Archive for the ‘African Americans’ Category

Corn-Husking Leads to Murder

November 23, 2009

FREDERICK-TOWN, Nov. 11.

Murder!

On Friday of last week Edward Owings, a young gentleman about 29 years of age and son of the late Edward Owings of this county, was murdered by six of the slaves belonging to his father’s estate. The murder was committed about sunrise, and at a distance of a little more than 100 yards from the house. The circumstance attending this cruel transaction, as confessed by the blacks before the Jury of Inquest, and there is no other evidence on the subject than their own confession, we shall briefly state without any remarks as they are now in the hands of just ice and we would say nothing to prejudice the publick opinion.

The preceding evening it seems, the negroes had been assigned a certain quantity of corn to husk, and say that they were then told that on their failing to finish they should be corrected. In the course of the evening it was proposed by one of the fellows and to which they all agreed, that if Mr. Owings did attempt to whip any one of them they would all unite in killing him. Next morning upon Mr. Owings’ going to the corn heap he found they had not husked the quantity directed, and calling one of them to correct him. The fellow not going very readily he took hold of him, and led him to the barn which was but a few steps distant. On reaching the barn the fellow made some further resistance, when Mr. Owings called the others to his assistance, two of whom, by his direction seized the fellow and a third one seized Mr. Owings with whom he said he wished to have some talk. The one who first resisted, on promising to be more attentive in future, was ordered by Mr. Owings to his work, but immediately on being turned loose seized a club with which he made a blow at his master. This blow he parried with his arm, when the fellow caught him by the throat to prevent his alarming the family — another of them took up the club — and a third a rammer, such as is used in ramming posts in making fence, with which he struck the deceased several blows on the head & back and it appeared that five of the six concerned also gave him one or more blows.

They then concealed the body in some straw, and to prevent suspicion directed a small boy to bring Mr. Owings’ saddle and bridle, which they put on his horse when one of them rode him some distance from the house and tied him in the corn field until night, when he was taken to the village of Woodsborough, a few miles distant and there turned loose with the saddle and bridle on. The following day the horse was taken up, and brought home on Sunday morning by a neighbour. This alarmed the family and persons were sent in different directions, but could obtain no intelligence of the deceased. — On further search being made about the farm; the place where the horse had been tied and where some rails had been laid down to let him out were discovered.

This strongly confirmed the suspicions before entertained and the blacks were charged with the murder. At first all denied it, but upon being separately examined confessed the whole affair, and that they had thrown the body into a well on the farm of Mr. Dorsey, nearly a mile distant. Here on search being made, it was found mangled in such a manner that it was impossible to recognize any of the features.

On the night subsequent to the murder they attempted to remove the body, but it was so dark and from some cause they could not tell what, they became so alarmed that they abandoned it, and it was not until a little before day on Saturday morning that they carried it to the well.

On Sunday evening the whole of them were lodged in the new jail, which is now finished and from its strength and security precludes all hope of escape from the sentence of the law which awaits these infatuated, unfortunate creatures, all of whom, we understand by their late master’s will were to be free in a few years.

Ohio Repository, The (Canton, Ohio) Nov 30, 1815

Negroes Jonathan, Harry, Nimrod and Solomon, were hung at Frederick-Town, on the 26th ult. for the murder of Mr. Owings, in Nov. last. The concourse of people present was immense, great numbers attending from Virginia and Pennsylvania. The criminals appeared contrite.

Ohio Repository, The (Canton, Ohio) Feb 15, 1816

Seth Bullock’s “Cowboy Brigade” attends Teddy Roosevelt’s Inauguration

November 16, 2009
Indian_chiefs roosevelt inaugurationo

Image from Wiki

A commenter asked if I had a source that listed Jim Dahlman as one of Seth Bullock’s Cowboy Brigade, that attended Teddy Roosevelt’s inauguration. I did some searching over the weekend, and found one source, which is noted in the post. NOTE: They incorrectly listed his given name as Bill, rather than Jim.

***

ROUGH RIDERS AND COWBOYS THERE

National Capitol Filled by Throngs for the Inauguration.

QUITE COSMOPOLITAN CROWD

Governors and Staffs in Gold Braided Uniforms, Indians in Blankets and Filipinos Mingle With the Gathering of the Plain People.
[excerpt]

Seth Bullock’s cowboys, fifty-one strong, arrived yesterday afternoon, very tired and thirsty after a thirty-hour ride. The rangers were attired in the conventional cowboy costume. Those in the crowd who expected them to carry six-shooters were not disappointed. Each of Seth’s boys wore a leather bolster, in which was a formidable looking, long barrel gun. Buckskin trousers, gayly decorated shirts and broad-rimmed sombreros composed the uniform in which they were attired.

Cowboys Have a Frolic.

When the contingent got to the nearby hotel, at which they were corraled, all hands washed up and then scattered in twos or threes to see the town. Three of them found the stable where their mounts are being cared for, and getting astride of their horses, started out for a frolic on Pennsylvania avenue. For the edification of the crowd they did a little rope throwing, each man tossing his noose over the head of one of his companions. But this became tiresome after a while and a few exhibition throws were given to the delight of the crowds and the alarm of the diminutive negroes who were invariably the targets.

Last night most of the cowboy company called on Captain Seth at the Shor?ham hotel. They liked the looks of the place and some of them spent the evening there.

The cowboys will be the guest of Senator Kittredge of South Dakota at 9 o’clock breakfast Sunday and in the afternoon will be taken around the city in automobiles. No set programme has been arranged in the meantime, but the whole town is anxious to do them honor and everything is free whenever the cowboys appear in cafes.

The Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York) Mar 3, 1905

Seth Bullock Cowboy Brigage

I saved this picture above, but forgot to note the source, and now I can’t find it again. This lists 40 of the 60 cowboys, and the picture appears to be cut off on the sides, so maybe the rest of them (including Jim Dahlman, who is NOT listed) were off to the side.

UPDATE: Carl Steiger found the website where I originally found this image. It is called Cowboys & Images. Here is a link to the image. Thanks, Carl!

seth bullock moralizes header 1905

By Seth Bullock.

First Sheriff of Deadwood, S.D., Chief of the Black Hills Forest Rangers, Commanding the Cowboy Brigade in the Inaugural Procession.

Washington, Friday — Looking at it from the top of a cayuse, this inauguration appears mighty significant to me. President Roosevelt has already put his mark on the country. Al the end of another four years the Roosevelt brand will be so clear it won’t wear off for many moons.

The crowds in Washington today show the Roosevelt spirit. The people are mostly bright and energetic, typical of the President. It’s just like it is on the range. IF the owner of a ranch is an active, honest, hard-working man, you can tell his cowboys as far as you can see the outfit, by the vigorous way they work. If the owner is dissolute, dishonest or lazy, the cowboys are likely to be the same way.

Now, long before most of us in Dakota knew Roosevelt we used to hear about him.

Cowboys riding down to our country from 150 miles away used to say:

“That fellow Roosevelt up there on the Little Missouri is dead square. He don’t maverick anybody else’s calves. He don’t ask a man to ride a horse he don’t ride, and he don’t make any man stand a watch on the roundup that he ain’t ready to stand himself.”

Teddy_Roosevelt inauguration

That is the kind of reputation Roosevelt had in the cattle country, where the things a man does and not what he talks about makes his reputation. He’s no fair weather sailor, and our boys out West know it. That’s the reason sixty boys have come down here with me. Nearly all of them have ridden on the range, and a good many of them used to know Theodore, and they are all strong for him. They have to sell their ponies to get back, all because they wanted to see one of their own people, or rather, a man who had lived with them, and is as much or more a Westerner than Easterner, inaugurated as President.

With Roosevelt in the White House this talk of sectionalism is going to be stamped out. The way this inauguration has brought together Westerners and Easterners and

Northerners and Southerners means a lot to the future of this country.
It looks to me like the people who were coming to this inauguration were the kind who like the man who does real stunts and don’t delay. That’s the reason the cowpunchers like him.

We haven’t any fear of him being too impetuous. You don’t hear any of that talk about him on the range. The boys there just say he has keen and accurate instinct.

The sixty boys with me are not Rough Riders; they are not Black Hills rangers; they are not dime novel heroes or stage robbers. They are cowboys, and as such are the real article, and the reason they are here is because this is the first inauguration of a man who knows them and whom they know as square in the White House as he was on the range.

One of the boys rode 120 miles in twenty-four hours to get his horse on the train before it left Deadwood. We have all ages in the company.

Henry Roberts, who is fifteen, was born on the range, and as good a rider as any one. There are men who have been cowboys for thirty years. Two of the boys belong to the Black Hills Forest Rangers, whose business it is to protect the trees in the Black Hills forest reserve. Most of the rest are from South Dakota and Wyoming.

Theodore has asked the boys to come back to the White House after the procession has passed the reviewing stand. They will ride up to the steps under the porte cochere, where he will stand and shake hands with each man.

Now, that is a mighty nice thing, for some of the boys are bashful and would be lost if the President invited them to the reception. But they are never bashful in the saddle. Every one of them appreciates the chance to shake Theodore’s hand.

I’m willing to bet he will remember each man that he knew when he lived in Dakota. His memory for faces and the names that go with them is certainly wonderful. Blaine’s memory for faces, some persons say, was largely bluff, but it is straight goods with the President.

I remember when he made his last Western trip the boys on the South Dakota range rode to meet him whenever the train stopped at the water tank. OUt of crowds he would single out men whom he had not laid eyes on for twenty years. He would remember exactly where he had last seen them. On that trip he would alwys go out to see the cowboys who rode to meet the train.

“Why,” said he, “those boys have never seen a President of the United States. They have ridden a long way to this train. It’s my duty to go out and speak to them.”

There is a horse with a Maltese cross brand running on the range now, and I tried to get one of the boys to bring it down here, but it could not be arranged. The Roosevelt brand was a Maltese cross., and he branded that horse.

We from out West don’t know all the full made over the questions or precedence. It was necessary for me to go to Mr. Warner’s headquarters today. He is the head of the civic division, and talking to him was a man wearing a uniform that looked like the morning after the Fourth of July. Honest, it would make a cowboy jump over the monument. He was making a great row because his marching club, which had been in every inauguration since the Lord knows when, had been given a place behind the Roosevelt Club of Minneapolis, which had never marched at any inauguration.

“I’ll see what I can do about it,” siad Mr. Warner.

Then I took the uniformed man by the arm. “Don’t kick,” I told him. ‘If you try to change your position, every one else will want to change theirs, and the whole parade will go to smash. We are going to ride wherever we are placed. Anyway, wherever the cowboys are, that is the head of the procession for us. Don’t kick.”

Here is our official poem, by the official poet, Bob Carr:

Us punchers sling no haughty style,
Nor go we much on manners;
We look on dudelets out this way
As only fit for “canners;”
And that is why you hear us cry
We’re always glad and ready
To throw our hats and let a yell
In honor of our Teddy.

The boys are having a first-rate time in Washington. We have no rules except these.

Rule 1. Don’t kick.
Rule 2. Don’t knock.
Rule 3. Neither kick nor knock.
***

Seth_and_teddy

Seth Bullock and Teddy Roosevelt

Washington — Say, we found ourselves among a lot of friendly Indians today. The boys like the way the crowd, all the way from Capitol Butte to by White Ranch House, put out their hand.

Not one is sorry he came, especially after the way Theodore met us after we had ranged up past the reviewing stand. He had the boys ride up to the door of the ranch house and shook hands with each, and remembered every one he knew nineteen years ago on the Little Missouri, when he had the Maltese Cross outfit.

Every cowboy in the brigade was mightily impressed with the ceremony today. A lot of them have never been east of the Missouri River, and, although they are as keen as can be found anywhere, this visit to Washington is just the thing they needed to show them what a great country this is.

As far as that goes, I think no one can come to Washington from any part of the United States without being struck by the almighty bigness of the Government. They get an idea, too, what their Representatives are doing for them, and it is a lot. Neither of our Senators from South Dakota nor our Representatives can make his expenses out of his salary.

There is a lot of patriotism in this country, and it certainly stuck out all over this town today.

I saw millionaires waving flags and yelling themselves hoarse for the President, and when we cowboys came along there in front of his reviewing stand we got the glad hand from the President more than any one else we saw.

Compared with the noise made by the plug-hat-and-boiled-shirt political clubs, the cowboy brigade was Quakerish and decorous. To the President it made no difference where a club came from, or whether or not it represented a lot of cash. If the people in the organization were good, clean-cut, likely appearing Americans the President would lean over the rail and wave his hat to them.

Every man in the thirty thousand marching today ought to know, unless he is plumb locoed, that the boy who is now in the White House is game, and will do just what he says — give a square deal to every man. That is the reason the cowboys who are with me came down here. They want to show their appreciation of having one of their own kind of men in the saddle ready to brand every proposition according to his merits, and to rope any job that comes its way, and not ask any man to do anything he isn’t willing to do himself.

A man who is big enough to build the Panama Canal and put irrigation ditches all through the West and make it blossom like a rose and insist on a navy large enough to keep the door open in China is the man for us.

The cowboys in this brigade are a clean cut, sober, industrious lot, and when you find sixty such men who are agreed that the President is O.K. you can just mark it down that their verdict is straight goods.

It meant a lot to us to see those hundreds of thousands of people rounded up in Washington to watch Theodore become President on his own responsibility. It is all right to talk about the splendor of the durbars in India, but they are not to be compared with this. The durbar is an outfit of people who ride and do other stunts because they are ordered to. The people who attend the inaugural do it because they want to. Of course, some of the army and navy are ordered to Washington, but if they were not they would like to come independently.

I am a great believer in the flag and the effect it has on gatherings like these. The best thing for this country would be for every man and woman to get a chance to come to Washington and rub up against people from other ranges.

Some of the boys are pretty much impressed with the number of white people in the East.

They put us pretty well back in the procession, but we did not care, for our rules are, “Don’t kick, don’t knock; neither kick nor knock.”

We were formed down near the Capitol and the critters stood the waiting pretty well. They are used to brilliant Western sunsets, but that was the only thing that saved them from bolting when these gold lace Governors’ staffs went loping by.

We are going to have an auction on Monday, and all the cayuses will be knocked down to the highest bidder. They will make mighty good polo ponies, although their past work has been mostly chasing wayward, stray cattle, instead of a little white ball. They have to be sold so the boys will have enough money to get home on. Then some of them want a little cash to blow in over in New York, where they are going before they start back to the range.

These boys can go some if necessary, but there are not likely to be any fireworks from them in New York. They just want to learn the difference between the taste of salt water and prairie hay.

We will all be gone from Washington pretty soon. It has been a great round-up — about the most successful ever held, I guess. Theodore certainly did make good medicine.

The Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Mar 8, 1905

aobrodie

Alexander O. Brodie (Image from http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net)

BRODIE AND BULLOCK

Fine Types of the American Western Frontiersman.

BOTH FRIENDS OF PRESIDENT.

Brodie Has Been Regular Army Officer, Indian Fighter, Civil Engineer, Rough Rider, and Territorial Governor — Seth Bullock, Sheriff, Cowpuncher, and an All-around “Good ‘Bad Man.'”

A notable figure in the escort accompanying President Roosevelt from the White House to the Capitol yesterday and again in the grand parade which later swept up the Avenue was that of Col. Alexander O. Brodie at the head of the Rough Riders, President Roosevelt’s old Spanish war regiment. Col. Brodie and his men were recognized at every point along the route and greeted with generous applause.

Col. Brodie is a typical frontiersman, but he is much more than that. He has been cadet at West Point, officer in the regular army, Indian fighter, civil and mining engineer, major and lieutenant in the Rough Riders under Col. Roosevelt, and until recently governor of the Territory of Arizona. He came to Washington about ten days ago and was sworn in as major in the regular army and was assigned to be assistant to the military secretary, United States army.

Col. Brodie was graduated from West Point in 1870 and assigned immediately to the First United States Cavalry. With that regiment he saw stirring service on the frontier for seven years’ fighting Indians all over the Western border. He was in the hard campaign against the White Mountain Indians in 1871, with Gen. Brooke in all of that gallant officer’s fights in 1872 and 1873, and in the fierce Nez Perce campaign of 1877. Then he resigned from the army, and for twenty years practiced civil and mining engineering in the West.

When the Rough Rider regiment was organized at the beginning of the Spanish war in 1898, Brodie jumped to the front, and was commissioned major, and upon the promotion of Col. Wood and Lieut. Col. Roosevelt, he was advanced to the position of second in command, an office he held when the regiment was mustered out at the close of the war.

Col. Brodie enjoys the personal friendship of President Roosevelt. They were very “chummy” during the campaign in Cuba. It is not strange that President Roosevelt should have desired that a detachment of his old command should have a position of honor in the inaugural parade, nor that he should have selected Col. Brodie to lead it.

Seth Bullock’s Cowboys.

Another feature of the parade was Seth Bullock’s cowboys,, seventy-five in number mounted on their Western bronchos and headed by the redoubtable Seth himself. Sheriff Bullock is the sheriff of Deadwood, S.D., and he is what might be termed “a good ‘bad man.'” He is the idol of all the South Dakota cow-punchers and has the reputation of having “rounded up” more truly “bad men” than any other official in all the wild West. Like Col. Brodie, he enjoys the personal friendship of President Roosevelt. In line with Seth Bullock’s “bunch” were cow-punchers of no less renown than “Deadwood Dick” Clarke, the once famous scout, bandit, hunter, and leader of the shotgun men who guarded the old Wells-Fargo treasure coaches from Deadwood to civilization more than a quarter of a century ago. “Tex” Burgess, the king of the cowboys on the big Hyannis range in Nebraska, was another prominent figure in the unique organization. Seth Bullock, “Deadwood Dick,” Clarke and “Tex” Burgess are all men of types that with the advance of civilization are fast disappearing from the Western plains and will soon have passed away altogether. The once famous “Deadwood Dick,” the hero of the dime novels of twenty-five years ago, and the man who in pioneer days was the terror of evildoers in Dakota, and performed miraculous feats of daring, is now a workman in plain blue overalls in the railway yards at Lead, a town not far from Deadwood.

Richard Clarke

Richard Clarke (aka Deadwood Dick)

Lots of great pictures at FARWEST.IT, which is where I found the  above picture. The website is in Spanish.

“Deadwood Dick” Praises President.

When “Deadwood Dick” was asked by Seth Bullock to come along to Washington to help inaugurate President Roosevelt he wrote back, saying:

“Sure, I’ll go down to Washington to see Teddy inaugurated. We old Westerners feel that he is one of us and shall be glad to help give him a send-off. I reckon the cowpunchers will cut quite a figure when they get down there, but they will be no novelty to the President, for he used to be one of them himself, you know. But a good many other folks will look on ’em with a good deal of interest and curiosity. I think he is doin’ the right thing in invitin’ the boys to take part in the show. It tickles ’em nearly to death to know that he wants ’em to ride their cayuses in the parade. Some of the boys used to know ‘Teddy’ when he was a rancher out West, and they all have a mighty warm spot in their hearts for him.”

Tex Burgess

Tex Burgess

The above picture (I cropped it) can be found in the book, The Overland Monthly (Google Books,) which contains the essay/article, A Cowboy Carnival: A Veracious Chronicle of a Stirring Incident by Ella Thorngate; pgs 50-60. The article includes other names, such as Doc Middleton, who is also in the uncropped picture.

Texas Burgess’ Comments.

“Tex” Burgess, who rode his pony all the way from Hyannis, Neb., to Belle Fourche, S.D., to join the cowboys on the trip to Washington, said, when he was invited to join the expedition:

“You just bet I’m goin’. I wouldn’t miss it for $1,000. We all want to go, but Capt. Bullock says he can’t accommodate all of us, so some of us will have to stay at home. Most of those who are goin’ are from the Black Hills. Only a few will come from the Hyannis and other ranges in Nebraska. I wished to go, and Capt. Bullock has promised to take me. ‘Billy’ Binder and ‘Doc’ Williams, and some of the others of the more noted riders in this region want to go, too, but I don’t know whether they will. We are mighty pleased at the invitation to take part in the show.”

Washington Post, The (Washington, D.C.) Mar 5, 1905

**This is the article mentioned at the beginning of the post, which names Dahlman as one of the “cowboys” who attended the inauguration. **Note: They got his first name wrong.

WASHINGTON, AFLUTTER, DONNING GALA ATTIRE

Imposing Court of Honor in Pennsylvania Avenue.

INAUGURATION GAYETY BEGUN

Glee Clubs Parade and Serenade and Cowboys Make Things Lively —

Scenes in the Streets.

Special to The New York Times. [excerpt]

Seth Bullock’s cowboys have started in on the time of their lives. They are sixty strong, and have brought two carloads of the best bronchos and cayuse ponies they could find in Nebraska and the Black Hills.

It would be absolutely impossible to pick a matched pair in the lot. Every color known in the Western cowboy horse stock is represented. They are dun, gray, calico, mouse-colored, bay, black, white, chestnut, piebald, and even the much loved blue bronco type is there. The blue bronco is the toughest horse ever made. The cowboys brought numerous saddles and abundance of trappings.
Cowboys “Feel of” the Asphalt.

To-day they geared up and went out to “feel of” the asphalt, of which they had been warned. It has happened at inaugurations that cavorting horses have slipped and thrown their riders. On one occasion an officer suffered a broken leg. On another Gen. Miles fell with his horse in the plaza in front of the Capitol Hotel.

The negro stableboys have been struck with wonder at the antics of the Westerners. The fun began when Bill [Jim] Dahlman, the boon friend of William J. Bryan, whirled out into the street from the corral where the cowboys keep their ponies, and with a yell said “Good-bye.”

The next moment there was another yell, this time from a colored boy standing by, who had been swiftly roped by Dahlman.

From that time on it was touch and go with a score or two of cowboys and the negroes standing around. The cowboys, some of whom are bankers, State officials, and lawyers who have at some time or other followed the range, wore their chaps and spurs and their tailor-made coats and overcoats and derby hats. This they will do when riding for practice or to get the hang of the town, but they have come with their full regalia, including lariats, quirts, chaps, ladigoes, twenty-ounce hats, and big red neckerchiefs, and will wear the whole outfit on Saturday, and when they get down to business of paying their respects to the town.

They had a job to-day shoeing their ponies. Thirty of them had never been shod and were unused to the etiquette of Mike McCormick’s blacksmith shop, where the operation was performed. They boys stayed by and it was a jolly scene. Some of the ponies had to be thrown, and with two men sitting on them Mike went ahead with the work as best he could.

A squad of cowboys during the afternoon rode the length of Pennsylvania Avenue, cutting in and out between street cars and passing vehicles with wonderful skill and at high speed. They roped colored boys again, and now and then a peanut vendor or a dog, and wound up by roping each other and getting all tied up in a bunch, in which manner they rode home and disentangled and unsaddled for the night.

Monday they will put the whole lot of horses up at auction for polo ponies, hoping to get what they cost and possibly the expense of transportation out of them.

The New York Times, Mar 3, 1905

Link to the actual news article is HERE. (PDF)

seth bullock cowboys event ad 1905

BULLOCK’S BOYS SELL PONIES.

Cow Punchers’ Exhibition Takes on a Commercial Aspect.

Capt. Seth Bullock’s cowboys sold their wild Western broncos at the Seventh street baseball park yesterday afternoon, but because of the rain and the soft condit on the ground the “stunts” which a large crowd of people went out to see were postponed until to-day at the same hour. No steers were tied — there were no steers — and there were no races. As it was, the ponies cut up the diamond and the outfield with their hoofs while the cowboys were showing off their points and a steam roller will probably be in demand before the ball season opens.

The spectators in spite of the cold rain were enthusiastic. They stood ankle deep in mud and slush and were spattered with mud with good grace while watching the little riding which the bronco busters performed in order to show how gentle their horses were. The ponies brought from $45 to $90, but only five were sold. One or two of the best animals were held at $100 by their owners, and the cowboys expect to dispose of these before they go to their homes in the West.

Capt. Bullock directed the sale and under his supervision the boys put their ponies through the paces, ran them and walked them past the buyers while the cowboys themselves alternated as auctioneers and knocked the beasts down to the highest bidders. Some of the purchasers looked at their newly-acquired horses with misgiving, looked them in the teeth, so to speak. Most of the horses were stripped of them cowboy saddles and sent off to livery stables to be clipped and Easternized. A few of the bolder buyers tried their ponies out on the spot and the cowboys had a lot of fun seeing the city chaps in derbys and overcoats scampering across the park range, clinging to the pommels, and scattering lead pencils and other belongings at every jump.

The exhibition postponed from yesterday will be given to day, rain or shine. It is the special wish of those in charge of the inauguration exercises that the cowboys receive the hearty co-operation of the citizens, as they came a long distance and have added so much to the entertainment of the people, as well as showing the type of man who spends his life on the plains of the far West.

Capt. Bullock took great care in selecting this company of men and each is a splendid specimen of manhood and all are adept in some particular accomplishment, which will add to the enjoyment of the exhibit. The programme is replete with thrilling and amusing events, and will positively take place to day at 2:30 p.m.

Washington Post, The (Washington, D.C.) Mar 8, 1905

John Stephens Durham: A Bright Negro

November 9, 2009
durham

John S. Durham, lower left

Image from: REMINISCENCES of School Life, and Hints on Teaching
By Fanny Jackson-Coppin
Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. Copyright L. J. Coppin 1913

*****

A BRIGHT NEGRO.
From the Philadelphia Times.

John Durham, who has just been appointed United States Consul at St. Domingo by President Harrison, is a colored man of ability and character. Mr. Durham is at present engaged on the editorial staff of the Philadelphia Bulletin. Hi is a native of this city and at an early age showed a natural aptness for his studies. He went through the public schools of this city in order, graduating at the Institute for Colored Youths, located on Bainbridge street.

The following year he began teaching, holding many positions of prominence in the schools of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. He was principal of the O.V. Catto School, in the Seventh district. After preparing for college he entered the University of Pennsylvania, where he took a five years’ course in science, graduating with the degree of bachelor of science. He also took a post graduate course in civil engineering. While at the University he held the position of editor-in-chief of the University Magazine and filled his position so ably that he attracted the attention of a number of the leading journalist of the city. Mr. Durham also took an active part in the sports of that institution, distinguishing himself particularly in foot-ball. While pursuing his studies at the University he was paying his way by reporting for the daily papers, occupying a regular position on the staff of The Times.

Upon graduating from the University he was employed by the Evening Bulletin, where he has remained for six years. In his application for the Consulship Mr. Durham was backed by Mayor Fitler, who, in his recommendation to the President, urging the appointment on personal grounds. Also C.E. Smith, J,C. Simms, Provost Pepper, of the University; Ex-Senator Blanch K. Bruce, T.V. Cooper and Gibson Peacock, of the Bulletin. The new Consul will leave for the scene of his duties about June 1.

The News (Frederick, Maryland) May 7, 1890

squiggle

In the Labor Unions and the Negro, John Stephens Durham, formerly United States minister to Haiti, brings to notice the manner in which the trades unions of this country, by excluding colored workmen from their memberships, have gradually succeeded in driving the negro from nearly all skilled occupations, thus paralyzing at the source the efforts of nearly one-tenth of our whole population for growth and self-improvement, and creating a  very serious problem for the nation itself.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Feb 2, 1898

*****

Read more about John Stephens Durham in The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, (Oct 1982) at  the Jstor website.

booker t washington pic

Booker T. Washington

Image (Project Gutenberg) from the following book:

SPARKLING GEMS OF RACE KNOWLEDGE WORTH READING.
A COMPENDIUM OF VALUABLE INFORMATION AND WISE
SUGGESTIONS THAT WILL INSPIRE NOBLE EFFORT AT
THE HANDS OF EVERY RACE-LOVING
MAN, WOMAN, AND CHILD.

ILLUSTRATED WITH SUPERB HALF-TONE ENGRAVINGS.
COMPILED AND ARRANGED BY JAMES T. HALEY.
Nashville, Tenn.: J. T. Haley & Company, Publishers. 1897.

Read a letter written to John Stephens Durham from Booker T. Washington. (Google Books Link)

From: The Booker T. Washington Papers: 1904-6, By Booker T. Washington, Louis R. Harlan

*****

And a letter from John Stephens Durham to Booker T. Washington (Google Books)

From: The Booker T. Washington Papers: 1895-98, By Booker T. Washington, Louis R. Harlan, Raymond Smock

Sent Out In Stripes

October 21, 2009

SENT OUT IN STRIPES

A CONVICT’S DEBUT INTO LIBERTY.

A Burglar on His Own Confession, a Good Record Within Walks, an Early Discharge and an Effort to Wear His Convict Stripe in Peace, in which He Comes to Grief.

This is a hard old world we live in. It has a philosophy which declares it is man’s first duty to take care of number one, and his second duty to go against every poor wretch who especially needs help. It is not at all fashionable to help an unfortunate, and charity is fading into the sickly hues of romance and sentimentality. It is rather hard to say so, but once in a while some little incident comes to light and makes such accusations just. Yesterday we happened on one of these incidents.

The reporter met a negro with not too good a face, but with a dejected, cowed look which at once appealed to one’s sympathies. He was talking to some gentlemen, and from his few remarks we gathered his history for the past three years. It may be worth telling.

His name is Leonidas Lambeck and he is a mulatto of thirty. In May, 1876, he was arraigned in August for burglary. He was guilty, and said so. The judge sentenced him to three years of penal servitude, and soon he was hustled about from one to another of our “model convict camps.” He was made to do his full share of work and managed to get his full share of rations. He does not seem to have been very villainous, for his papers show that he was discharged three months before his time was out because he had behaved so well. His penitentiary record is very good therefore.

Last Tuesday morning he was discharged. At that time he was working on the Marietta and North Georgia railroad, twelve miles beyond Marietta. He was human enough to rejoice in his liberty regained after three years of hard penance, and when he spoke of it yesterday he looked happy. When he left his fellows he went out a free man in a felon’s garb. He had worn a decent suit when he went to put on the stripes, but he had long since lost sight of that. He says he did not like to go out in the convict’s stripes, but no other garb was given him and he had to march out a sort of wandering advertisement of the penitentiary system of Georgia.

It was a hard story he told of his troubles in that disgraceful attire. He started to walk to Atlanta in hope of finding here the means of obtaining decent clothes and transportation to Augusta. But his woes began soon after he left the camp. He was arrested before he had gone a mile and with difficulty escaped even after he showed his discharge. Again and again he was stopped and sometimes rudely. Some of his captors could not read his discharge, and insisted that he was an escaped felon. Everywhere people looked on him with scorn, and jeered at him as he passed, even when they did not attempt to halt him. He had a desolate tramp to Atlanta. Not a kind word fell in his way. After being stopped forty times he reached the city, and here had a hard time. At length some kind-hearted person procured him a decent suit and burned up the stripes.

Yesterday afternoon Mr. Frank Haralson, the state librarian, kindly interested himself and raised enough money to send him to Augusta. He left on the 6 o’clock train.

Is it right for convicts to be set free in their stripes? Can the state provide no better way of liberation than that of sending forth a man without a cent in the world, marked with a badge of shame? It does not seem humane or just. It appears cruel and unjust.

Perhaps this is the custom, but, like many other customs, it is “more honored in the breach than the observance.”

Daily Constitution, The (Atlanta, Georgia) Feb 15, 1879

The Festive Descendant of Ham

October 16, 2009

Wow! I bet the writer of this “news” piece graduated with honors from the school of “Descriptive Journalism.” He used at least SIX different racial descriptors, and EIGHT more generic, but derogatory ones, to describe ONE man.

Encounter With a River Pirate.

The peaceful parlors of the steamer Scioto were changed into a prize-ring Monday afternoon, and the inhabitants thereof were thrown into a state of great excitement. At Ironton a huge individual of color, bearing a piratical aspect and under the ‘fluence to no little extent, boarded the boat. This festive descendant of Ham entered the ladies parlors, and seating himself at the piano, began executing airs that would cause the bones of Beethoven to turn over in their grave. It was evident to the occupants of the parlor that music was one of the lost arts to this sable son of sinfulness, and the lady passengers becoming frightened, both at the murder of an innocent and inoffensive piece of classic music, and the general deportment of the modern master, raised the alarm.

The clerk, a gentleman of lilliputian proportions, undertook to eject the Zulu, when the latter squared himself and showed signs of fight. The engineer and mate were in turn called, but beat a precipitate retreat when they discovered the character of the animal they had to deal with.

Captain Jack McAllister was summoned, and came down from the pilot house. Taking in the situation, he seized an iron poker and began beating the pirate over the head. The poker was bent and almost utterly ruined, while the cranium of the colored customer did not appear to be injured in the least. The African grabbed a chair and began smashing chandeliers, beating the doors of the staterooms, and directed a few of his blows at Captain McAllister. It was a desperate struggle, and the women were frightened almost to death, while the officers of the steamer did not fell very comfortable.

The burly bruiser held the fort until the boat reached Catlettsburg, where, with his own free volition, and the undisturbed exercise of his mental faculties, he concluded to stand on terra firma, where the rights of an intoxicated man were not trampled upon. There was a sigh of relief when the pestiferous passenger and terrific trespasser set foot on Kentucky soil, and the occupants of the boat felt a degree of safety once more.

Captain McAllister had a thumb and finger broken, and sustained injuries about the head and shoulders, causing him to take a few days vacation.

If the actions of the negro are as bad as reported to us, a miniature mortar should have been planted and turned on him. The captain of the boat showed great patience and forbearance, and the disturber of the peace should congratulate himself that his head was not broken.

The Portsmouth Times (Portsmouth, Ohio) Sep 25, 1880

Chickens Come Home to Roost

June 15, 2009

image from www.thecolumnists.com

Image from www.thecolumnists.com

I ran across this poem in the newspaper archives, while searching for something else:

CHICKENS COME HOME TO ROOST.

You may take the world as it comes and goes
And you will be sue to find
That fate will square the accounts she owes
Whoever comes out behind.
And all things bad that a man has done,
By whosoever induced,
Return at last to him one by one
As chickens come home to roost.

Sow as you will, there’s a time to reap
For the good and the bad as well;
And conscience, whether we wake or sleep
Is either a heaven or hell.
And every wrong will find its place
And every passion loosed;
Drifts back and meets you face to face
When the chickens come home to roost.

Whether your’re over or under the sod,
The result will be the same —
You cannot escape the hand of God,
You must bear your sin and shame.
No matter what’s carved on a marble slab
When the items are all produced,
You’ll find that God was “keeping tab,”
And that chickens come home to roost.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Nov 23, 1910

Thanks to our current President’s infamous preacher,  Rev. Wright, the old adage is enjoying a renewal in popularity, so I decided to do a search and see how it was used in the past. Here is just a small sample of what I found:

Chickens Come Home To Roost
Claim That Stolen Fowls Were Liberated When Auto Was Wrecked.

(Special to The News) MERCER, Pa., June 28.

“Chickens will come home to roost.” The truth of this old saw was proven here today in a criminal proceedings in which J.W. Cameron of Youngstown, O., was tried on a larceny charge. The testimony of the commonwealth witnesses proved that Cameron, who was transporting the chickens to Youngstown in an auto after committing an alleged theft at the home of P.S. Cozadd near Charleston on the Mercer-Sharon road, had an auto smashup at the McCullough bridge on this road and as a result of the wreck the chickens, which were in the tonneau of the car, were released. They went up the road to the Cozadd home which was only a short distance and went to roost at once. This point was argued by the commonwealth as being conclusive evidence that they were the property of Mr. Cozadd.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Jun 28, 1919

squiggle

HUMOR:

What is the meaning of the old saying: “Chickens come home to roost?” Well, it means all the night clubs are closed.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Feb 3, 1928

chickenroost

AND THE MORAL OF THE STORY IS:

A stranger came to me to ask about a local citizen. The stranger wished to buy a piece of property and was afraid of being cheated. He had to depend on the local man’s word. And he wished to know whether the man’s word is good. What could I say? I hated to spoil a neighbor’s trade — knock him out of profit. But I had to be square with the stranger too. So I said to him:

“Well, this fellow once owed me some money. Many many times he promised to pay it. But he never did.”

That was all the stranger wished to know. And it goes to show that chickens come home to roost.

You make a dollar by cheating one man and lose two dollars because your reputation is damaged.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Jul 16, 1929

POLITICS:

Negro Exclusion in Party Primary Illegal

Texans are interested in a decision by the United States circuit court of appeals at Asheville, North Carolina. Ruling of the court was that the democratic party of Virginia had no right to bar “negroes and other races” from its primary. Texas has a statute which bars negroes from the democratic party primary. It was enacted by democratic lawmakers and singed by a democratic governor.

If it is illegal in Virginia then it is illegal in Texas. It is said political chickens come home to roost. They do. Just the other day the state democratic executive committee adopted a rule barring democratic negroes from the party primary. Well, these democratic leaders should read the ruling of the United States circuit court of appeals….

It goes without saying that what is good (law) for the Virginia gander should be excellent fodder for the Texas goose….

Brownsville Herald (Brownsville, Texas) Jun 18, 1930

ACTIVISM – PACIFISM – FEMINISM:

Rosikaa Schwimmer

Rosika Schwimmer

MRS. SCHWIMMER’S DILEMMA.

Mrs. Rosika Schwimmer, as newspaper readers readily recall, is a noted pacifist. She first gained fame in connection with the Ford Peace Ship and a few years ago again broke into the news when she was denied citizenship in the United States because she refused to subscribe to that part of the oath of allegiance which states that the person taking the oath will take up arms and fight for the country if the need for such cooperation arises.

The matter was treated somewhat as a joke because of the sex of the protestant. We do not expect to require women to take up arms, but this was not the reason for Mrs. Schwimmer’s refusal to take the oath we require. She refused because for years she has taught and argued pacifism and because she did not think any man or woman should pledge themselves to fight for their country. Mrs. Schwimmer, be it understood, is not a communist or anything like that. She is an intelligent and moral woman, interested for years in pacifism.

Now comes this esteemed lady into the news of the day again. She has addressed the following appeal to fellow residents of America:

“Hilterism is destroying all the achievements of the women’s movement in Germany. Women are driven out of employment and the professions and kicked back into the realm of Kirche, Kinder, and Keuche — with the emphasis on Kinder. They are to be bearers of future soldiers, nothing else.

“What are America’s feminist doing against this outrage?

“The German pacifists are among the most vehemently persecuted and tortured victims of Hitlerism. Their houses are raided, their papers destroyed; they are imprisoned, tortured, kept in concentration camps and some of them face execution as indubitable information reveals.

“What are the American pacifists doing to save their unfortunate German colleagues?”

Whether we are pacifists, feminists or mere Americans of normal human sympathies we can agree that much of what she says appears to be right.

Hitler’s methods do arouse some justified indignation, but what can we do about it? Mrs. Schwimmer stands in the front line of those who have worked to keep us from having a navy of the first rank, from having an army or an air defense impressive enough to make our written protests weightily considered. How can we use effective force to compel Germany to do what Mrs. Schwimmer wants Germany to do, and at the same time destroy every factor which may lend force to our words and Mrs. Schwimmer and her kind have sought to destroy these factors.

There are times when chickens come home to roost and this is one of them. Mrs. Schwimmer would have us 100 per cent unarmed and defenseless and then when our hands are tied she would have us try to show some authority. Even if we wanted to do something our protests could not be carried far in the face of pacifistic opposition at home and nazi tenacity in Germany. Actually there is little reason for us to get heated up over what Hitler has been doing, but those who have opposed ultra-pacifism must get some pleasure from the Schwimmer dilemma.

Billings Gazette (Billings, Montana) Jul 16, 1933

AN EYE FOR AN EYE:

soviet chickensImage from http://www.russianartandbooks.com

Stalin Must Come Here To Collect Royalties
By PAUL FRIGGENS
NEA Staff Correspondent

A check was ready today for Joe Stalin, representing royalties on his new book he hasn’t heard about. Joe probably won’t like it but he must come to the United States to get his money.

The book is “Stalin’s Kampf,” edited by M.R. Werner and just published by Howell, Soskin and Company, New York. It was a collection of just about everything important the Russian dictator has ever written or said publicly. wherefore the publishers are willing to pay Stalin — the Soviet way.

They’ve so written the dictator. “We will pay you those royalties,” said the publishers in a letter to the Kremlin, “on exactly the same basis as the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics pays royalties to American authors; in other words, your royalties will be held here, and you are at liberty to come to the United States at any time and collect those royalties in dollars and spend those royalties in this country.”

So the Soviet chickens come home to roost. For years the Russians have been translating and publishing foreign books, often without so much as permission or notification of the authors or publishers.

If any author wanted his money he would have to go to Russia, where he would be paid in rubles which could not be taken out of the country.

Authors, moreover, could spend their money only in a few shops — the commision shops, run on a non-gold basis.

American authors in Russia are usually published in editions of 25,000 copies. Most popular are Upton Sinclair, Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, Eugene O’Neill and Jack London.

Dreiser has collected “only a minute part of his royalties.” The same is true of Sinclair. O’Neill, has collected nothing. John DosPassos, Mary Heaton Vorse and E.E. Cummins went over to collect part of their royalties in rubles.

Joe Won’t Be Pleased

Now it’s a Russian’s turn to collect. Frankly, the publishers don’t expect Joe to like it. As a matter of fact they point out in their letter that payment is not legally required, as the content of the book is public property and therefore not protected by American copyright.

Joe won’t like some of the quotations either. For instance, this choice bit he is supposed to have dropped one summer night in 1923, opening his heart to Dzerzhinsky and Kameney:

“To choose one’s victim, to prepare one’s plans minutely, to slake an implacable vengeance, and then to go to bed . . . There is nothing sweeter in the world.”

Brownsville Herald (Brownsville, Texas) May 7, 1940

And finally, here is soviet “chicken” picture, just because. I have no idea what it says, but the chickens look like they are going home to roost.

10 Year-Old Slave Girl Goes on a Murdering Spree

March 2, 2009
Unprotected Spring

Unprotected Spring

BALTIMORE, May 15.

HORRIBLE DEPRAVITY.

Otho Shipley, of Baltimore county, 23 miles from the city of Baltimore, on going to the spring about 5 weeks since, found one of his children, three years old, dead in the spring, the water in which, was not more than three or four inches deep; suspicions resting upon no particular person, it was supposed to have been an accident. The spring was afterwards covered with boards, sufficient room only being left to dip out the water. About two weeks afterwards, another child named Jemima, about six years old, was found dead in the spring; from which the boards had been removed, the face of the child was in the water, and had upon it marks of violence. Suspicion then attached to a black girl, who had nursed the children, but not sufficient to enable them to extort a confession from the negro, in consequence of her age, which was only ten years. Mr. Shipley, however determined upon sending the black girl, to his father’s from whence he had got her, and mentioned the circumstances. The negro girl had not been at her master’s more than two weeks, before a black child was found dead, having been suffocated; she afterwards requested another negro child to lay her head upon a block, and taking an axe, said she would show her how they killed chickens; the child became alarmed,  and ran from her. At night she was discovered in a room in which some of the ladies of the house usually slept, and was turned out; in about an hour afterwards, she was discovered, getting in at the window, and being asked what she wanted, she said, that she came to tell them, that it was she who had killed Jemima, (the child of Mr. Shipley, mentioned above) and on being questioned, acknowledged that she had also killed the negro girl, and related the particulars of the murder of Jemima, as follows” —

She was with the child in the garden, and struck her — the child returned the blow, she (the negro) then took a handful of sand, and stuffed it into her mouth and took her to the spring, where she immersed her face in the water, until she supposed she was dead; she then left her, and went towards the house; but, hearing the child cry, to make use of her own words, “she went back and finished it.”

The above narration we have had from a source that entitles it to full credit, and we do not remember ever to have heard of a transaction in which at so early an age, such shocking depravity has been displayed.
Baltimore Chronicle.

BALTIMORE, May 16.

We understand that the Girl, of whose depravity so shocking a detail was given in our paper of yesterday, has been examined by the proper authority and has substantiated by her confession every part of it, with the exception of getting in at the window, her hands having only extended up toward it.
Chronicle.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) May 30, 1827

Edith Wilson, An Old Colored Woman

February 27, 2009

eda-wilson-1880

An Old Colored Woman.

An old woman known as Aunt Edith Wilson, who lives near Providence, Ky., is said to be 133 years old. She was born in South Carolina, and belonged to a man named Adams. Before the Revolutionary War she was a grown woman, and was a house servant and waiting maid to the daughters of Mr. Adams.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Nov 8, 1890

edith-wilson-1870

The 1880 census lists an Eda Wilson, age 112, grandmother, living with the Bruce Williamson family.

The 1870 census list an Edith Wilson, age 85, living with the Francis Rice family.

Runaway Slaves

February 24, 2009

runaway-slave

$100 Reward.
RAN away from the subscriber, living near New-town, (Trap,) Frederick county, Md.

On Saturday night, the 22d insant,

TWO NEGRO MEN;

One named JESS, but calls himself Jess Mackaby, a blacksmith by trade, about 5 feet 8 or 10 inches high, yellow complexion, has a deep scar on one of his ancles near the ancle bone, the sinew nearly cut in two, occasioned by the cut of a scythe, and also a scar on one wrist near the hand, caused by the cut of a knife — reads a little. Had on two linen pantaloons, fulled linsey drab coat, two linen shirt, the chain cotton, fur hat about half worn, and old boots.

The other named ADAM, calls himself Adam Jones, about 23 years of age, about 5 feet 8 or 10 inches high, black complexion, has a small piece bit out of one ear, the middle finger on one hand much larger than the others, occasioned by a cut, and has several scars on his back from large biles. Had on and took with him, the same clothing as Jess, excepting a wool hat and coarse shoes. It is supposed they have made for Pennsylvania.

Fifty dollars will be given for the apprehension of the above described negroes if taken in Frederick county; and the above reward if taken elsewhere, and all reasonable expenses paid if secured in Frederick county jail.
James Hook.
September 26.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Oct 17, 1821