossing each other at right angles, and buildings of every description are now erected, though two thirds of them are nothing but a slight frame work, over which is stretched a covering of common cotton cloth. These buildings answer every required purpose during the dry season, but when the rains commence, something more substantial will be required. There are many buildings of wood erected or in the course of erection, but the scarcity and high price of lumber prevent many from building.

The population of the city, it would be hard to determine. It may be 5,000 or it may be 25,000. Hundreds arrive and leave daily. Provisions are plenty and cheap. I will give the prices of leading articles: Flour per 100lbs. $3a9; pork per bbl. $10; sugar per 100lbs. $14a18; coffee per 100lbs. $.14a18; mackerel and salmon, (salted,) per lb.25c.; beef, (fresh,) per lb. 25c.; hay $6 per 100.

These are the principal articles purchased and consequently very high. Potatoes $1 per pound, onions $1.50 per pound. A small squash is sold for $5. Green peas and a few other vegetables may be had, but at such prices that will stagger even a gold digger. Journeymen mechanics receive $10 per day and board. $32 is charged for setting a set of wagon tires, and $24 for new shoeing a horse. Common laborers receive $10 per day. Clothing may be bought at prices as low or lower than are paid in New York city. The immense quantities of provisions, clothing and other merchandise sent to this market have completely glutted it, and the only ones who will have cause to curse California will be speculators in your eastern cities.

Vessels arrive here almost daily from Atlantic ports and San Francisco, loaded with provisions and merchandise, and no fears need be entertained of a scarcity for a year hence.

A more stirring, go-ahead city than the one I write from, does not exist on the face of the globe. Business of every description is carried on, and with that celerity and despatch that could not fail to please the most driving. “Time is money;” but I never saw the adage carried out with its greatest force until I reached California.

The gold mines, if we may judge by the quantities brought in and the stories of the miners, are inexhaustible. $16 per day is paid to laborers at the mines, and the man who WORKS for himself will make much more. — Some days he may make nothing, others an ounce, or two, or three; and then he will strike a good “pocket,” and dig a thousand dollars or more in a month, and sometimes in a less time. The mines cover a large surface, extending as far as now discovered 300 miles north and south, and 50 or 60 miles east and west. The much boasted climate of California has not sustained its reputation very well. The nights are very cold, and so are the mornings and evenings, while between the hours of 9 A.M. and 4 P.M. the sun pours down with scorching intensity. Water which we use, is hardly fit the name, being warm and filled with filth. Very many are sick; the prevailing disease being a fever in most cases brought on by eating to excess and drinking intoxicating liquors. But I should think that if proper care is used by emigrants and unacclimated persons, that California may be called a healthy country.

I can hear nothing of the other Watertown boys. McClusky left us at Salt Lake, and packed through. I can learn nothing of him. I. and C.P. Crangle arrived on the 5th. — I saw them yesterday. The Fort Atkinson boys are all here and are well. I shall leave for the mines to-morrow, and intend to go up the Sacramento 160 or 200 miles, where the diggings are represented to be very rich. When I arrive there, I will endeavor to find time during the evenings to give you something of an account of our journey across the country, and California prospects and doings.

Truly yours,

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Dec 5, 1849

Wisconsin – An Acrostic

February 10, 2011



W ild and romantic are they boundless woods,
I n nature’s loveliness thy prairies bloom;
S weet are thy lonely glens and solitudes;
C heerful thy villages, and free from gloom.
O ‘er thy fair realm the plagues that feed the tomb,
N e’er sweep destructive. Every wayward breeze,
S oft as lnd’s zephyrs laden with perfume,
I nto thy humblest homes wafts health and peace.
N ature’s chief favorites; gifts of heaven’s best grace.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) May 17, 1848

Forty-Niner Profiles: The Watertown Boys

February 10, 2011

Watertown, Wisconsin – 1908

During the California Gold Rush era, Watertown, Wisconsin was so many other villages, towns or cities across America — It was hit by the fever, the gold fever.

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Jan 31, 1849

“We’re bound for Californy,
Our pockets for to fill!”

Yesterday morning seven of our own citizens and two of neighboring towns, took up their line of march for California. They are to proceed by wagon to Galena, thence by steamboat to St. Louis and Independence, and thence as “circumstances” may dictate to the “diggings.” Their names are —

Stephen Stimpson,  Louis Meyer,
Henry Waldron,   James Stevens,
Martin P. Glines,   Luke Colburn,
Amos Steck,   Ole Hanson.
Nelson Whitney,

Among this list will be recognized some of our oldest and most respectable citizens. They leave in high spirits, hardly realizing, we fear, the hardships and privations before them. While we regret to part with them, we cannot but hope that their most extravagant expectations may be fully realized, and that within two years from this time, we may hail the return of each, with “all their pockets” well filled with the precious metal.

They intend celebrating the 4th of July at the South Pass, making those wild and distant hills and valleys re-echo, for the first time, the songs and the sentiments of liberty.

Watertown has contributed liberally to the mighty stream of emigration that is setting toward California. In addition to those given above, five others have left within a few weeks past, viz:

Francis McCluskey,   Henry Helman,
Philip Johnson,   Bernard Crangle.
Darius Gibbs,

There are others here who have caught the fever, and we should not wonder if they, too, should soon be “carried off.”

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Apr 11, 1849

MORE EMIGRANTS. — Last week Messrs. FRANCIS McCLUSKY, PHILIP JOHNSON and BERNARD CRANGLE, of this village, took their departure for California. The two former started with an ox team, and intend going by way of Independence. We have some other citizens who are in the last stages of the disease and it is feared they will be “carried off” about the first of next month.

Watertown Chronicle – Mar 14, 1849

WISCONSIN CALIFORNIANS — The Watertown Chronicle says that the following company left that village on Tuesday, the 10th inst: Stephen Stimpson, Henry Waldron, Martin P. Glines, Amos Steck, Nelson Whitney, Louis Meyer, James Stevens, Luke Colburn, Ole Hanson. It says “Among this list will be recognized some of our oldest and most respectable citizens.”

Weekly Wisconsin (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) Apr 18, 1849

So, who were the Watertown Boys, and what were they doing before the they hit the trail in search of California Gold?

Nelson Whitney, listed as the vice-president of the Temperance Society, and also listed among the Friends of Ireland was born about 1821, somewhere in Vermont. He wrote several letters from “the road,” and from California, which I will be posting in the future. Perhaps he was a farmer in Wisconsin prior to catching the Gold Fever, as I don’t find any business advertisements for him in the papers.

Temperance Meeting.

An adjoined meeting of the friends of temperance was held on the 14th of March, 1848, in the Methodist Church, in this village.
The committee appointed at the previous meeting, to prepare a Constitution, submitted the following, which was adopted:

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Mar 22, 1848

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Watertown Temperance Society on Tuesday morning, June 27th, an invitation was received from the Dodge County Temperance society, inviting this society to be and unite with them in a temperance celebration at Oak Grove on the 4th of July. The committee after deliberation, unanimously agreed to accept the invitation, and hold the anniversary of the society at Oak Grove. A full delegation from this society is earnestly desired. By Order &c.,

A. STECK, ch’n.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Jun 28, 1848

The Age-of-the-Sage website has a page for The European Revolutions of 1848, which includes a map.

Demonstration of Republican Sympathy.
The usual common place busy hum of our business village was very agreeably diversified on Wednesday evening last by a well arranged demonstration made by our German fellow citizens, expressive of their sympathy with the Republicans of Europe.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) May 17, 1848

Image from the Irish History Links website.

The Ohio University website  has an Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions, which includes: Young Ireland.



The friends of Liberty in every Country are looking with anxious hope for the success of the Irish arms over those of their English oppressors. The patriots of Ireland have lately shown to the world by the defeat of one fourth of the British army — in a single battle killing and wounding 6,000 men — that they are in earnest; and determined to be free, despite the voice of royal proclamations, and roar of royal cannon.

Friends of Liberty! the voice of struggling Ireland calls on you for aid. The battle has commenced, the people of the civilized world recognize the cause as a just and holy one, and none but despots and slaves refuse their aid or their sympathy.

Irishmen! the land of your birth cannot call in vain for aid from her sons.

Your compatriots throughout the Union are active in the cause of their struggling country, and earnestly ask you to co-operate with them.


Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Aug 30, 1848

Bank of Watertown image from Buchheit – Myers Genealogy blog.

AMOS STECK was born in 1822, Lancaster, Ohio. He supported the German people in their revolution, and like N. Whitney, was a member of the Temperance Society . On the genealogy blog linked above, it states Amos Steck took an active interest in establishing the Watertown Bank. Evidently he was a lawyer, as he  is listed as an “Esq.”  in  the following “Horse Thief” newspaper article:

HORSE THIEF AND COUNTERFEITER. — A young man by the name of Walker, formerly of this village, was apprehended at Fox Lake, on Sunday last, by officer KELLY, of this village, charged with having stolen on the 8th inst., two ponies, the property of JOHN P. BEAN, of Green Lake. He was examined on Monday before A. STECK, Esq., and a default of security for his appearance for further examination, was committed to jail in Jefferson. Officer K. is entitled to much credit for his vigilance in the arrest of the prisoner, aided as the latter was in his attempts to elude justice.

The ponies were sold to a man by the name of Sabin, of Racine county. As rather a “remarkable coincidence,” we may mention, that during the examination of Walker, Deputy Sheriff PHELPS, of Dodge county, passed through our village, having Sabin in tow as a prisoner, he having been apprehended on the charge of passing off counterfeit Land Warrants to an Illinois drover, in exchange for horses. He has dealt more or less extensively in horse flesh for some time past, and is supposed to be connected with the same gang to which Walker belongs. Quarters have been provided for him in the Milwaukee jail.

Watertown Chronicle – Jun 21, 1848

Amos Steck also wrote several letters to the Watertown Chronicle, which I will be posting in the future.

I believe this is the same Amos Steck, who went to California in search of gold:

According to the Buck Fifty website, Amos Steck – standing, second from the right and was the Denver, Colorado sheriff at the time this 1864  photo was taken. Follow the link for context of this photo.

In  the Denver & Rio Grande website’s article,  Taming a Wilderness, it mentions Amos Steck,was also at one time,  the Mayor of Denver:

The first telegraph wire to reach Denver was ready for business October 10, 1863. Mayor Amos Steck received the first message over it, which was a congratulatory wire from the mayor of Omaha.

The next Watertown Boy,  Henry Waldron, was born about 1819,  in Vermont. He and his partner,  Hazen Mooers operated a Tin Shop. They seemed to form and dissolve their partnership every so often, according to these newspaper announcements:

Watertown Chronicle – May 17, 1848

Watertown Chronicle – Jun 14, 1848

Watertown Chronicle – Jul 26, 1848.

Watertown Chronicle – Mar 29, 1849

Watertown Chronicle – Apr 4, 1849

It appears Henry Waldron, wife and daughters were in California in 1860, so he must have gone home to get them. On the 1860 San Fransisco  census, he was listed as a merchant, and his wife as an oil painter AND then they are listed again in Rose Bar, Yuba Co. where he is listed as a clerk, and several years younger.


Francis McClusky appears to have been a tailor:

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Jan 5, 1848


Stephen Stimpson was born about 1818 in New York. His wife’s name was Catherine, and in 1850 their son, George, was five years-old. He was an auctioneer by trade, as well as a public notary for a time, and also ran for sheriff. On the 1860, Stephen Stimpson was listed as a Saloon Keeper and by then had a daughter, Adie, who was 7 years-old. By 1870, his son, George was living in Cheyenne, Wyoming, running a billiard hall. Stephen Stimpson may have died, as it appears his wife and daughter are living at West Washington Place, in New York City!

Daily Sentinel and Gazette (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) Jun 18, 1847

Watertown Chronicle – Jul 7, 1847


Wisconsin Argus (Madison, Wisconsin)  Oct 26, 1847

Watertown Chronicle – Oct 25, 1848


It has proven difficult to find information on some of these “Watertown Boys.” Bernard Crangle, born about 1810 in Ireland, and that is about all I have on him, but  I did find the picture of a house he and his brother built for their parents in Watertown, Wisconsin:

Here is the information that accompanies the photo:

This was the home of Bernard & Rose Crangle,Sr. built in Watertown, Wi in 1840 by Bernard, Jr. and Henry Crangle for their parents before they emigrated from Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. It was in this house that the first Catholic services were held and the organization of St. Bernard’s Parish, Watertown. Thanks to Mary Beggan Mueller for the photo.

Posted by Craig Gavin – Nov. 2010. Here is the LINK if you have an membership.

UPDATE- CORRECTION: I just re-read one of the letters from Nelson Whitney and he states Bernard and P.C. were traveling together. In a later letter, he mentions and I. and P.C.,  but the I. may have been a newspaper typo, or possibly Bernard’s middle name initial, as the P.C was written as C.P as well.

I think Bernard Crangle went to California, and then sometime after two of his brothers followed, P.C. (Charles P) and probably Henry, who according to the family tree where the picture was found, died in California in 1862. These brothers are mentioned in one of the letters published in the newspaper, which I will post in the future.

This cooperage factory image from the DeForest Area Youth Council is from a library event, Barrel-Making in Wisconsin: The Story of the Frank J. Hess Cooperage.

Another of the Watertown Boys was Darius Gibbs, who was born about 1816, also in Vermont. In 1850, he was listed as a basket maker, and in 1860, as a cooper, which was someone who made casks, kegs, etc. In 1850, he was living in Emmit, WI, and in 1860, in Watertown, WI. Sometime in between, he went to Missouri for awhile, as his two children listed on the 1860 census, ages two and three, were both born there. Darius and his family moved to Iowa, sometime between 1870 and 1880, where he continued to work as a cooper.

According to Find -A-Grave, Darius Gibbs was also a Spanish and Civil War veteran. He died in 1890, and was buried in Iowa. It appears his descendants added a more modern gravestone, which you will find at the link.

In regards to the other names listed as “Watertown Boys,” they remain a mystery, as I can’t find any information or census records for them.

Der Baby Takes Flight

February 9, 2011

“Play ‘Ofer der Garden Vall’ feer der baby, Fritzy.”

All right. “Toot!”

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Jan 14, 1894

Chewing Tobacco – An Acrostic

February 8, 2011

From the Oswego Observer.

C urious thing it is indeed,
H undred thousands chew a weed
E gregious filthy — still how sweet;
W ith some a quid’s a precious treat.
I do not think it — tell you why,
N o swine will chew it — wet or dry!
G reat folks may eat it but not I.

‘T is not an evil think I trow,
O nly me in your mouth to slow —
B ut puff and burn me reason knows,
A s well as put me up one’s nose,
C uts ‘cross the grain, dear man forbear!
C hewed, burnt and snuffed, I do declare,
O ne is too much — but three — O dear.


Alton Observer (Alton, Illinois) Oct 13, 1836

The Tee Total Pledge

February 7, 2011


Note 1, the object at which they are aiming, viz, the removal of a nuisance, — the total overthrow of the rum casks. All the parties engaged seem to have this object in view, and all are laboring in their respective ways to accomplish it.

Note 2, the different kinds of instruments used for the purpose. Every one must be struck with the admirable adaptedness of the Teetotalers‘ fixtures to accomplish the object. Here is a fulcrum with a broad base, immovably fixed at a suitable distance, upon a solid foundation; lever of suitable size and length is nicely adjusted under the nuisance, and rests upon this fulcrum. Our teetotal men throw their weight upon the extreme end of the lever, and it would seem as certain as the laws of mechanics that the whole range of rum casks must tilt over.

But just as they begin to exult in the prospect of certain success by their admirable contrivance, one of them hastily cries out, “Hold, hold, neighbors, not too fast. You fulcrum is too near; I am afraid you will do injury to our cause by this precipitate measure. Let me place my moderation fulcrum under the lever, a little further back. We must be cautious, gentlemen, that we don’t injure the cause. Bear away upon my fulcrum while I hold on and steady it.”

These honest and zealous neighbors, ever ready to do any thing to remove the evil, again throw their whole weight upon the lever. They pull, and tug, and sweat, till they almost break the lever itself. But the rum casks stand firm; they budge not an inch. The moderation man persists in holding on to his fulcrum, and insists upon it that his plan is the only one that can succeed.

Now is it not perfectly apparent that all efforts upon “moderation” are utterly useless, and that the strength expended by it is lost.

Is it not then perfectly evident, that Mr. Moderation, however well meant his efforts, is in reality standing in  the way of more effectual measures, and doing more hurt than good to the cause.

Is it not also as clear as noonday, that if we would succeed, “moderation” should be laid aside, and all our efforts concentrated upon the “teetotal pledge.”

We commend the above illustration to the consideration of our moderate friends. It certainly contains matter for their serious reflection.

Alton Observer (Alton, Illinois) Jul 20, 1837

Image from the Melissa Launay Fine Arts website.

From the New England Spectator.

The Temperance dinner and celebration was held at the Marlboro’ hotel, which was opened on that day, by Mr. Rogers. Mr. Fletcher, member of Congress from this district, presided.

We were much gratified to find such an array of talent and influence at a tee-total dinner, on the 4th of July, and at the opening of a tee-total hotel. It augurs well to the cause. Among others, were the editors of the Advocate and Mercantile Journal, Mr. Hallett and Mr. Sleeper; of the Clergy, Rev. Dr. Pierce, Mr. Pierpont, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Stow, Mr. N. Adams, Mr. Colman, Mr. Clough, &c.; and of other distinguished citizens, John Tappan, Moses Grant, Stephen Fairbanks, Dr. Walter Channing, &c.; and Mr. Snelling and others of the legal profession. There was a degree of hilarity suited to the occasion; and we did not see but that the inspiration of wit and poetry was as well excited by cold water as it usually is by wine.

At the close of the dinner, the following appropriate old composed for the occasion by Rev. Mr. Pierpont, was sung:

In Eden’s green retreats,
A water-brook, that played
Between soft, mossy seats
Beneath a plane-tree’s shade,
Whose rustling leaves
Danced o’er its brink, —
Was Adam’s drink,
and also Eve’s.

Beside the parent spring
Of that young brook, the pair
Their morning chant would sing;
And Eve, to dress her hair,
Kneel on the grass
That fringed its side,
And make its tide
Her looking glass.

And when the man of God
From Egypt led his flock,
They thirsted, and his rod
Smote the Arabian rock
And forth a rill
Of water gushed,
And on they rushed,
And drank their fill.

Would Eden thus have smiled
Had wine to Eden come?
Would Horeb’s parching wild
Have been refreshed with rum?
and had Eve’s hair
Been dressed in gin,
Would she have been
Reflected fair?

Had Moses built a still,
And dealt out to that host,
To every man his gill,
And pledged him in a toast,
How large a band,
Of Israel’s sons
Had laid their bones
In Canaan’s land?

“Sweet fields, beyond” death’s flood
“Stands dressed in living green;”
For, from the throne of God,
To freshen all the scene.
A river rolls,
Where all who will
May come and fill
Their crystal bowls.

If Eden’s strength and bloom
COLD WATER thus hath given,
If, even beyond the tomb,
It is the drink of Heaven,
Are not good wells,
And chrystal springs
The very things,
For our HOTELS?

Alton Observer (Alton, Illinois) Jul 27, 1837

Image from the Ohio History Central website.


There is a society of young ladies in Hartford, who pledge themselves not to receive the addresses of any young man who has not signed the tee-total pledge.

At a temperance meeting, not long since, a fair one offered the pledge to her friend, saying, “John, will you sign that?”

He hesitated, and finally declined. “Then,” said she, “you will understand, I shall not be at home next Sunday evening.

Madison Express (Madison, Wisconsin) Apr 14, 1842

‘The moon,’ said a total-abstinence orator, ‘is not quite ‘tee tee total,’ but she lets her ‘Moderation’ be known to all men, for she only ‘fills her horn once a month.

‘Then she fills it with something very strong;’ observed a by stander, ‘for I’ve often seen her half gone.’

‘Ay,’ said another, ‘and I have seen her ‘full.”

Tioga Eagle (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Jul 13, 1842

Image from Karen’s Whimsy

“A frog,” says Professor Pump, “is an amphibious animal, as vat likers on cold water, consequently he inwented the teetotal society. He always walks with a jump he does; and ven he sits down he has to stand up. Being a lover of native melodoes, he gives free concerts every night, he does himself. He perwides music for the millyon which he has been so called because it is usually heard in the mill pond. He is a varmint wot aint so bad when broiled on a griddle. No sir ree.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Jul 5, 1848

Image from the National Women’s History Museum website.

Maine Liquor Law.


It is worthy of note that a large proportion of the Tee-totalers when they go a journey, leave their tee-total principles at home and become temperance men, and take a little wine or brandy occasionally for the stomach’s saxe and their many infirmities. Again it is asserted that a large majority of the people in the State are in favor of the Maine Law. —

Democratic State Register (Watertown, Wisconsin) Mar 15, 1852


An honest farmer in this State married a Miss from a fashionable boarding-school, for his second wife. He was struck dumb with her eloquence, and gaped with wonder at his wife’s learning.

“You may, said he, bore a hole through the solid airth, and chuck in a mill-stone, and she will tell you to a shavin’ how long the stone will be going clean threw. She has kimistery and cockneylogy, and talks a heap about ox hides and chimical affinities.

I used to think that it was air I sucked in every time I expired, howsomever, she telled me that she knew better — she telled me that I had been sucking in two kinds of gin! ox gin and high gin! I’m a tumble town tee total temperance man, and yet have been drinking ox gin, and high gin all my life.”

The Adams Sentinel (Gettsyburg, Pennsylvania) Nov 28,  1860

From Wiki

Teetotal Huzza.


As I rambled about one fine summers night,
I passed by some children who sung with delight,
And this was their ditty they sang at their play,
Teetotal forever, teetotal huzza.

Our fathers were sots, they had learned to love ale,
Our mothers were ragged, and their faces were pale;
The teetotal breeze blew their rags all away,
Teetotal forever, teetotal huzza.

Our bonnets were torn, and our shoes went click clack;
Our frocks went to uncles and could not get back;
But master Teetotaler did fetch them away,
Teetotal forever, teetotal huzza.

Our houses were naked, we had scarcely a chair,
The strong drink had broken the  crockery ware,
We have now chairs, and tables, and china so gay,
Teetotal forever, teetotal huzza.

We lived on dry bread, and just what we could get,
And if we had nothing we scarcely durst fret.
We have now beef and pudding, on each Sabbath day,
Teetotal forever, teetotal huzza.

We lived in deep sorrow, and darkness, and strife,
And who knows the ills of a drunkard’s child’s life.
But now we are happy, can dance, sing and play,
Teetotal forever, teetotal huzza.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Feb 12, 1869

A water-spout — A teetotal lecture.

Indiana Progress (Indiana, Prennsylvania) Jan 29, 1874

Happy 100th Birthday, Mr. President!

February 6, 2011

The Daily Review (Hayward, California)  – Nov 9, 1966

The Sweet Taste of Victory – brings a smile to the face!

The Daily Review – Nov 9, 1966

The Republican Romp —

Long Beach Independent – Jan 5, 1966

Ronald Reagan stars in “Death Valley Days” —

Mark Russell

Reagan sure has Ford’s people running scared, and they seem to be bent on self-defeat. Their prevailing spirit is: “Let’s lose one for the Gipper!”

Tucson Daily Citizen – Dec 8, 1975

Video Tribute to be shown before the Super Bowl


More Ronald Reagan:

Ronald Reagan to the Rescue

Presidents’ Day Feature: Ronald Reagan