Posts Tagged ‘1848’

The Birth of Wau-Kau and Why the Menominee Tribe Couldn’t Stay

February 5, 2011

Rootsweb hosts, the “Menominee Land and People” page, which is where the Menominee images in this post can be found.

NOTE: I left the misspellings/typos as found in the newspaper articles.


The proceedings of the public meeting lately held at Wau-Kau, on the subject of the removal of the Monominees, will appear in our next, as also a description of the village of Wau-Kau.

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Mar 15, 1848

The Menomonees.

At a meeting held at Wau-Kau, Feb. 15, 1848, to consider our relations with the Menomonee Tribe, L.M. PARSONS, E.D. HALL and S.M. WHITE were appointed to report resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting.

At a subsequent meeting, the committee made the following report, which was adopted and ordered to be published:

The committee instructed to draft resolutions relative to the Menomonee Tribe of Indians, desire to preface the resolutions which they propose for adoption, with the views they entertain of the relations existing between the red and white man, and the fundamental law upon which they are based.

Your committee believe that the rights of man are vested in his necessities; that whatever is necessary for the moral elevation of a people, they have a right to possess and enjoy; and that all laws, common or conventional, which contravene this principle, are null and void and of no binding force. Fro when there is no necessity, no good to be secured, there is no law. To secure harmony of action, define the limits of existing necessities, and discover those which are essential to progress, conventional bodies are essential to proclaim the law, but their commands have no power where necessity does not justify the action.

No body of men were ever legitimately authorized to make laws. The statutes were enacted in heaven; man has no right to add to or diminish therefrom. It is the business of man to discover, enforce and obey them, instead of enacting his own will.

The earth is dedicated to goodness, and the means essential to its attainment are the laws of all beings capable of participating the Deific enterprise. Existing states of mind seem to indicate three classes of necessities. The arrangement of means to promote discoveries, adapting the present to the future, belongs to the 3d class.

Now it is obvious, that all the means should not be limited to either class of enjoyments; that it is usurption, monopoly in the highest degree, for a people devoted to the first class of necessities, to withhold the means essential to the higher demands of intellectual life. Progression is the order of heaven, of the earth, of matter, of mind. A nation to stand still must perish; the world will pass by her. Progress is the accouching spirit of man’s immortality.

Nations as well as individuals, who will not progress, aspire to the glories of intellectual life, to the model of Deific excellence, must perish. God hath so willed it. Man must eat, incur responsibilities of a higher character — responsibilities which urge him onward from the desert of organic impulse, to the pleasure of intellectual life; from the locality of the finite to the universality of the infinite.

The possession of land is essential to every class of enjoyments. Neither individuals, tribes nor nations, have any right to it, except as they make it the means of elevation and progression. The right to possess in the dowery of heaven. Man cannot claim an endowment before his marriage to husbandry; he must write his title deed with the hoe and seal it with the spade. Science must acknowledge its execution, and the arts admit its registry. In such a title, God hath established man’s physical salvation, and like the waters of life, he hath made it free to every one who will perfect his title thereto.

The earth is sacred to the high purposes of Deity, to all that is excellent, to intellectual life. Land being the gift of God, is above all price — sacred to use and not to monopoly — sacred to life, to freedom, to independence, and to posterity. In the service of cultivating and ornamenting the earth, man enjoys the highest pleasure of physical life. But he who performs this service impelled by the love of the excellent and the intellectual redemption of man, enjoys more; a pleasure scarcely less than that of creating.

The Menomonee Tribe have not made sure title to the land they occupy. From the beginning, they have stood still; they would neither cultivate nor ornament the land; they would not enter into the plans of the Deity — make the present better than the past. The social world has gone by them. It has built temples too high for their perceptions — altars too broad for their devotion. IT claims an interest in a sacrifice too sublime for them to appreciate, and ultimate blessings which have no form in their visions of the future. They worship other gods, moddle their mind after inferior objects, fashion their heaven after the waste places of the earth, and measure its joys by the pleasure of the chase. The dog is their boon companion in life; they mingle spirits in death and hope for a common immorality.

The presence of such a people on our borders, hinders the progress of civilization, and deranges every department of business. Both suffering a loss of which affords no prospect of ultimate advantage to either, for the good of the white man is evil to the red, and the good of the red man is evil to the white. The contact is ruinous to both. Man, without knowledge, cannot participate in these gatherings. Knowledge is the life of the mind, its exciting element, but death to the body when made tributary to the excitement of the senses.

And ignorant man could not live in the garden of Eden. All men who will not avail themselves of the councils of science, must be driven from its presence. God hath so willed it. As it was in the days of Adam, so it is in our day. All men fall in the scale of being, degenerate and must ultimately become exterminated, as nations, tribes or clans who will not build themselves up by educational influences.

In all these matters, the Menomonee stands condemned. He invokes the penalties of ignorance; the law of progress commands them to hide away from the light of science, to turn away from the pleasant paths of art, to be driven from the pleasures of Eden — from the tree of knowledge, that the Lord at this coming may not see the day they have sacrificed, nor smell the incence of their altars; lest goodness and truth in their beauty and excellence be hindered in their progress over the earth.


Resolved, That this meeting regard it the imperative duty of every lover of man, every one who desires his moral elevation, his restoration to an equal heritage in the gifts of God; every one who hates monopoly and its kindred slavery, to raise his voice against the high handed usurption of he Menomonee Tribe, in withholding their lands from culture and consequent aid in perfecting the intellectual redemption of man.

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to circulate petitions, addressed to the President, urging him to conclude a treaty with said tribe, with as little delay as circumstances will admit.

Resolved, That our friends and the friends of land culture and equal distribution, be solicited to co-operate with us in this matter.

Other resolutions omitted.



Watertown Chronicle — Mar 22, 1848

Wau-Kau, Winebago Co.

At a meeting held at Wau-Kau, on the 20th of February, 1848, L.M. PARSONS was appointed a committee to prepare a description of our place for publication. At a subsequent meeting, the following report was presents, adopted and directed to be published in the Watertown Chronicle, and such other papers as may please to copy the same.




Location — On the outlet of Rush Lake, 2 1/2 miles north of said lake, 2 1/2 south of Fox River, 12 west of Oshkosh, 10 east of Strong’s Landing and 14 north of Ceresco.

Settlement — Commenced March 7, 1846. Nearest neighbor was then 10 miles distant. The country is now well settled by eastern people.

Water Power — The stream falls 70 feet in two miles, so that the water can be used over six times. The greatest head at any one piece is 23 feet, designed for a grist mill. The stone, timber, &c., are now on the ground for that purpose, and the race partly dug. A saw mill is now in operation, doing a good business. There is a dam at the lake, which retains all surplus water for future use. The lowest measure of water was last November. There was then only 288 inches issuing from the lake, measured in a current having a decent of 4 inches in 16 feet. There is now an issue from the fame floom of 720 inches, when the gait is up. The area of the lake is over 12 square miles.

Advantages — No other water power within 14 miles; proximity to the different varieties of timber, (contracts having been made for the delivery of pine logs, &c.;) proximity to navigable waters; in the heart of a rich farming country, already settled with an enterprising people.

Society — Our village population numbers 140 souls; have a good school, regular religious meetings, temperance society embracing nearly all the people, a well attended debating club, Sunday school, &c. The religious meetings and schools are under the immediate charge of Elder Manning, who is doing much towards making our place what every good citizen would wish it to be.

Health — We have two physicians, but very little for them to do.

Artists — Shoe shop, (two workmen,) blacksmith shop, (two fires,) cabinet shop, (two workmen,) one tailor shop, one turning shop, one wagon maker, five carpenters and joiners; and a sash factory and tannery are about being erected.

Merchants — One store, (Messrs. Elliott & White,) doing a fine business.

Position– Our place is elevated and dry. Banks of the stream about 80 feet high. On the one side, forest timber; and on the other, light openings.

Population — 140 souls.
Early Days of Wau-Kau.

[Correspondence of the Watertown Chronicle.]

WAU-KAU, March, 8, 1848.

On the first day of April, 1846, myself with several other pioneers, (as we termed ourselves,) by dint of presevarnce and a sprinkling of moral caurage, displayed in following sundry Indian trails, and in some instances no trails at all, made the best of our straggling way into what seemed, as it truly was, an unbroken wilderness. We arrived at last, after fording streams and forcing through bush tickets, which nearly left our [seeing sense] minus, about 9 in the evening — right glad to find a place where civilization had a home, having traveled all day with only one or two in the shape of white men to guess with us the locality of our place, our direction to find it, or distance to the same.

The Pioneer Hotel, under the supervision of Mr. Parsons, the proprietor, gave us welcome, and we received at the hands of his numerous tenants a well relished supper served up in Badger style — to which our keen appetite did ample justice. After relating the adventures of the day to others who, like ourselves, had quartered themselves here for the night, our whole company consisting of eight, thought best thus early to seek our needful repose. Our kind landlord soon relieved our curiosity, naturally excited as to the whereabouts of our night’s berth, located as we were in a native cabin a little more than 7 by 9, with room for only one bed to accommodate the whole. Our plan of camping was a singular one, but if any of your readers should ever find himself in a similar condition, it may be of service to him. Two bedsteads were placed side by side, and the beds thrown on. We then placed ourselves in as compact position as possible, with a tier of heads on the outside all round, our feet lapping by so as to come in pretty close contact with our neighbors faces. In this manner we spent the night and if, when we arose in the morning, we were fortunate enough to get our own legs to stand on, instead of our neighbor’s, we considered it, at least in the confusion a lucky escape.

But WAU-KAU has since undergone a great change, as the statistics of the place, which have been furnished you, will prove. Come friend Hadley, and take a stroll with us, where, a year ago, was the silent wilderness, listen to the woodman’s ax, witness the signs of improvement in every direction; and if you do not call our portion of the country a second Eden, you will be constrained to call it, with us, “a little better than the best” of the new towns of the West.

Truly, W.

Watertown Chronicle — Mar 22, 1848

The Whigs of Winnebago county have nominated Mr. URIAH HALL, of Waukau, for the Assembly. Mr. H. is a good and strong man.

Watertown Chronicle — May 3, 1848

THE MENOMONEES — From a long article furnished by our valued Waukau correspondent, we copy the following paragraphs, showing the power of the ancient Menomonees. The crowded state of our columns, will not admit of the publication of the entire article.

“The Menomonee tribe of Indians occupy the country west of Wolf and north of Fox River. They number about 2,400 souls. They are paid about $8 00 per head each by government, for lands sold several years ago. They were formerly a very numerous and warlike people, made war a trade for many years, and became a terror to the neighboring tribes. It is said they conquered in one night the Winnebago, Fox and Saux tribes, by a most adroit stratagem and deadly strife. The hills of

“Little and Big Butte des Most,” or hill of the dead, are records which tell of their might in battle and gathered honors of war. Their prisoners they retained as slaves. More than a century and a half ago, they attained the elevated position of slaveholders, and established that law requiring the weak to serve the strong, to which civilized nations have added the sanctions of religion.  But when the Catholic fathers came among them, and told them that the Great Spirit “made all men free and independent,” they repented of the evil they had done, and told their slaves that they too were children of the Great Spirit, and thereafter should be free to enjoy his blessings.

“Before their knowledge of the whites, their living was the luxuries of nature. They reveled in Eden’t garden. None knew the tree of knowledge, and of course none fell by eating of its fruit. Of he simple provisions of nature they ate, and life and pleasure sprang up in all the fullness of being. But the white man visited them, and now they are but dust in that balance which once weighed down all the tribes east of the father of rivers.”

Watertown Chronicle – May 31, 1848

A new postoffice has been established at Waukau, Winnebago Co., and Wm. H. Elliott appointed postmaster.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, WI) Aug 16, 1848

Image of Waukau Creek  posted by Linda F. on Pbase.


A correspondent writing from Waukau, makes the following statement:

There are three wells near this place, discharging fine little rivulets from their surface. They measure 23, 30, and 54 feet in depth; soil red marl. You will hardly believe me when I tell you these wells discharge double the quantity of water when the wind is south that they do when the wind is north; still the whole neighborhood will testify to the fact. The water in other wells in the vicinity will rise a foot on the wind blowing a good breeze from the south. I have not sufficiently examined the subject to solve the mistery. But as Rush Lake is within three miles and on high ground, it is propable the source from which the well are supplied, and a south wind driving upon the coarse sands of the beach increases the discharge of water thro’ the sand into channels which find vent in those wells. — Wash. Co. Eagle.

Rock River Pilot – Aug 23, 1848

“Wisconsin Gristmill” by Burton Boundey – Clars Auction Gallery website


The grist mill at Waukau has finally been put in motion. It will prove a great convenience to the people of the region.

Watertown Chronicle – Aug 14, 1850

Yankee Philosophy

February 4, 2011

Image from

From the Home Journal


Lives there the Yankee, far or near,
Who when his plans “get out of geer,”
Has never said “Wall, I don’t keer,
By golly!”

Who, if he ‘stubs his toe,’ and fall,
Don’t want to swear, but great or small,
Will vent his ire with “darn it all,
By golly!”

The Yankee boy with startling eyes,
When first the ‘elephant’ he spies,
With wonder ‘swows’ and ‘swons’ and cries,
“By golly!”

The youth with jack-knife sharp and stout,
Will try a trade to whittle out.
And shaving query, “what you bout?
By golly!”

The man that’s ‘dickered mor’n a few,’
Will quaintly ask you ‘how d’ye do?’
His story tell and “shore ’tis true,
By golly!”

For the ‘main chance he ever tries,
And thinks that “take things as they rise,
T’would do to be more nice than wise,
By golly!”

With brass enough his way to win,
However much he gets of “tin,”
He “swows” he’ll have “as much again,
By golly!”

But if he lose the luck he had,
May be he’ll get “most proper mad,”
And guess as how, “this ere’s tew bad,
By golly!”

Whate’er he tried, it is his rule,
If once he failed to reach the “gool,”
To rate himself “a tarnal fool,
By golly!”

And so the Yankee “staves along”
Full chisel, hitting right or wrong;
And makes the burden of his song,
By golly!

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Aug 23, 1848

John Anderson, My Jo – My Jim – My John – My Tom and My, What a Lunatic!

February 1, 2011

Image of this Irish couple (Luke and Bridget Reilly) is from the Photopol blog.

The parodies continue:



Jean Anderson, my ain Jean!
Ye’ve been a leal gude wife;
Ye’ve mair than shared by pain, Jean,
Ye’ve been my joy through life;
I loved ye in your youth, Jean,
Wi’ bonny snooded brow;
But maun I tell the truth, Jean,
I love ye better now.

*     *     *     *     *     *     *
I’ve been a man ol toil, Jean,
And aye obliged to roam;
But still ye had the smile, Jean,
And canny “welcome home!”
Our hearth was aye a light, Jean,
The kail pot on the fire,
When I came back at night, Jean,
I found my hearts desire.

Our bairus hae bred some cares, Jean,
But thanks to thee my Jo,
They brought not our gray hairs, Jean,
Wi’ shame or sorrow low;
And when at last our bed, Jean,
Beside the kirk maun be,
They’ll honor us when dead, Jean,
And that’s enough for me.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Mar 1, 1848

The original Robert Burns version (previously posted) for comparison.

Peddlin’ My Jo:

1886 Bicycle for Two – Image from the Copenhagen City Museum

John Anderson, My Jo.
John Anderson, my Jo, John,
When we were first acquent
You wouldn’t ride the bike, John,
But now your spine is bent.
I see you riding by, John,
And goodness how you go —
You’re the swiftest sco???er in the town,
John Anderson, my Jo.

John Anderson, my Jo, John,
We clamb the hill thegither —
I’ll ne’er forget the day, John,
Nor, ”aibelins, wil you ither!
We coasted on your tandem,
And, jinks, how we did go,
Till we struck that fence-rail at the foot,
John Anderson, my Jo.

— Chicago News.

The Daily Herald (Delphos, Ohio) Jun 17, 1899

Civil War Hero:

John Logan, O my Jo, John,
When we were first acquaint,
A soldier bold you were, John,
Bedecked with warlike paint;
And when your slogan sounded
It nerved your loyal clan,
For to the front they bounded —
You led them like a man.

Oshkosh Daily Northwestern (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Jun 24, 1884

Image from Wiki.

Now for politics and corruption, but I repeat myself:

This one is about John Kelly and Tammany Hall:

John Kellyus, my jo, John,
When we were first acquaint,
You were a dreaded chief, John,
When you put on your paint;
But now your goose is cooked, John,
Your head is lying low —
It lies beneath old Sammy’s feet,
John Kellyus, my jo!

Albany Journal.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Oct 30, 1881

Image from The Old Photo Album website – American Civil War Portraits


(“John Anderson, My Jo, John.“)

OLD subsidy, my Pomeroy,
When first we were acquaint,
The gospel of Sharpe’s rifles
Declared you quite a saint.
But now the cause of freedom
Will surely quick succumb —
In spite of all your bonds and things,
They cast you out, my Pom!

Well subsidized, my Pomeroy,
We fought the fight together,
And many a little picking, Pom,
Laid by for stormy weather.
Now we must tumble down, Pom,
But cheek by jowl we’ll fall,
And sink together in the mud
Where we were meant to crawl.

The Portsmouth Times (Portsmouth, Ohio) Mar 1, 1873

Image of Gov. J. Madison Wells from the Vangobot Pop Art Machine website.


Tom Anderson, my Jo, Tom,
When we were first acquaint,
For those electoral returns
In confidence you “went.”
You “fixed” ’em very bully, Tom,
With “Maddy” Wells and Co.,
And thought you had a certain thing,
Tom Anderson, my Jo!

But, Thomas A., my Jo, now
That matter “hasn’t went”
Entirely “serene,” and so
Your bonny brow is “brent,”
And your locks are prison locks, Tom,
And not at all like snow,
For they’ll not melt away with spring,
Tom Anderson, my Jo!

— Washington Post.

The Daily Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Feb 15, 1878

Image of John Sherman from Wiki.



Jim Anderson, my jo, Jim,
When first we were acquaint,
You hadn’t kalsomined yourself
With pugilistic paint.
But now your jaw is oiled, Jim,
You’re telling what you know,
And I am shaking in my shoes —
Jim Anderson, my jo.

Jim Anderson, my jo, Jim,
We planned the fraud thegither,
And promised that we never would
Go back on one anither,
We juggled the returns, but James,
Jim James, how could you blow
And peach on me and Rutherford —
Jim Anderson, my jo?

Jim Anderson, my jo, Jim,
I promised we would pay,
But you despised a clerkship at
Three dollars every day,
Old Evarts should have sent you off
Consul to Cailao —
But hindsight isn’t foresight much
Jim Anderson, my jo!

Jim Anderson, my jo, Jim,
‘Twas not a fair divide,
You stole the mule for us and then
We wouldn’t let you ride.
And Stanley M. is sick, Jim,
And Hayes is lying low,
And I’m the deadest sort of duck,
Jim Anderson, my jo!

— N.Y. Sun.

The Daily Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Jun 9, 1878

Read more:

Title: A Political Crime: The History of the Great Fraud
Author: Albert M. Gibson
Publisher: W.S. Gottsberger, 1885

pg 214 [Wells, Tom Anderson]

Chapter XV pg 283 [Sherman and John E. Anderson]

President John Tyler image from the We Love the Prairie Primer homeschool blog.

From the United States Gazette.

A New Song to an Old Tune.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, when first we were acquaint,
You did pretend to be a Whig, for Harry, sir, you went;
But now you’ve got in power, John, the cloven foot you show;
A shame unto all traitors, John, John Tyler, sir my Jo.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, the Whigs they fought thegither,
And many a canty day, John, they had with one anither;
But you have betrayed them, John, and why did you do so?
A shame unto all traitors, John, John Tyler, sir, my Jo.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, when nature first began,
To try her canny hand, John, her master work was man,
But when she turned you out, John, she said it was “no go,”
You proved to be but journey-work, John Tyler, sir my Jo.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, why will you be a fool,
And sneak around the Locos, John, who use you as a tool?
They’re laughing in their sleeves, John, to think that you’ll veto
The only bill can save you, John, John Tyler, sir my Jo.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, the higher monkies go,
The more they show their tails, John, you know it’s even so;
Then get you out the White House, John, and homeward do you go,
And make the people happy, John, John Tyler, sir, my jo.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 27, 1842

Image from the Turn Back to God website.

Sweet, Long-lasting love:


Oh, it’s mighty comfortin’ when your hair is gettin’ thin,
And the wrinkles in your face have come to stay,
Just to feel her little hand smoothin’ out each silver strand,
While you meet her lovin’ look and hear her say:

“John, my dear, it seems as tho’ every day you live you grow
Handsomer than in olden day.”
And you smile back at your wife while you think, in all your life
You never heard a sweeter word of praise.

Then somehow, the teardrops rise to your dim, old fadin’ eyes,
While you kiss the tender hand still white and small,
And you try to tell her how you loved her then — you love her now,
But, bless me, if the words will come at all!

For just then it comes to you to think of trials she’s gone thro’,
And borne without a murmur for your sake;
You can only bow your head at the lovin’ things she’s said,
And your poor old heart can only ache and ache.

But she knows what ails you then, and she kisses you again,
While you hear her gently whisper, sweet and low;
“Life has bro’t more hopes than fears; we have known more smiles than tears;
You are the dearest dear of dears, John Anderson, my Jo!”

So it’s comfortin’, I say, when your hair is gettin’ gray,
And our slippin’ down life’s hill a mighty fast,
Just to feel her little hand strokin’ back each silver strand,
While she whispers that she loves you to the last.

— Farmer’s Voice.

The Daily Herald (Delphos, Ohio) Feb 26, 1898

Image of Lunatic Asylum, Columbus, Ohio from Wiki.

Kind of odd, dare I say crazy, for this Judge to out “riding” with this  “lunatic.” Maybe he was jilted:

A Poetic Fancy.

Judge Gilmore, of Columbus, has the original manuscript of the following verse, written by a young man who went to the lunatic asylum about a week later. The young poet asked the Judge out for a drive, and when they had gone some miles into the country said his object was to submit something to him. He then recited, “John Anderson, my jo,” and when he came to the sad ending: “We’ll sleep the gither at the fit, John Anderson, my jo,” he exclaimed, “That’s not the end of it. Burns never finished it. That’s not the end of such life-long love. There’s more to it. I have the closing verse here.” Then he read it:

John Anderson, my jo, John,
We wilna min’ that sleep;
The grave, so cauld an’ dark, John,
The spirit canna keep
For we will wake in heaven, John;
An’ hand in hand we’ll go
An live for aye in blissfu’ love
John Anderson, my jo.

Lima Daily News (Lima, Ohio) Jul 9, 1889


Previous “John Anderson, My Jo” posts:

Robert Burns: “John Anderson, My Jo”


John Alcohol and the Poor Man’s Club

The Rule of Street Walking

January 31, 2011


A paper calls attention to the observance of the following rules, in all populous places.

Let it be understood by all, that every gentleman and every lady is expected to pass to the right.

Another matter connected with this should be observed by all that walk with ladies. It is to place the lady on your right. In this way and by observing the first all important rule, all who pass will be on the gentleman’s side, and thus avoid all contact of strangers with your companion.

The practice of changing sides with the lady at every corner, so as to give her the wall, is ridiculous and awkward in the extreme.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Aug 30, 1848

Forty-Niner Profile: Thaddeus B. Sturges

March 23, 2010

Thaddeus B. Sturges was one of the many men from Ohio who headed to California during the Gold Rush. He was the son of Lewis Burr Sturges, who was first married to Kezia Taylor Stiles, daughter of Ezra Stiles. Lewis later married Charlotte Belden/Belding, who I believe was the mother of Thaddeus.

Evidently, when Thaddeus Sturges left for the gold country, his wife, Eudosia Beach,  must have gone to live with  their daughter, Mrs. James Sidney Wilcox, in Utica, New York, where in 1859, she died. It appears they had 5 children: sons, Mahlon, Lewis and Thaddeus, and daughters, Eudosia and Marcia.

Thaddeus Burr Sturges was NOT one of the lucky ones. He did not make his fortune in gold. He died  penniless in California, like so many others.

View of Norwalk, Ohio - 1840's

From Historical Collections of Ohio, By Henry Howe – Vol. II – ©1888:

Norwalk in 1846. – Norwalk, the county-seat, named for Norwalk, Conn., is 110 miles north of Columbus and 16 from Sandusky City.  It lies principally on a single street, extending nearly two miles and beautifully shaded by maple trees.  Much taste is evinced in the private dwellings and churches, and in adorning the grounds around them with shrubbery.  As a whole, the town is one of the most neat and pleasant in Ohio.  The view given represents a small portion of the principal street; on the right is shown the courthouse and jail, with a part of the public square, and in the distance is seen the tower of the Norwalk institute.  Norwalk contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist and 1 Catholic church, 9 dry goods, 1 book and 4 grocery stores, 1 bank, 2 newspaper printing offices, 1 flouring mill, 2 foundries, and about 1,800 inhabitants.  The Norwalk institute is an incorporated academy, under the patronage of the Baptists: a large and substantial brick building, three stories in height, is devoted to its purposes; the institution is flourishing, and numbers over 100 pupils, including both sexes.  A female seminary has recently been commenced under auspicious circumstances, and a handsome building erected in the form of a Grecian temple.  About a mile west of the village are some ancient fortifications.

Thaddeus Burr Sturges, Prior to the California Gold Rush

Thaddeus Sturges appears to have taken an active role in helping to build the town of Norwalk:

Huron Reflector, May 4, 1830

Commemorating George Washington’s Birthday: An Oration given by Thaddeus B. Sturges. (LINK)

Thaddeus Sturges reads the Declaration of Independence on the 4th of July:

4th of July.

The fifty sixth anniversary of our National Independence was celebrated at Monroeville on Wednesday last. A large concourse of people assembled at an early hour at the Hotel of H. GRIFFIN — at eleven o’clock, a procession of ladies and gentlemen was formed by Capt. W.B. MATHEWSON, Marshal of the day — among whom were several of  the old Patriots of the Revolution — preceded by a band of music, and moved to a grove, where the necessary platform was erected in good style by the committee of arrangements. The Throne of Grace was addressed by the Rev. F.H. JOHNSON — the Declaration of Independence was audibly read by T.B. STURGES, Esq. — after which C.L. BOALT, Esq. pronounced an Oration in his usual manner of eloquence. The procession then formed, and repaired to H. GRIFFIN’s Hotel, where an excellent dinner was prepared in a booth erected, and where a large company “fared sumptuously.” After the cloth was removed, thirteen select toasts were drank with cheers, music, and the discharge of cannon — then a host of spirited and pointed volunteers — all of which we omit for want of room. The company then parted under good feelings, and there was nothing to mar the harmony of the day.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jul 10, 1832

Huron Reflector – Jun 7, 1836

To the Citizens of Norwalk

YOU are respectfully invited to give your attendance at a meeting to be holden at the Academy, on the evening of Saturday the 12th instant, for the purpose of adopting measures for opening a High School at the Academy for the ensuing year.

It is thought that the amount now paid to the different teachers of our School is amply sufficient to support a Literary Institution, not excelled by any other in the State.
Every citizen, who feels an interest in the education of our youth, is earnestly solicited to attend.

?. Buckingham, P.P. Fusselman,
?. Buckingham, P. Latimer,
Asabel Morse, John Bedford,
Moses Kimball, T.B. Sturges,
?. Sheffield, S. Preston,
?. Jenney, Cyrus Butler,
?. Forsyth, H. Gallup,
?. Morton, W.B. Mathewson,
?.G. Raitt, I. Marshall,
Enos Gilbert, D. Higgins,
?. Benedict, L. Bradley.

Norwalk, Jan. 5, 1833.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jan 8,  1833


The ornamental branches usual for the young Ladies, will be taught in the Female Department if desired, at proportionate prices.

Two quarters will compose a term as usual of 23 weeks. The annual vacation will be in the month of August. Good board can be procured in respectable families, for $1.25 to $1.50 per week. It will be expected that the tuition fees be paid quarterly or half yearly in advance, and that Young Students from abroad have a guardian appointed in the village for the time being.

The Committee would further observe, that the Institution is opened under the patronage of the Ohio Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, upon liberal principles. The objects are to provide an Institution where all classes of persons can receive such an education as will prepare them to enter College, or upon the duties of active life; and so combine manual labor, (for those students who may desire it,) as will both promote health of body and vigor of mind, and at the same time diminish or defray entirely the expense of education, and also cultivate a taste for agricultural and mechanical pursuits. For the above purposes, the use of the building known as the “Norwalk Academy,” has been granted, where a large number of students can be accommodated. It is contemplated, as soon as practical, to procure philosophical apparatus, enlarge the buildings, erect Boarding Houses, rooms, &c. for the accommodation of the students, cultivate a garden, provide in which the students can recreate and employ themselves in inclement weather.

Norwalk is beautifully situated, and is a thriving and remarkably healthy village. It has a moral and an intelligent population. The Protestant Episcopal, Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist Episcopal Churches, have stated preaching, besides occasionally other denominations. — These advantages, combined with the talent and experience of the Principal, the low price of tuition, the assurance that first rate assistants will be employed, and no pains spared to render the institution worthy, it is hoped, will secure that support, which an intelligent and liberal public are able to bestow.

T.B. STURGES,} Committee.

Norwalk, Oct. 19, 1833.  38tf

The Trustees at present, are Henry O. Sheldon, James Crabbs, Samuel Pennywell, Gershom Pierce, Ellzey Hedges, Sylvenus B. Day, Samuel Treat, Benjamin Cogswell, Benjamin Summers, Durin H. Tuttle, Julius House, Stanton Sholes, Edward S. Hamlin, Lemuel Powers, Platt Benedict, Thaddeus B. Sturges, Timothy Baker, Obadiah Jenney, Henry Buckingham, and William Gallup.

Editors in the north part of the State and in Michigan, friendly to the above Institution, will confer a favor by giving the above an insertion or two.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Nov 5,  1833

History of north central Ohio : embracing Richland, Ashland, Wayne, Medina, Lorain, Huron and Knox Counties Volume 1
By William A. Duff
Historical Publishing Company, Topeka-Indianapolis 1931

**Thaddeus B. Sturges was listed as a trustee of the Academy. pg 125

Norwalk Academy was another early established institution which contributed materially to the educational progress of our state. Among its students were Rutherford B. Hayes, who became president of the United States; General James B. McPherson, Civil War commander, who was killed in the fighting before Atlanta; and Charles Foster, who became governor of Ohio and secretary of the treasury in President Benjamin Harrison’s cabinet. A catalogue of the academy March 17, 1829, gives the names of eighty-three young men and sixty young women, total of 143 who had been under instruction there.

Huron Reflector – Sep 2, 1834


The following Resolutions were passed, at the meeting of the Trustees of Norwalk Seminary:

RESOLVED, That while we lament the loss of the Norwalk Seminary, with the Library, Apparatus, and Cabinet, we deem it our duty, instead of brooding over the calamity, to make vigorous and speedy efforts to repair it, by erecting an edifice upon an enlarged plan, in view of applying for a College Charter….

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 15,  1836


1837: Thaddeus Sturges purchases several pieces of land. This is only one of the land purchase records. I think there were four or five of them, all purchased at the same time.


While Thaddeus Sturges‘ father, Lewis B. Sturges began his political career as a Federalist, Thaddeus appears to have started out as a Republican, later switching  to Democrat, specifically, a Loco Foco.

For the Huron Reflector.
United we stand — divided we fall,

A sentiment containing a most important truth, and peculiarly applicable to us all, who are opposed to the misrule of General Jackson and his administration.
A Convention was held at Norwalk last Saturday, composed of 52 Delegates from different townships in the county — after due notice having been given to all — a number greater than probably can be convened on any future occasion. — There was little or no division as to Senator. Doctor Tilden had nearly all the votes. There was more difference of opinion as to Representative; but our deliberations, after a harmonious and friendly consultation resulted in a decided majority in favor of Moors Farwell of Portland. Several of the Delegates, among whom, was the writer of this communication, would have been more gratified in their personal feelings, had some other favorite of theirs been put in nomination. Yet for one, I fully acquiesce in the decision of the majority, and my best judgment is to support Mr. Farwell; for I cannot possibly find a substantial objection to this Gentleman, either as a capable man, or as a man of the most perfect integrity — As to talents, he is highly respectable.
Let us my friends, on this occasion, give up minor objections — prove, that as brethren, we are cordial in a righteous cause — divest ourselves of every personal, selfish motive; let our enemies know that Clay men can be united, and let us have for our motto — our Pole Star and directory, “united we stand — divided we fall” — and then we may be assured that victory is ours. If we shall not be so united, it is in vain to disguise the fact that defeat will be our deserved reward.

A Member of the Convention.

Norwalk, Sept. 17, 1832.

Huron Reflector – Sep 18, 1832

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Republican Convention – Clip 2

For the Huron Reflector.
Messrs. Preston & Co.

You will please withdraw my name as a candidate for Representative for the ensuing election. Permit me to take this opportunity of returning my thanks to those who have generously proffered me their aid; of saying to those who have felt it their duty to oppose my nominations, that I fully appreciate the laudable motives by which they were governed; and of expressing to all my cheerful acquiescence in the decision that has been made, and trust that the coming canvass will only be distinguished by mutual concession, good will, and unanimity. Having a common interest to promote, it is to be hoped that we shall go to the polls with harmony and concord, determined to sacrifice all personal considerations and sectional feelings, and unite in one common effort to promote the general good of the county,

Yours Respectfully,


Norwalk, September 17th 1832.

The Editor of the Clarion will please note the above withdrawal. — EDITORS.

Huron Reflector (Noralk, Ohio) Sep 18, 1832

Huron Reflector Oct 1832

We omitted to notice last week, the result of the criminal trials which were decided at the term of the Court of Common Pleas of this county, which terminated on the 20th ult. after a laborious session of two weeks — present, Hon. David Higgins President, and his associates.

State of Ohio, vs. William H. Harrison. Horse stealing — T.B. Sturges Esq. prosecuting Attorney for State, L.S. Beecher and John Bedford, Esqrs. for defence. Verdict, guilty — Prisoner sentenced to Penitentiary for 10 years.

Same, vs. Nehemiah Higby. Horse stealing — T.B. Sturges Esq. pros. Att’y for State, C.L. Boalt and John Bedfore, Esqrs for defence. Verdict, guilty — Prisoner sentenced to Penitentiary for four years.

Same, vs. Abraham Inman. Horse stealing — T.B. Sturges Esq. pros. Att’y. Prisoner plead guilty, and was sentenced to penitentiary for three years.

Same, vs. John Smith. Assault with intent to commit a rape — T.B. Sturges Esq. pros. Att’y for State, M’Laughlin and Bedford, for defense. Verdict, guilty — Prisoner sentenced to Penitentiary for seven years.

Same, vs. Wm. R. Roberts. Burglary and larceny — T.B. Sturges Esq. for State, O. Parish and C.L. Boalt, Esq. for defence. Verdict, guilty of larceny, and not guilty of burglary — Prisoner sentenced to be confined to Jail for 6 days.

Same, vs. John Crusen jr. Assault and battery — T.B. Sturges Esq. for State, Francis D. Parish for defense. Verdict, guilty — Prisoner sentenced to pay a fine of five dollars and costs of prosecution.

Same, vs. Rachael Morris. Murder — T.B. Sturges and A. Coffinbury, Esqrs. for State, O. Parish, P.R. Hopkins and J. Bedford Esqrs. for defence. This case occupied the Court for three days in the investigation, but the Jury returned not guilty — quite a nuber of other Indictments are yet pending, and were not tried for want of time.

THADDEUS B. STURGES, Attorney and Counsellor at Law, intending a journey to the State of New York, and will probably be absent about four weeks, informs his old employers and others, that his father, LEWIS B. STURGES, Attorney at Law, will attend to their business, and will advise and direct them in his absence.

Norwalk, Jan 16, 1833.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jan 22,  1833

Huron Reflector – Oct 1833

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Huron Reflector – July 1833

Milan, Sept. 14th, 1833.


An unusual excitement exists in this section of the county, respecting the election of Prosecuting Attorney; and it is believed that those who have been most active in producing this excitement are actuated by the most envious feelings towards Mr. Sturges, the present incumbent; and a base desire to destroy his well earned and fast increasing popularity. There are those, undoubtedly, who have been busily engaged, of late, in different parts of the county, in circulating reports calculated to cast a shade over the character of Mr. Sturges; but happily for him and his friends, they have nothing to fear from an examination of his conduct, if fairly made, and he is certainly too well known to sustain any injury from the many shafts of envy, which are and have been hurled at his character and reputation. He stands as high as any member of the bar for talents, and his character, for integrity and correct moral deportment, has never been questioned. He is no upstart nor adventurer; but bears a name which has always entitled him to a rank among the first, as a public man in this county; and which will remain unsullied, until degraded by some other person than himself.

For the Huron Reflector.

We trust that Mr. Sturges or his friends will not think it necessary, at present, to notice particularly a dishonorable attack, lately, implicating his fair character in a neighboring paper. Although we presume who is its author, yet we care not who he is. The intention of that publication is apparent to any man of sense — it is to create a personal altercation, and to divert the public mind from the merits of the contest between him and Mr. Root. The unbiased public opinion must be well known, as respects the claims of these two gentlemen. The decision is submitted to the candid electors of the County of Huron. This is communicated without the knowledge of Mr. Sturges.


Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 17,  1833

Thaddeus and Lewis Sturges 1835 Candidates

In 1835, both Thaddeus and his father Lewis, campaigned for elective offices. This campaign was particularly contentious, in part, I think,  because these two men were from the same family. The campaign commentary in the The Huron Reflector was quite brutal. Of course, that brutality held true for the later campaigns as well, being Thaddeus was a Democrat / Locofoco, and the Huron Reflector was a Whig/Republican paper. However, that is not to say that the mudslinging was one-sided; it was just as bad coming from the other side. In fact, during one election cycle, there was almost literally a “cat and mouse”  fight between the papers (Huron Reflector and The Experiment) regarding their respective candidates, one of which was Thaddeus Sturges.  The political flames were signed “cat” on one side, and “mouse” on the other.

Huron Reflector Aug 4, 1840

*     *     *

Huron Reflector – Sep 8, 1840


There was a Locofoco meeting at the Court House on Tuesday evening last. E.M. Stone and T.B. Sturges were the principal speakers. The former too ground against a national Bank, the distribution of the Land money and also against the present Tariff law. He said he was opposed to the distribution of the Land money, and to a Tariff, because these measures were calculated to REDUCE THE TAXES OF THE PEOPLE. He would not give his support to any measure of this kind, because he had no taxes to pay, — and if any measure was adopted, which would have the effect of reducing the present high rates of taxes it would be of no benefit to him. The tax payers of Huron county can make their own comments.

Mr. Sturges‘s remarks were principally confined to the subject of the Tariff. He made a statement, which we have every reason to believe he knew to be false at the time, to wit — that the manufacturers of Lowell, Mass., had realized a clear profit of 33 1/3 per cent, on the amount of capital invested in manufacturing the last year.

It is perhaps unnecessary for us to say that their profits have not averaged seven per cent.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 5,  1844

Locofoco Mass Meeting.

The Locofoco mass meeting for Huron county, that has been advertised in the Experiment for several weeks past, came off at this place on Saturday last. It was a very meagre affair. —

From the exertions made to get up a large meeting, we certainly expected to see a large crowd, but were disappointed. We are informed by those who counted the Locos as they marched to the Court-House, that the number was 165. Probably there were in the Court-House, including Whigs, 250 persons — not more.

After the Convention was organized, the following individuals were nominated as candidates for county officers, viz: — for Auditor, Lorenzo D. Conger; for Commissioner, Daniel Sowers; for Surveyor, Ert Mesnard; and for Coroner, a Dr. Gibson.

The Convention was then addressed by T.B. Sturges and E.M. Stone.

The remarks of Mr. Sturges were uncommonly rich, rare and edifying to the hosts of the “unterrified” there assembled. The burden of his song was in unfolding to the admiring eyes of the democracy, the peculiar beauties and unparalleled advantages of that El Dorado of a Locofoco’s hopes — the magnificent Republic of Texas — the fertility of which, he told them was so great, that one acre there was worth ten of the best land in Ohio! The little “neophyte” worked himself into such raptures upon this subject, that one would have thought he had received a regular sergeant’s commission, and was beating for volunteers among his Locofoco friends to follow those of them who have gone before to the ‘Republic of the Lone Star.’

And then as to the debt of $15,000,000 that was nothing. He had made a computation, and found that it would only amount to about 7 cents per acre. Who would not consider it a cheap bargain to buy five new States, — independent States — for seven cents an acre! Ah! then you go into it as a mere matter of speculation. Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio are already in the Union, and it would be a horrible violation of the Constitution to assume their debts, and let the National Government reimburse itself out of the proceeds of the public lands which the Government now holds in trust for these very States, — but to assume the debt of a foreign State — a State at war with a Government with which we are at peace, — that is perfectly right and constitutional, we would get the country for seven cents an acre!

About this point the orator was seized with a peculiar regard for the Tariff, and reasoned in this wise: If Texas is not annexed, the whole army of the nation cannot prevent smuggling along the whole line of our southwestern border! We are somewhat surprised at this tack of the gentleman’s argument; but in his new born admiration of the Tariff, he forgot to tell how much the case would be improved, either in this or in a military point of view, by changing the present boundary for the undefined and undefinable limits of the “vast Republic of Texas.” —

This matter requires a little explanation. Will he furnish it on some future occasion? He expatiated at some length upon the depredations, (present or prospective?) upon our revenue from this source, and then appealing to those special friends of the Tariff, the Locofocos, exclaimed — “reject Texas, and you reject me (unreadable).

“Gratiano speaks an infinite deal of nothing [unreadable 3 words] all Venice. His reasons are as two grains of wheat in two bushels of chaff: you shall seek all day ere you find them; and when you have them they are not worth the search.”

The next attempt was to excite some sympathy in behalf of “the statesman, the hero, the patriot Dorr.” The effort appeared ill-timed, and but little interest for the hero of Chepachet was excited. The orator depicted the sufferings of this apostle of liberty, — said Rhode Island had always been a colony of Great Britain, and her star ought not to be placed with the old thirteen. This nice pink of Federalism closed with the following traitorous sentiment. “LAW OR NO LAW, ORDER OR NO ORDER, THE PRISON DOORS OF DORR MUST AND SHALL BE BATTERED DOWN.”

We supposed the Quixotic gentleman had caught a fresh ‘inspiration’ from the progressive school in the east, in advance of his brethren. —

We did not expect to see this base and unholy sentiment of mobocracy responded to by even a Locofoco assembly — but so it was. It needs no comment.

Through the disgusting details of the rest of his speech, we have no desire to follow him. If he can derive comfort from such honor, let him enjoy it.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Aug 27,  1844

The Tariff — High Prices of Goods.

We understand that Thaddeus B. Sturges and Ezra M. Stone, are in the habit of stating in their speeches in different parts of the country, that all kinds of goods are higher now in consequence of the Tariff, than they were before the present Tariff Law was enacted. When T.B. Sturges, or any other Locofoco stump speaker makes a statement of this kind, he knows he is uttering a barefaced falsehood. In order to nail this lie to the counter we publish the following certificate, signed by several of the leading merchants of our village. We will only add — that if any merchant alleges that his goods are higher, now than formerly, in consequence of the enactment of the present Tariff, we would caution every person against purchasing of him, unless he is anxious to be cheated.


We the undersigned, Merchants of Norwalk, Huron county, Ohio, do hereby certify that since the Tariff of 1842 went into effect, goods have been cheaper than in any two years since we have been in business.

We also further certify, that foreign goods are as cheap this fall as we have ever known them.


Norwalk, September 26, 1844.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Oct 1, 1844

Huron Reflector – Sep 12, 1848


In the 1840’s, Thaddeus B. Sturges seems to have tried his hand at being a businessman:

The Experiment – Apr 6, 1842


The Experiment – Mar 2, 1842

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The Experiment – Jul 31, 1844

*     *     *

Thaddeus B. Sturges was also involved in the Temperance Movement:

Temperance Crusaders (Image from

Sons of Temperance Celebration.

Agreeably to the notices which have been published in the Huron and Erie papers, the Order of the Sons of Temperance, in the two counties, celebrated the day by a Mass Convention at this place. Unfortunately, the weather proved extremely rainy and disagreeable. Notwithstanding, the Sons (who love cold water) assembled in large numbers, and with them, also, an equal concourse of the cold water ladies.

About 11 o’clock, A.M., the Procession, which had formed on the public square, proceeded to the Grove selected at the west end of the place, conducted by the Bellevue Band, and attended also by the Milan Brass Band. The Procession presented a splendid appearance and afforded to all a vivid illustration of the moral force which the Temperance cause has acquired among us.

The arrangements reflected honor upon the Marshal, S. PENNEWILL, Esq., and his Assistants. Over five hundred ladies, from a single point, formed into the Procession, and it is supposed that an equal number of ladies proceeded from other directions. The total number of persons present, at the Grove, is estimated at about three thousand, of whom, two thirds were Sons, Rechabites, Cadets and Ladies.

The exercises at the Grove were announced by the President of the day, S.F. TAYLOR, Esq., of Milan. Prayer was offered by Rev. WM. L. HARRIS*, of this place. The Declaration of Independence was read by T.B. STURGES, Esq., also of this place, who prefaced it with some appropriate and eloquent remarks. The meeting was then addressed by the Orator of hte day, I.J. ALLEN, Esq., of Mansfield, in a speech of much interest.

NOTE: Rev. Harris was educated at the Norwalk Seminary, mentioned  previously in this post.

The violence of the rain caused an interruption of his address, and at the close of the exercises, the meeting was adjourned to the Court House. Owing to the inclemency of the weather, most of those from abroad were obliged to return; but the Court House was thronged with those who remained. M. ALLEN resumed his remarks, and in a brilliant and powerful address, reviewed the history of National Intemperance. He traced its destroying agency in the fall of successive Empires, from Nineveh to Rome, and showed the appalling influence which it has exerted on the destiny of former nations. He exhibited the intimate connection which exists between national liberty and national intelligence and virtue; and he proved that moral and educational associations were the best conservators of the Republic.

His address embraced a variety of important and deeply interesting views, and has left a profound impression on all who heard it. At the close, some Resolutions were presented by T.B. Sturges, Esq., which were adopted, and the meeting adjourned.

Notwithstanding the adverse weather, this demonstration cannot fail to produce a favorable effect on the prosperity of the Order in this section. There are now about twenty Divisions in the two counties, most of which have not yet seen their first anniversary, and we believe one only has witnessed its second. In this State, about 16,000 have joined the Order during the past year, and nearly 100,000, throughout the Union. It now includes over 250,000 members.

Huron Reflector (Huron, Ohio) Jul 11, 1848

Based on his son, Mahlon Sturges’ biographical sketch, Thaddeus B. Sturges’ financial problems coincided with rush for California Gold. In 1849, Thaddeus would have been about 48 years old,  which was older than the average gold seeker; but probably with nothing left to lose, he headed for the gold country.

Buckeyes Catch the Gold Fever: A Letter From the Plains

T.B. Sturges arrives in Gold Country: A Letter Received

Mahlon B. Sturges was one of Thaddeus’ sons. He also was a miner, seemingly out of financial necessity, and his story is almost as sad as his fathers. The following biography can be found at this link:  Alameda County California Biographies – 1883

MAHLON BEACH STURGES.—Was born in Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio, February 26, 1830, and is the son of Thaddeus B. Sturges—at one time District Attorney of that county for a number of years, a graduate of Yale College, and a pioneer of 1849 to California—who died in Placerville, in 1851. The subject of our sketch having received his early education in the common school of his native place, and finishing at a private school at Marcellus, Onondaga County, New York, at the age of eighteen prepared to go to college, but owing to the financial embarrassment of his father this course was abandoned, and he took to commercial pursuits. Obtaining the position of book-keeper in the Franklin House, Cleveland, Ohio, he there remained two years, when he changed to the Durham House, and held a like position there until the intelligence of his father’s death caused him to resign and proceed to California, to do which he was obliged to raise money by an insurance on his life, which has long ego been refunded. Coming by way of Panama, our subject arrived in San Francisco in March, 1852, and immediately on arrival secured a ticket for Sacramento, which left him penniless. On gaining that town he found it submerged. Mr. Sturges proceeded to the mines, in company with the late William B. Mastick of Oakland and Judge Carey of San Francisco. On arriving at Michigan Bar, where he found his brother, he engaged in mining as an occupation (Mr. Mastick and Mr. Carey continued on to the mountains) until the fall of that year, when he embarked in the mercantile business. Having proceeded to Sacramento to purchase goods, as ill-fate would have it, his newly-bought stock was entirely consumed in the great fire of that season. Broke in purse, he was by no means so in spirit, therefore he once more faced the mocking world, and proceeded to the mountains, by way of Marysville. Arriving at Rabbit Creek—a place now called La Porte, in Plumas County—he cooked for a company of miners that winter. He next worked for *ages for about one year, when he took up claims in company with J. M. Perry and George Stowe, both of Illinois. After three years’ toil he then sold his interest to his partners, who afterwards took out $64,000 worth of dust in three weeks, and in four years they took out over $300,000. Mr. Sturges now took up a claim for himself adjoining, and “struck it rich,” but owing to a change of the adjoining claim it swung him off, and he lost all. Once more his pocket was at ” bed-rock.” Undeterred, he proceeded to Jamison City, Plumas County, and conducted a hotel for James Kitts, where he remained until the fall of 1856; then moving to Mariposa County, he re-embarked in mining operations for one winter, but, the season being dry, and not meeting with much success, he footed it to Stockton, whence he found his way to San Francisco. He now accepted a position as steerage steward on board the steamer Sonora, then commanded by Captain Bobbie, in which he made several trips to Panama: He now returned to the Bay City, married, and went to the mines at La Porte, but soon moved to Richmond Hill, working for wages at anything that offered; Mrs. Sturges, in the first year, making on her own account $1,800. Our subject now changed his habitation to Sawpit Flat, where, purchasing a claim, he commenced working it, while his wife carried on the laundry business, at four dollars a dozen, clearing thereby from thirty to forty dollars per week. At the end of four years he gave up mining, and sold out his claims. At this period he served two terms as a Justice of the Peace and Notary Public under Governor • Low’s administration. Mr. Sturges next purchased the water rights of Onion Valley Creek, consisting of eight miles of ditches, which supplied the mines of Sawpit Flat and Richmond Hill with water. Two weeks after purchasing, the miners of Sawpit Flat struck rich pay, which made his purchase very valuable. In one year he made enough to pay for his purchase and leave a handsome balance. He continued in this undertaking until 1867, when he sold out on account of ill-health. He removed to San Francisco; and there he was engaged for a year in keeping a lodging-house, when, disposing of it in 1869,.he paid a visit to his former home in the Eastern States for the purpose. of securing a patent on an improved gas-burner he had invented. His intention was to settle in the Eastern States, but, owing to the great climatic changes between heat and cold, he returned to California in July, 1870, and purchased his present farm of fifty acres, situated one and a half miles from Washington Corners, on the main road to Centreville, on which he has made many improvements, being engaged in general farming and stock-raising, devoting much of his time to the rearing of thoroughbred short-horn cattle, a number of his raising having taken premiums at the different fairs throughout the State. Married in San Francisco, April 22, 186o, Miss Elizabeth Kane, a native of Philadelphia, of Irish parents; no issue.

A few snippets for Thaddeus Sturges’ father, Lewis Burr Sturges:

Lewis B. Sturges – 1832


Lewis Sturges Dies 1844

Although it states there will be an obituary notice next week, I checked the paper and couldn’t find one.

BURR Surname Trivia: Lewis BURR Sturges, and therefore, Thaddues BURR Sturges, are distantly related to Aaron BURR, by way of a common ancestor named Jehue BURR.

A General History of the Burr Family by Charles Burr Todd – 1902 – Google Book LINK In this book, Lewis B. Sturges is listed as an executor of a will for Thaddeus Burr. His father, I believe, also Thaddeus Burr, was married to Abigail Sturges.  There are other Sturges’ mentioned as well. These families seemed to  marry quite a bit. There was also a Sturges Lewis mentioned, although I don’t know exactly how he is connected.

The Poetic Presidential Campaign of Zachary Taylor

November 30, 2009

Zachary Taylor

From the Ohio State Journal


BY J. GREINER — TUNE,Uncle Ned.” [original song LYRICS]

There lives an old soldier, there never was a bolder,
On the Mississippi, down below;
His name is Old Zack, and he’s upon the track,
For President, in Ohio.


The Locofoco leaders look blue, they do,
So go it with a rush, boys, go’
For old Rough and Ready, we know everybody
Wants President, in Ohio.

With a long strong pull, pull together, altogether,
United as one man go;
With hearts true as steel, put your shoulders to the wheel,
For Old Zack in Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders, &c.

Tho’ Cass broke his sword on a stump, and he ‘swor’d,’
(As some say he did long ago;)
The story wont pass — all ‘gas,’ Mr. Cass,
It wont do in Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders &c.

Let Cass run his chances — we think “circumstances
Will prevent his attendance,” you know;
Old Zack fights to win — he’s good looking, he’ll come in,
With a shout from Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders, &c.

Poor Cass, a man of doubt, wires in and wires out —
Both this way and that way he’ll go;
But candidate Cass, like a snake in the grass,
You can’t hide in Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders, &c.

Hang your banners on the wall, Whigs, Democrats and all,
For Old Rough and Ready we go;
For he’s an honest man — elect him boys, we can,
And we’ll do it in Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders, &c.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jun 27, 1848


Composed by J. Greiner, Esq., of Columbus, Ohio, and dedicated to the Detroit Rough and Ready Glee Club, and sung by them at the Washtenaw County Convention, July 4th.


Come kindle your watch-fire every true Whig,
No longer stand watching the weather,
In heart and in hand, united we’ll stand,
Sink, swim, live or die, altogether.
Then rally, “Whigs rally” from hill-top and valley,
Your Banners unfurl to the sky.

Old Zack’s on the track, will you stand at his back,
All you in his favor say “Ay,” (that’s it.)
Stand up to the rack, ye friend of Old Zack,
Ye Whigs that will never say die.

Shall we in the hour of danger shrink back,
Surrender Old Zack, never! no —
Who never turned back of his and to a friend,
Nor back of his coat to a foe.
We’ll give ’em a little more grape “Capt. Bragg,”
His enemies proudly defy.

Old Zack’s on the track, &c.

Alas! poor Cass, our noise and confusion,
His sensitive soul will confound.
The sword he ran into the old hollow stump,
He soon will run into the ground.
The Court of France may have taught him to dance,
To cut a pigeon-wing high.

Old Zack’s on the track, &c.

When Old Zack is snug in the Presidential Chair,
Then we shall enjoy the fun,
He never will “GO IN” for “BURNING THE BARN,”
But Lord, how the RATS they will run.
Tho’ poor Matty Van is a badly used man,
His chances are all in my eye.

Old Zack’s on the track, &c.

Then saddle the Nags, the track is all ready,
No matter how many may come.
We’ll bet “Old Whitey” will distance the field,
We know that his rider is “SOME.”
Then down with the dust, and fork up the dough,
No longer stand parleying by.


Old Zack’s on the track, will you stand at his back,
All you in favor, say “Aye,” OLD ZACK, (that’s it.)
Never fly from the track, ye friends of Old Zack,
Ye Whigs that never say die.

N.B. The audience answer “Aye,” in the Chorus.”

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Aug 1, 1848

From the Library of Congress website, an explanation of the above image:

SUMMARY:  In a ring a large bull, wearing a ribbon marked “The Rough & Ready” between its horns, faces five matadors. The bull represents Zachary Taylor, nicknamed “Old Rough and Ready.” The matadors are prominent Whigs, who hold capes expressing their varied expectations of the candidate. The matadors are (from left to right): Senator John J. Crittenden holding a “Wilmot [Proviso]” cape; New York editor James Watson Webb, who states, “We desire you to have–” [written on cape] “No Veto Power.” An unidentified man (possibly Congressman John M. Botts) says, “We will have–” [on cape] “A National Bank.” Daniel Webster insists, “We must have–” [on cape] “A High Tariff!” An unidentified man standing behind Webster exclaims, “I hope that we won’t be Bulled!” In the background are stands crowded with spectators, above which flies a flag “U. S.”


From the Winchester (Ia.) Orthopolitan.



TUNE — “OLD GRANITE STATE.” [original song LYRICS]

We are coming, we are coming!
To the battle just begun,
We’ve a true and tried commander,
For ’tis Taylor leads us on;
He who fought so bravely for us,
On the eighth and ninth of May,
And amid the fearful carnage
On the hights of Monterey.
We are all for Taylor.
We are all for Taylor.
We’re for Fillmore and for Taylor.
For the honest and the true.

He who never has surrendered
Though the foe stood four to one,
Is the brave and gallant Taylor,
Who will nobly lead us on;
And the ides of next November
Will record another name,
In the highest nich of glory,
On the brightest scroll of fame.
We are all for Taylor, &c.

Though our foes may count by legions,
We will never shun the fray,
But will bravely march to battle,
And are sure to win the day;
For ’tis Rough and Ready leads us
Who has never known defeat,
And his word is every “ONWARD,”
For he knows not a retreat.
We are all for Taylor, &c.

Where the battle rages thickest
Will our gallant chief be found,
And his cheering voice be ringing
To encourage all around;
Every danger nobly scorning,
He will boldly lead the van,
To a Buena Vista greeting
For the man of Michigan.
We are all for Taylor, &c.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Aug 8, 1848


AIR — Who’ll be King but Charlie. [Original song LYRICS]

The news comes in, on every hand,
From mountain top to ocean,
To stir the heart and rouse the land,
And keep the ball in motion.
With banners flowing and bosoms glowing,
And ranks all true and steady,
A nation’s voice proclaims our choice,
Hurrah for Rough and Ready!
With banners flowing and bosoms glowing,
Come, Southrons and Northrons, we’re all agoing
To join the throng and shout the song,
Hurrah for Rough and Ready!

The Western lads are all alive,
See how the prairie blazes!
And rock and hill fling back the cheer
The distant frontier raises.
With banners flowing, &c.

The boys of Maine will try again
What hearts and hands can do, sir,
And there’s the star, that never sets,
She blazes brightly too, sir.
With banners flowing, &c.

The ladies all are on our side,
And urge us to our duty,
And where’s the cause that ever failed,
When backed by truth and beauty?
With banners flowing, &c.

Then here’s to him, the brave old man,
The soul of truth and honor,
He leads us in our country’s name,
God’s blessing be upon her.
With banners flowing, &c.

Then freemen, up, to all you love,
Be firm and true and steady,
And every man resolve to stand
Like men by Rough and Ready.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 5, 1848

From the Ohio State Journal.

One of the Old Zack Songs.

TUNE — “O look ye there.”

O all ye pouting, doubting Whigs,
Who go about as mourners,
Come wipe the tear-drops from your eyes,
Stop croaking on the corners.

O come along, with shout and song,
And “go it” while you’re able,
We’ll put Old Zack in the White House, boys,
“Old Whitey” in the White House stable.

Ah me! to hear these croakers croak,
O, ’tis a “sin to Moses!”
They snuffle, they “can’t go Old Zack,”
And then they wipe their noses.

O come along, &c.

Cheer up! cheer up! ye fearful Whigs,
And on your harness buckle;
At doubting Whigs the devil laughs,
The Locofocos chuckle.

O come along, &c.

The Locos swore that Harry Clay
Made pledges far too many;
The rascals now abuse Old Zack,
Because he don’t make any.

O come along, &c.

The Taylor platform’s broad enough
To hold this mighty nation;
‘Tis built of Whig materials all,
And has a firm foundation.

O come along, &c.

The Locos tried at Baltimore,
To fix a platform bigger;
They set a “dead-fall,” and for bait
Stuck Cass upon the trigger.

O come along, &c.

The sly old fox of Kinderhook,
He eyes the trap with wonder;
He thought ‘twould do for catching rats,
But “foxes” wouldn’t go under.

O come along, &c.

Tho’ Cass has lived all his six lives
In office, for the trimmings,
Yet Old Zack curries the longest pole,
And he’ll knock all the “‘SIMMONS.”

O come along, &c.

Nine Taylors to make a single man,
We always used to muster;
Take nine such Taylors as Old Zack,
And wouldn’t he be a buster!

O come along, &c.

Then come along with shout and song,
And “go it” strong, we’re able,
W’ell put Old Zack in the White House, boys,
Old Whitey in the White House stable.

O come along &c.

P.S. — Tho’ chicken thieves abuse Old Zack,
They’ll “catch it” if they’re taken,
For tho’ Joe Bennett stole the hog,
He didn’t save his bacon.

O come along, &c.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 12, 1848


(Changed from the N.Y. Tribune.)

“Haul down the flag! — all’s over;
We have done what men could do,
Unbroken through adversity,
A tried and gallant crew;
So it has been with Truth and Right
In every age and clime.
Beaten, — borne down by the numbers, —
And conquered —– for a time.”

Such — when the fight was ending,
And our boldest men turned pale;
For the stoutest hearts had learned to fear
Under that driving gale;
When our ships were drifting helplessly
Upon the heaving tide,
And the good Kentucky liner
Poured in her last broadside —

Such, were our thoughts when beaten;
But how else should it be?
False flags and foreign bottoms
Gathered from every sea,
Freebooters of all nations
That sail the salt sea brine;
Thank God! there wasn’t one of them
Fought in the old Whig Line!

In the rough and bitter weather
And the angry tempest’s frown,
Few Whig ships were left together,
When the dismal sun went down,
Repairing the disasters
Of the storm and battle’s wreck;
But we still hear distant cheering
When we listen from the deck.

None know — so thick the night is,
What ships yet live or drown;
And the Constitution’s color
Are at half-mast, union down;
But the old ship heaves a rocket
Through the darkness for a sign,
And from the whole scattered squadron
See the dancing signals shine!

For the years are rolling over,
And the time has come again;
We have another fight to fight,
Another field to win,
The LAST field — for the country;
If but once more we fail;
Hoist your last rags of canvas,
And TRUST the favoring gale!

We were not always beaten;
Think of the times of yore!
Shake out the ancient ensign
We conquered with before!
The Flag of the Revolution
Flying as first it flew;
Up to the highest topmast!
Send up the Buff and Blue!

With shout for our new Commander,
Roll out that larboard gun,
Signal the beat to quarters,
There are fields yet to be won;
And while he nobly leads us —
While we with him conquering strive,
Nine Cheers for Admiral Taylor,
The bravest man alive!

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 19, 1848

From the Rough and Ready Songster.


Twas in the trench at Vera Cruz,
A group of soldiers lay,
Weary and worn with working
At the guns the live long day.
Their faces were begrimmed with sand,
And soot from shot and shell
Exploding in the crumbling earth —
For fast the missiles fell.

Yet cheerly they chatted,
For their hearts with hope beat high,
They knew the hour of victory
Was surely drawing nigh.
There came a war-worn soldier,
To mingle with the rest;
They bade him welcome to their cheer,
And gave him of the best.

He’d served with General Taylor,
And they asked him of the man,
Who first and last had led the way
To victory in the van —
On the winding Rio Grande
On the eighth and ninth of May,
And the storm of Monterey.

“I knew him first,” the soldier said,
“Among the Everglades,
When we gave the savage red-skins
Our bayonets and our blades.
I think I hear his cheerful voice:
‘On column!’ Steady! steady
So hardy and so prompt was he,
We called him Rough and Ready.

“He rode upon an old white horse;
And wore a brown surtout —
But, oftener, when the ground was deep,
He trudged with us on foot.
The man from whose canteen he drank
Was envied and though lucky;
He had the brave and kind good heart
The honored old Kentucky.

“By wounds outworn, I left the field;
But when a new campaign
Against another foe commenced,
I joined the ranks again.
‘Twas fun alive, boys, once again
To hear the sabre’s clank,
To see old Rough and Ready ride
His white horse on our flank.

“At Palo Alto comrades, there
He gave us work to do,
And o’er La Palma’s sulphury smoke
His flag triumphant flew.
When from the fire his aid-de-camp
Would have the chief retire,
Old Rough and Ready merely said,
‘We’ll ride a little nigher.’

“You should have seen the brave old boy
In the streets of Monterey,
When the cannon swept the plaza,
How he sternly stood at bay.
When shell, and grape, and cannon ball
On their deadly errand went —
The general seemed a man of steel,
And fire his element.

“And if a wounded soldier,
In the streets of Monterey,
Or friend or foe, looked up to him
Imploring, whence he lay,
He stooped to wipe the drops of pain
That dimmed the marble brow,
Or proffered from his own canteen
A drink — I see him now!

“At Red Buena Vista
My part I could not bear —
But they tell me that the brown surtout
And the old white horse were there.
And well do I believe it;
For the foe stood four to one —
And without old Rough and Ready
How had the fight been won?

“I’ve worn the sergeant’s chevron,
And I may wear it yet —
But old Rough and Ready tells me
I shall wear the epaulet;
But in the ranks or out of them,
To him I’ll still prove steady,
And long as I’ve a tongue to talk,
Speak out for Rough and Ready!

So spake the war-worn soldier
To his comrades as they lay
Beneath the breast-work, where they’d served
The guns the live-long day.
And their sleepiness and weariness
It fairly chased away,
When the Rio Grande’s hero
Spoke the man from Monterey.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 26, 1848

A New Taylor Man.

Mr. Willis Hall, the Attorney, has gone over to Van Buren, but Mr. Willis, the Poet, has come over to Gen. Taylor. The exchange is a very good one for our side. We could expect no less from our old coadjutor and assistant, than he should follow the lead of the Mirror, in going for our candidate for the Presidency. The song that we publish from the Boston Atlas, by Mr. Willis, is decidedly the best Taylor song that has yet been published, and is worthy the reputation of the author.
[N.Y. Mirror.


TUNE: — “Dandy Jim of Caroline.” [original song LYRICS]

Come Whigs! come brothers — one and all!
Flock to the “Rough and Ready” call!
Come stand up close and hear our song,
And follow it up with chorus strong!


Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can —
Hero, sage, and kindly man!
In council great as in deadly fray,
But a plain old fellow for every day.

Now, where has been for many a year,
This will so firm — this head so clear?
Such men, for Fame, will oceans swim!
Zack chose that Fame should come to him!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Zack’s coat is loose — his manner’s “rough” —
But, near him, hearts bow fast enough;
And the old great coat will do to wear!
Tho’ a bullet hole shows here and there!*
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

To faithful guard a weary post —
At any odds to fight a host —
To spare the weak — to keep his word —
To hold his own by pen or sword.
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

When Hull’s surrender laid us low,
Fort Harrison next met the foe;
Hope saw the onset in despair —
She didn’t know old Zack was there!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Worth twenty lives, the risk’d renown,
The desp’rate stake, to save Fort Brown!
But Palo Alto clear’d the track,
And through Resaca went Old Zack!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

By ruthless storm, at Monterey,
More proudly might have gone the day —
But wife and child stood by the foe,
And Taylor let the glory go!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

But Polk began a rat to smell; —
Zack serv’d his country quite too well!
To his “high horse” they “hollered whoe!”
But couldn’t stop “old whitey” so!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Supplies cut off — “boys” all away —
In doors, they thought, he’d have to stay,
And now Polk’s passport friend might call,
And laugh at Zack behind his wall.
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Down came Santa Ana, five to one,
With thanks to Polk, expecting fun!
Buena Vista wasn’t far,
Zack let him do his laughing “thar!”
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Hard was the foe that day to drive —
One new recruit to veterans five!
But when it grew too tough, they say,
Old spy-glass came and turn’d the day!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Buena Vista’s star is bright!
But where will fall its purest light!
On Zack’s last order, sad and low —
Bring in the wounded, friend and foe!”
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

A heart with victory softer grown —
A head that knaves soon let alone —
A hand no foe drove ever back —
And a soul all truth has glorious Zack!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Now if you’d like to know the school
Where Presidents best learn to rule —
Zack’s life is just the very one
God chose to train a Washington!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor’s can —
Hero, sage, and kindly man!
In council great, as in deadly fray —
But a plain old fellow for every day.

*NOTE. — It was mentioned in one account of the battle of Buena Vista, that Gen. Taylor’s grey great coat had two bullet-holes through it, when he took it off after the action.
[Boston Atlas.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Oct 31, 1848

From the Newark Daily Advertiser.



Night-shadows fell cold at the closing of day,
Where the morrow should see valor’s contest with numbers;
The bivouaked armies in hostile array
Sank to rest, while the sentries kept watch o’er their slumbers.
‘Neath the stars few to fight the proud foe in his might,
While loved hearts afar, quailed with fear at the sight;
But the soldier reposed, with the dreams of the brave
That the Stars and the Stripes should triumphantly wave.

The drum and the bugle aroused them at morn
And they sprang to their arms for the contest of glory;
Their chieftain that flag, long defeatless, had borne,
With a fame that shall ne’er be forgotten in story.
Like the waves of the main swept their horse o’er the plain,
While red grew each hill and ravine with the slain;
But they saw through the battle cloud’s darkness, the brave,
That star flag, though torn, still triumphantly wave.

O’er wearied they sank on their weapons to rest
When the night-cloud again on their valor descended,
Mid comrades the noblest, the bravest and best
Who slept their last sleep where their courage contended.
But when broke the day, O! where — where were they —
The proud legions of night? — in their fear fled away!
Then gladly they saw that star-flag o’er the brave,
In the sheen of the morning triumphantly wave.

All hail to the Hero who valiantly led
First and foremost the rank of his country’s defenders!
For now we have railed, and made him our head,
First in peace to proclaim him who never surrenders.
The laurel wreath fair from his brow none can tear,
But still greener shall bloom in the President’s chair;
And the nation, rewarding the honest and brave,
Shall behold, its star-banner triumphantly wave.

O! the Ides of November will tell them a tale
In a voice that shall echo like Waterloo’s thunder;
And autumn winds mournfully whistle and wail
A sad dirge for officials who fatten on plunder.
Corruption’s dark blight far shall flee from HIS sight
Who asked for no favors yet feared not the fight;
And as Buena Vista beheld o’er the brave,
That Star-flag o’er us shall triumphantly wave.

NEWARK, Oct. 11, 1848.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Nov 7, 1848

[Written for the Dalem Taylor Glee Club.]


TUNE — “O, carry me back to Old Virginia. [original lyrics and music]

These stirring time — these stirring times —
We’ve worked both night and day,
With rousing speeches and merry rhymes,
Our toil has been but play.
And now we’ve whipped both Cass and Van,
We need not work any more —
Oh row them up the old Salt river,
And set them on the shore.
Oh row them up, &c.

Now the women all, both great and small,
Have gone for honest Zack;
And every married Taylor man
Has a Taylor wife at his back.
While the maidens fair, they all declare,
Their brightest smiles are for
The gallant youth, who love the truth,
And Cass and Van abhor.
Oh row them up, &c.

See in their State, the damsels wait,
On the man they delight to honor;
There’s Flora Day, so far away,
Our blessings rest upon her;
And Delia Ware, so fresh and fair,
Did her hero worship prove;
While Louisa Anna has shown she can a
Fine old veteran love.
Oh row them up, &c.

Miss Carolina she is as fine a
Girl as walks the earth,
And Georgia, too, she is true blue,
And does credit to her birth;
But of all my land, Miss Rhody Island,
Has made it clear to sight,
That Providence smiles on woman’s wiles,
When she uses them aright.
Oh row them up, &c.

We give our hand to Mary Land,
For she’s a real lady;
But Miss. S. Sippi is too tippy,
To vote for Rough and Ready.
Miss Souri and Virginia,
(Now is it not too shocking?)
Say –‘No, we will not let you in,
So prithee ‘stop that knocking.”
So row them up, &c.

Each Taylor man has done what he can,
And worked with right good will,
With thought and sense and eloquence,
That to head and heart appeal,
Yet ’tis but human that every woman
Should in our cause assist;
And all must own, that behind the throne,
Is a power than none can resist.
We’ve rowed them up the old Salt river,
And set them on the shore.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Dec 26, 1848

For the Huron Reflector.



Now the campaign of ’48
Has reached a joyous close!
The Whigs have gained their President,
In spite of all their foes.


And here’s to the Old Keystone State!
For she has nobly done;
And home protection she shall have
Without the advalorem;
Without the advalorem, boys,
Without the advalorem;
And home protection she shall have
Without the advalorem.

The Loco lads unfurled their flag,
With “Cass and Butler too;”
But ‘gainst Old Zack they could not stand,
Old Zack the brave and true.

The leaders thought that all was safe
As in the days of yore;
But the Whigs unfurled a nobler flag,
With “Taylor and Fillmore.”

Now Mat’s retired to private life,
And Butler is no more;
The craft that bore old Cass away,
Has reached Salt River’s shore.


And here’s to the great Empire State,
She has done nobly too;
And out of members thirty-four,
She give us thirty two.
She gives us thirty-two my boys,
She gives us thirty-two;
And out of members thirty-four,
She gives us thirty-two.

The shores are bad, the River rough,
And oh, how hard they toil!
The Locofoco leaders now
For help cry out “Free Soil!”

Ah! doughfaces, hold down your heads,
Your Cass is fairly beat,
By that Free Soil for which he said
We could not legislate.

Call not for shame, upon that name,
Or raise your idle bark?
For when the question was brought up,
You didn’t toe the mark.

That Free Soil robe you have put on,
Will never stand the dye,
‘Tis like the morning’s gossamers
That with the zephyrs fly.

You now may put up tongue and pen;
There’s nothing you can do,
Our Territories come in free
Before next fifty-two!

Old Zack, you’re now our President,
The Whigs fell wondrous nice;
But ere you start from Baton Rouge,
I’ll give you some advice.


And here’s to the New England States!
I know they Slavery hate;
But Free Soil traps could not catch them
With Matty for their bait.
With Matty for their bait, my boys,
With Matty for their bait,
But Free Soil traps could not catch them,
With Matty for their bait.

Now when you go to Washington,
Forget all past abuse;
[But never rest until you’re cleared
Tom Benton’s buzzard roost!

If office-seekers should come round,
Give Jamie Polk a share,
For he has labored wondrous hard
To put you in the Chair.

And as respects your Cabinet,
I have one word to say;
Let your first choice be first in worth,
Our glorious HARRY CLAY.

When legislation gets on smart,
And Jack Calhoun looks sour;
Then Zack, this last advice respect,
Don’t use the Veto power.


Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Dec 26, 1848

From the New-York Tribune.

“So Say we All.”

The other day a  trot came off — ’twas Suffolk versus Polk —
I railwayed to the trotting course, along with many folk;
I staked my cash on “Jemmy K.”  they told me he would win,
But then, too soon I found, alas! that I was taken in.
To Saratoga then I went — to dance I had a will.
And asked a damsel that I saw to dance in the quadrille;
She said me yes — confound the girl, I’d dearly like to choke her,
For she knew how — but I did not — to tumble thro’ the Polka;
Music struck up, and we struck out — oh! ’twas a thing of course;
I lost my BALANCE, as I did when betting on the horse;
And now I hear another Polk will run another race
Upon the Presidential course, against the old “white face.”
But on my life, I swear to you, that General Lewis Cass
Can’t get the man who backed the horse to LOSE UPON THE ASS.


Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 12, 1848

Lewis Cass

When the Locofocos tell us how Gen. Cass behaved on surrendering himself to the British, they take a very unfair advantage of us. We cannot point them to old Rough and Ready’s behavour at a surrender. — Prentice.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 5, 1848


In the book, Lewis Cass and the Politics of Moderation (Google Books LINK) pg. 13: More about the surrender.

Margaret Taylor (Image from

The President elect is a joker. At a tavern in Maryland, while he was waiting for the Baltimore train, among others who introduced themselves was one of the obiquitous Smith family. On hearing the name, Gen. Taylor remarked, with a merry twinkling of the eye —

“That’s no name at all.”

“Why, General,” replied Mr. Smith, “you should have no objection to the name, Mrs. Taylor was a Smith.”

“Yes,” added he promptly, “but I made her change her name, and I advise you to do so too.”

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Apr 3, 1849

Home of Zachary Taylor, "Springfield," Brownsboro Road

Correspondence of the New York Express.

Old Zack at Home.

WASHINGTON, March, 27, 1849.

The President is one of the most humorous and campanionable bodies of the metropolis. — He satisfies everybody here, which is more than anybody else does, and amuses even those who are disappointed. He enjoys himself much, I should think, but whether he does or not, everybody is at home where he is.

Upon the reception days the ladies are first cared for and served. He offers an arm to one, a seat to another, tells a third where his daughter and niece are to be found, and has the faculty of entertaining a dozen at a time. When the ladies are all attended to, he has a kind word for the gentlemen, and a dozen for little children, if any are around him. The more formal visitors address him as “Mr. President;” the less formal as “General Taylor,” which he seems rather to prefer.

There are no servants or attendants about him, and when he wants to see any of his household he goes to them rather than have them come to him. “Excuse me for introducing myself,” said a gentleman the other day. “No excuse is necessary, sir. Here, if anywhere, the people have a right to come without an introduction.”

“I have been a soldier for forty years,” said an old Marylander to him the other day, “but not so successful as you, General Taylor.”

“Only,” said old Zack in reply, “because you had not so many opportunities to win success.”

Old men, young children and ladies, seem to be the favorite companions of the President. For the first he has the respect and care due to old age, for the second, the love of a patriot, and for the last, the gallantry of a soldier and a well bred Southern man.

Truth seems to be with him the highest standard of politeness, and he will not seem what he does not feel and what he is not at heart.

The other day having visited Mrs. John Quincy Adams, and Mrs. Madison, he rode up hill and down dale in pursuit of Mrs. Alexander Hamilton. It was long before he found her, (having recently changed her lodgings,) but he went from one end of the city to the other, and seemed to enjoy the interview mightily.

Indeed the practice of the President is to learn all he can of the past, and from men who knew most of the early Presidents and the early history of the Government. Washington’s farewell address he has treasured up  within his heart of hearts, and Washington’s life and Washington’s example, is the mirror of his own life. “What do you propose,” says a friend to him now and then. “What Washington did,” and he always has a word or incident to illustrate what he means.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) May 8, 1849

Death of the President.

This even, so solemn and important in its character, so sudden and startling in its announcement, has thrown the mantle of unspeakable sorrow over the nation. But sixteen months and a few days had elapsed since ZACHARY TAYLOR assumed the Presidential office, to the period of his death, yet in that brief interval, he had enthroned himself in the affections and confidence of the people, with a power possessed by none of his predecessors save Washington.

Like him, he was “first in war,” leading the armies of the Republic in a perilous contest over doubtful battlefields, every one of which by his prowess was converted into a field of victory. Like him, he was “first in peace,” conducting the difficult and delicate relations of our Government with foreign powers and so perintending its domestic concerns at a period of extraordinary perplexity and trouble, in a manner to promote the general peace and prosperity, and to compel the admiration and gratitude of all nations abroad and all parties at home. In less than five years, he had risen from a station of comparative obscurity, and by the force of his military and civil acts, the wisdom of his public policy, and the virtues of his private character, he had placed himself in advance of all the living men of the nation, “first in the hearts of his countrymen.

He had served his race with the zeal of a Philanthropist, his country with the valor of a Hero, and the devotion of a Patriot, and his God with the fidelity of a Christian. To translate the voice of this great public bereavement, words are weak —

To pronounce his eulogy, they are needless.

Let his last words be his only epitaph, “I am prepared — I have endeared to do my duty.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jul 16, 1850


The following brief sketch of Gen. TAYLOR’s career we take from the Inquirer. The events of his life within the last four years are too familiar to the public, to need a more extended recapitulation. The renown of the Mexican campaign has added a page to the history of the country which will be repeated for ages, and the name of Taylor will be mentioned whenever courage, exalted patriotism and public worth are spoken of:

Gen. Taylor was born in Orange county, Va., in 1790 [24 Nov 1784]. His father, Col. Taylor, served in the war of the revolution, and in 1789 emigrated from Virginia to Kentucky, where he bore a conspicuous part in the labors and struggles of the early settlers. In May, 1808, Zachary Taylor was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the 7th Regiment of U.S. Infantry. In 1812 he was captain, and placed in command of Fort Harrison on the Wabash. When the war with Great Britain commenced, the fort was attacked by 400 Indians, and for his successful defence of it, he was brevetted major. After that war, he received the rank of colonel and during the Black-Hawk war in 1832, distinguished himself at the battle of Bad-axe, whice resulted in the capture of Black-Hawk and the Prophet.

In 1836, he was ordered to Florida in command of a separate column, and in December, 1837, fought at the battle of Okee-cho-bee, which resulted in the total defeat of a large body of the Indians. In May, 1845, Texas was annexed to the Union, and in the August following, Gen. Taylor, then in command of the first department of the army, proceeded with a portion of his troops to Corpus Christi. On the 11th of March, 1846, he took up his line of march for the Rio Grande, where he arrived on the 28th. On the 12th of April he was summoned by the Mexican General to evacuate his post on the river, which he refused to do.

On the 1st of May he left his entrenchments, opposite Matamoras, to open the communication with point Isabel. On the 8th of May, on his return to relieve Fort Brown, which was bombarded by the Mexicans, he was encountered by 6000 of the enemy at Palo Alto, whom he defeated. His own force consisted of two thousand one hundred men. The next day, the 9th, he again met them at Resaca de la Palmo, and after a hard-fought battle, routed them with slaughter, and took possession of Matamoras. These two signal victories, obtained with such disparity of force, produced an enthusiastic admiration of Gen. Taylor, and of his gallant companions in arms.

On the 21st and 22d of September he assaulted Monterey, a fortified city in Mexico, which, after a desperate resistance, capitulated. On the 22d of February, 1847, with a force consisting of five thousand men, (General Wool being second in command,) he encountered the Mexicans at Buena Vista, under Santa Anna, twenty thousand strong, and totally defeated them.

On the 14th February, 1849, on an examination of the electoral votes for President and Vice President, he was declared duly elected President of the United States, and was inaugurated on the 4th [5th] of March following. He thus occupied the office of Chief Magistrate a few days more than sixteen months.

Tioga Eagle (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Jul 17, 1850

NOTE: The above article gives a good, brief, biographical summary, but some of the dates are off, which I have noted, and there are also several typos/spelling errors, which I left in.


Zachary Taylor Memorial on Find-A-Grave

Forgotten Presidents

Woman and a Mare

November 18, 2009


A Country Girl once riding past a turnpike gate without paying the usual fee, the tollman hailed her and demanded it; she asked him by what authority he desired toll of her; he answered, the sign would convince her that the law required six cents for a man and a horse. “Well,” replied the girl, “this is a woman and a mare, therefore, you have nothing to expect;” and she rode off, leaving him the laughing-stock of the bystanders.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Oct 31, 1848

Absquatulators! Whigs vs. Locofocos

November 14, 2009

From the O.S. Journal.

Inverse “Absquatulation” — The Tables Turned — The Ass Standing to Hay, but wouldn’t eat!

The scene in the Senate, yesterday afternoon, on the passage of the bill to amend the Congressional Districting law, was “rich” (as the Senator from Hamilton would say) beyond anything that has been witnessed this session. The majority proceeded with the business before them very orderly, and with no seeming haste, offering to the minority full swing at the bill. In the first place, it will be remembered, the State Printer discovered that the copy of the bill laid on the table of Senators, was a “forgery.” This astute discovery being exposed, what was next to be done? There was a bill — it was no forgery — should they stand up to the rack “fodder or no fodder,” or should they “absquatulate.” —

Unfortunately, they had passed a law during the session of 1842-‘3, when running over with patriotism at the outrageous conduct of the Whigs, which might be a little troublesome should they attempt that Constitutional remedy, so they began casting about for a substitute. They could play Dummy! — So they opened their mouths and proclaimed aloud that they couldn’t talk! — they would walk up to the rack, but they wouldn’t touch that bundle of hay, the vile thing — their “democratic” stomachs revolted at being obliged to eat their own trash — no! they would starve first! — they felt indignant! — and if the majority would stuff them, they would stand mute, their mouths sealed, and if all their friends would do the same thing, it would be some time before the majority got the bundle of hay eaten — that it would! — (Here the scene changed — the open mouths were shut — and there sat the Senators, the one from Hamilton and the one from Richland taking the lead, playing “absquatulation” on an inverse rule. They would not speak, not they — the majority might whisk the bundle of hay under their noses, but they wouldn’t open their mouths, if they died for it!)

At this point of the proceedings, a new act in the drama was being enacted by the majority. The first part had been broad farce — that which was to follow, was clearly tragi-comical. Mr. Kelley, from Franklin, rose, and began reading the proceedings of “an unprecedentedly large  meeting of citizens from different portions of Ohio, convened at the Market-house in Columbus, on the evening of Tuesday, August 11th, 1842,” to express their opinion of absquatulation in the abstract and in the concrete — of “absquatulaton” direct, and of “absquatulaton” inverse.

At this meeting presided as Chairman, “the Hon. DAVID T. DISNEY, of Hamilton county.” Mr. K. read the patriotic remarks of the Hon. Chairman, on taking the Chair, in explanation of the objects of the meeting. “This is no matter of party interest,” said the eloquent chairman — “it is above and beyond mere party — it is one which appeals to the heart and judgment of every man — it is an assault upon your Constitution — it is a dissolution of your Government.”

During the reading of the very moving remarks of the chairman, the muscles of the Senator from Hamilton were observed to twitch. The scene was “rich, racy, to use his own favorite expression.

It was supposed too that some slight recollection of the provisions of the Constitution was flitting across the minds of the dumb members, just at this time, wherein it is provided — that “each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, and punish its members for disorderly behavior.” There was a rule compelling the members to think of absquatulation direct, that is, resigning, when they would no longer be members. But then it occurred to the logical mind of the member from Richland, that it was not “disorderly” to refuse to talk. He seemed to think that “disorder” consisted in kicking up a fuss generally, like the member from Hamilton in the lower House — taking off your coat, rolling up your sleeves, and kicking up your heels. And “absquatulation” inverse, was not “absquatulation” direct — for though the mind might be absent, the body was there. They could count their bodies, but they couldn’t count their noes, for they wouldn’t open their mouths, Constitution or no Constitution!

Well — there say the Dummys. Mr. Kelley proceeded with the reading of the proceedings. He had got through with the pathetic speech of the Chairman, and he came next to the preamble of the Resolutions. From this he read — “And, whereas, the power to repeal the bill about to be passed, was boldly claimed upon the floor of the Senate, by one of the Senators who aided in this revolutionary attempt, AND THAT POWER NEVER DENIED, it is now too late to claim that if the law was odious to the People, still would it be saddled upon them for the next ten years”!!!

At the reading of this, the lips of the Dummys dropped, and it was supposed they would open their mouths. But this bill does not follow out the remedy above conceded — it does not repeal, it only AMENDS! Of course, said the Senator of Hamilton to himself, I admit the doctrine of Repeal — ain’t I going for repeal of the Bank Law? To be sure I am — and if these Whigs would only go for Repeal, I would be with ’em but not to amend! No, no — repeal, destroy, break down, but never amend and build up!

— In this state of suspense the bill was gone through with, and put on its passage in the Senate. The time had arrived for seeing how many intended to play “absquatulation” in dumb show. The Constitution requires a quorum of two-thirds to do business. The question was put — a sufficient number, under a sense of duty imposed by their oaths while members, answered to their names to make a quorum, and the bill passed. Thus ended “absquatulation” inversed — and so ended this game of wickeness and folly. We have not heard this morning from the Dummys, whether they have recovered their speech or not. The bill has yet to pass the House.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 18, 1845


Alfred Kelley

Alfred Kelley: His Life and Work

by the Hon. James L. Bates 1888 (Read it online HERE)

Locofoco “Absquatulation.”

Our readers will learn, by perusing the proceedings of the State Legislature, that the Locofoco members of the Senate arrested the proceedings of that body on the 14th instant, by absenting themselves from the Senate chamber while the Apportionment Bill was under consideration in that body. This high-handed act was committed by every Locofoco member of the Senate, with the exception of Messrs. Archbold and Spindler, thus leaving the Senate without a quorum for the transaction of further business. A call of the Senate took place, and the proper officer sent for the absentees, who announced that he could find but two of them, and that they refused to return to the Senate. The reason the “Absquatulators” assign for the course they have pursued, is, that the majority were about to pass an Apportionment Bill which contained a provision for dividing the county of Hamilton into two districts, which provision they claim to be unconstitutional; and rather than see the constitution violated, they say they were determined to commit the “treasonable” act of breaking up the Legislature, and dissolving the State Government. They well knew that unless the present Legislature passed a law to apportion the members among the several counties of the State, there existed no authority under the constitution for holding another election for members of the Legislature, and that the State Government would be at an end, — and yet they deliberately vacated their seats.

We are somewhat anxious to know what our neighbors of the Experiment will say to this “treasonable” act of his Locofoco brethren. —

When the Whig Senators resigned, at the extra session in 1842, for the purpose of preventing the passage of the bill to divide the State into Congressional Districts, no person was louder or more bitter in his denunciations of those who felt it their duty to defeat that unjust measure in the only constitutional manner that was left to them, than the editor of the Experiment. Their resignations, too, only had the effect of postponing the apportionment bill until the next session of the Legislature, and the people then had ample time to elect their Congressmen before they were required to assemble at the national capital. But now, the absence of the Locofoco Senators, if persisted in, will prevent an organization of the State Government next winter — leave the office of Auditor of State vacant — defeat, among other important measures, the passage of the bill making appropriations for the support of the State Government for the ensuing year — and leave the affairs of our State in confusion.

The Statesman and other Locofoco papers, uphold and approve the course pursued by the refractory Senators, and we have no doubt our neighbor will be found following in the footsteps of his illustrious leader — Sam Medary.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Feb 22, 1848


Samuel Medary

For more on Samuel Medary:

Historical Collections Relating to Gwynedd (Pennsylvania)
By Howard M. Jenkins
Second Edition 1897

Scroll down a bit HERE.

The Legislature.

This body adjourned sine die on Friday last, having been in session about eleven weeks, during which time a large amount of business has been accomplished. The session was prolonged somewhat in consequence of the factious course pursued by the fifteen Locofoco “Absquatulaors.”

The bill dividing the State into Legislative districts for the ensuing four years, which caused so much squirming among the Locofoco, became a law in spite of the fifteen Locofoco Senators who fled from the Senate at the bidding of Sam Medary, and issued their decrees from “No. 18.” We learn from the Cleveland Herald, that the following is the mudus operandi by which the bill was passed into a law:

The Senatorial Absquatulators and their party associates in the House who had signed and sealed a contract to back up the revolution, were completely out-generaled in the final action on the apportionment bill, and by one of the quietest as well as most worthy men in the house.

The House some time previous passed the Senate Apportionment Bill with amendments. It was sent to the Senate for concurrence. The Senate disagreed. The House insisted on its amendments — then moved a reconsideration, and receded from some of its amendments. — The bill was again sent to the Senate. The Senate were about to take the vote upon the question of concurring with the remaining House amendments, when the absquatulation took place. Peaceful and legal measures were employed to bring the recreants back to duty, and these failing, the Whigs of the House “did up the job in a hurry.”

In pursuance to a preconcerted arrangement, when the Locos in the House were somewhat off their guard, Mr. Park, of Lorain, rose and offered a resolution, which he sent to the chair. Now Mr. P. is a philanthropist as well as a Solon, and a portion of his business this session as well as the previous one, had been to get the Legislature to allow a cripple among his constituents by the name of Coppins, to peddle without license. Of course when Mr. P. offered his resolution the Locos thought it must pertain to the Coppins project, and paid no attention to it. What made them still more off their guard was the fact that the Speaker was not in the Chair, but it was occupied at the time by Dr. Truesdale, of Trumbull. The resolution was read rather rapidly, the Whigs voting  Aye, and the Locos two or three of them saying No, and it was declared carried before the opposition collected themselves enough to ask for a division of the question, to call the ayes and nays, or to absquatulate!

When they finally came to their senses, they found that the resolution declared that the House receded from all the amendments of the House to the Apportionment Bill, which the Senate had not concurred in, and that the bill was a law!

Uncle Toby says “our army swore terribly in Flanders,” but that swearing we are told, was not a priming to the oaths of Ohio Locofocoism at the successful maneuvre of Mr. Park, of Lorain. Absquatulation at once fizzled out! and the Legislators who had sneaked to the tavern, sneaked back to the Senate Chamber! —

Farmer Park had blocked the Revolution!

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Feb 29, 1848

The Revolution — The Great Day.

Thanks to the vigilance of our city authorities or to some other cause, no violence has yet been perpetrated, no wrong has been done, no hen roost has been robbed, no watchful mother goose had been untimely torn from her callow offspring.

Rain, that stern and relentless enemy of popular movements, sat in early in the morning, and has fallen during the whole day; and powder and patriotism have alike suffered under the influence of its rigid conversatism. The advances of the Revolutionary army have been made under cover of their umbrellas; and have given no alarm and done no damage.

The plan of taking possession of the vacant public buildings at Franklinton, organizing there a provisional government, and making that place the capital of the State of Locodom, which was projected yesterday, has, as we are informed, been abandoned, at least until the weather changes.

— O.S. Jour.


The agony is over. The long talked of Convention of the disorganizing, revolutionary Democracy has met and separated. The great cloud which arose with so much bluster, has spent itself in wind, and now is not even so large as Tom Thumb’s hand. The great bull-frogs of the party; as John Brough and others of acknowledged parts, hopped about a little, with an occasional boo-o-boo, marked with the melancholy languor which distinguishes the moanings of a dying calf. The reptile tribe, who have been for years winding their coils tighter and tighter about the consumption-stricken carcass of Locofocoism, as Sam Medary and his abettors, moving sluggishly in their slimy beds, emitting now and then a hiss which only served to make the little polliwogs of the Democratic family, wiggle their little tails like mad. Yes, the agony is over, and the sun shines as brightly as ever, the stars twinkle at night, without any apparent diminution of lustre, the earth rolls along in her orbit, and thank fortune the constitution still stands! Law and order reigns, and the evil day — the day of anarchy and blood, if not altogether abolished, is at least far away.

Cleveland Herald.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) May 23, 1848


Below is an excerpt that gives some context to the above news articles. To read more, click the link below.

Volume 38 OHIO HISTORY: The Scholarly Journal of the Ohio Historical Society

Party Politics in Ohio, 1840-1850 (continued)
by Edgar Allan Holt



The first Ohio State Constitution provided that the General Assembly should apportion representation among the several counties in proportion to population.

The controversy over the constitutionality of the act passed by the Whig Legislature on February 18, 1848, in accordance with this provision of the State Constitution, became so bitter that it convulsed the State for two years; interrupted legislative procedure for weeks; led to a realignment of parties and to the election of Salmon P. Chase to the United States Senate.

Before the State elections were held in October, 1847, attention had been called by Whig papers to the need of a fair districting of the State, on the ground that the Democrats had been able to control the General Assembly, previously, by gerrymandering. The issue assumed additional importance because upon the 1848-1849 Legislature depended the election of a successor to William Allen to the United States Senate. The Hamilton Intelligencer favored dividing the State into single member districts; and the Clermont Courier recalled how the Democrats in 1839-1840 had united Clermont, Brown, and Clinton Counties in order to overcome Whig majorities.

Reapportionment had not figured in the campaign of 1847, and the Democratic leaders, therefore, were all the more surprised, when on January 12, 1848, an apportionment measure was introduced by the Whigs in the Senate, providing among other things, for the division of Hamilton County into two electoral districts and assigning two senators and five representatives to the whole County as before. This measure the Democrats denounced as unfair, unjust and unconstitutional, and centered their fire on the proposed division of Hamilton County.

The Life and Death of John Quincy Adams

November 13, 2009

Death of John Quincy Adams!

The Telegraph reports the death, on the 24th ultimo, of JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, the illustrious sage of Quincy. The whole nation will deplore the loss of this great and good man. Venerable alike for his years, his honors, his eminent worth, and his faithful and distinguished public services, he had outlived the rancor of party, and won the admiration and respect even of those who most bitterly opposed him. He died, as he lived, in the service of his country, leaving behind him a reputation for ability second to but one or two in the roll of America’s Great Men, and a character of honesty, integrity, public and private virtue, second to none. His name will be embalmed with those of WASHINGTON, FRANKLIN, JEFFERSON, HAMILTON and other Sages and Statesmen in the hearts of the American people — fitting Mausoleum for a PATRIOT’s Memory!

[Sent. & Gaz.

Mr. ADAMS was struck with paralysis on the 21st., whilst in his seat, in the House. He lingered till the 24th, having been speechless all the while.

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Mar 8, 1848

Adams John Q death

From the Ohio State Journal.


TUNE — The Cow died on. [see note below]

Trouble in Columbus,
Locos raising Ned,
Kicking up a rumpus —
Squally times ahead!
Rushing like a hurricane,
Madly they convene.
Room at the ‘American,’
In Number 18.

Senate Hall deserted,
Fifteen Locos fly;
Nineteen Whigs diverted,
Never say die;
Speaker Goddard, frowning
With majestic mien,
Sendeth Sergeant Downing
To Number 18.

Sergeant, with his warrant,
Thought the Devil’s to pay,
Bold as a Knight Errant
Wends his winding way.
Crowding through spectators
Tickled at the scene,
For absquatulators
In Number 18.

Rats abroad when roaming,
Watching — every one —
When ratcatchers ‘re coming
To the hole will run —
So the “fifteen” scatter;
Scampering are seen —
Said Kelsey “what’s the matter
In Number 18?”

Sergeant Downing, rapping,
Tapping at the door,
Didn’t catch them napping,
But upon the floor —
Some were tossing coppers,
Some looked quite serene.
Some were telling whoppers,
In Number 18.

Olds, the master spirit,
Spoke — ‘he had the floor’ —
“Sergeant Downing, hear it:
Never, nevermore.
With the Whigs up yonder
“Patriots” will be seen,
But we’ll give ’em thunder
From Number 18!

“Fiery persecution —
On our shoulders broad
Stands the Constitution:
Heavens! what a load!”
Doctor raised his spectacles,
Spectacles of green —
Down a tear trickles,
In Number 18!

“Ask the Speaker Goddard,
Never at a loss,
How I’m to be foddered
In Pickaway and Ross?
I am independent,
What may intervene,
Lord of the Ascendant
In Number 18.

“If from here I’m driven,
What shall I go at? —
I’m only fit for Heaven,
And hardly fit for that!
Sergeant Downing, travel!”
Said he, quite serene,
“We’ll raise the very Devil
In number 18!”

Downing took the message,
As he came away;
Blocking up the passage
People in dismay,
Gathering around him,
Wish the news to glean —
Asking if he found ’em
In Number 18.

Barbers with their razors,
Doctors with their bills,
Landlords, and, O scizzors!
Washwomen with ?ills;
All the nooks and corners
Emptying were seen —
“Shouldn’t crowd the mourners”
In Number 18.

Fallen in with misery
Upon evil times —
Can’t get in the Treasury,
Can’t get at the dimes!
Treasury doors are fasten’d,
Treasurer Bliss is keen;
Sorely — sorely chastened,
Is Number 18.

Calm as summer morning
Warrant was returned;
Senators, discerning,
Quietly adjourned; —
Smothering a dry laugh,
Many Whigs were seen —
“Couldn’t come the Giraffe”
In Number 18.

Good old Father Cronise,
Wishing he in nowise
Had absquatulated,
By himself stood musing —
Thought ’twas rather green
Domes he should be losing;
For Number 18.

Close behind him — startled,
Sergeant-at-Arms, there,
O if the old man “tortled,”
Jumping like a deer.
Lightning-like retreated,
A blue streak is seen,
Cronise evaporated,
From Number 18.

Down the street dashing,
Hair wildly streaming.
Through the mud splashing,
Children all screaming —
Barking dogs — all sizes,
Accompanying seen.
The flight of Cronise’s
From Number 18.

Locos no concession
Meeting as a boon,
Yielded at discretion
Saturday at noon;
Spitefully as pet Bears,
Suffering from spleen,
“Such a getting down stairs”
From Number 18.

Jonah in a bad snap,
Swallowed UP a whale;
Rats in a steel trap,
Certainly should squeal;
Locos, though disgusted,
Once again convene —
Guess the TIN PAK “busted”
In Number 18.

Olds, the great concocter
Wouldn’t yet come in,
Whigs had the Doctor
Where Caleb had the hen;
The Doctor he is eloquent,
The Doctor isn’t green,
But the Dr. saw the Elephant
In Number 18.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Feb 29, 1848

NOTE: In regards to the tune: “the tune the old cow died of” being merely a proverbial or slang way of expressing “the music is insufferably bad.” P. P.

Posted by Jim Dixon on the Mudrat Cafe website.

Adams John Q

This first biography was written the year before he died.


Sketches of the Public Men of the United States.



IT would be more difficult to tell when John Quincy Adams was not in public life, and more difficult to state the honors he has not enjoyed from his countrymen, than those which he has. No child was ever blessed with a nobler father, or a purer mother, than John Quincy Adams. The father was one of the foremost and bravest spirits of the revolution, and the mother has all the heroism and intelligence of the worthiest women of her age and time. She was the daughter of the Rev. William Smith, of Weymouth, and one of the two sisters, both of whom were remarkable and exemplary women, the one marrying the Hon. Richard Cranch, of Quincy, father of the present Chief Justice Cranch of Washington, and the other the Rev. Mr. Shaw, one of the old and honorable Congregational Ministers of New England. Of the father I need not speak, and of the mother I will only add, that those who will read her published letters to husband, son and niece, pronounce the author of the truths and wisdom therein embodied, worthy of the highest eulogium language can bestow. Nor shall I attempt — for time and space would fail me — to enumerate more than the most public events in the career of Ex-President Adams.

Mr. A. is fast verging on four score years, having been born on the 11th of July, 1767. Nearly 60 years of this time, in one way or another, he has been in public life, and has filled the highest offices, — and almost all grades of office, — known either to our National or State Governments. He was cradled almost in the Revolution, and lived thro’ it, of necessity, not only an active spectator, but sometimes a participator, — and that not in an humble way, — in some of its most important events. Ten years after he was born, and in the midst of the Revolution, he accompanied his father to Europe. It was John Quincy Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Arthur Lee, as is known, who composed the Commission at Versailles. —

John Q. Adams was absent but eighteen months, and during this time improved himself in the study of French and Latin, and other branches of learning. Old John Adams landed in Boston, in August ’79, in the very density of the darkness of the Revolution. He was not permitted to remain longer than three months at home, the scene for the greatest service being then upon the European side of the Atlantic as a negotiator with powers friendly to the United States, and with those like France, who were hostile to England. Again the son accompanied the father to Europe and at a time, too, when the ocean was almost dotted with English ships in search of every thing American, or friendly to the independent colonies which could be found. It was during the voyage that old John Adams was placed in charge of the Commodore Tucker, one of the thunderbolts of old ocean, and every bit as brave as Paul Jones, or any of the fabled heroes of the sea.

The little vessel of the Commodore had many a hair-breadth escape from capture, but the master was determined never to yield without a struggle, no matter what force might attack him. At one time real danger was at hand, and the life of Adams was deemed as precious as the great mission he had in charge. Tucker insisted, therefore, that Adams should, as the Ambassador of the country keep out of harm’s way. The minister tried but in vain, to obey orders, for no sooner was there real danger at hand, than he was foremost in the fight, and so impatient of restraint, as to mingle with the humble sailors, in defence of the ship. Adams, however, arrived safely out, and Holland for a time became the scene of his labors.

He was a beggar at the footstool of thrones and principalities, for means to carry on the war of his country with England, and among kings, noblemen and aristocratic bankers, for it was not easy then to obtain the ‘sinews of war,’ at home or abroad. Ours was a young nation in the New world, and the most powerful nation in the Old denounced us as traitors and rebels. But against all odds, our fathers faithfully struggled, patiently endured, and in the end gloriously triumphed. It was in such a school as this that John Quincy Adams was taught, and with a mother to guide him who loved to instil into his mind those principles of religious and civil liberty, higher than which no nation or body of men ever aimed to obtain. He was surrounded too, often by the great and good men of the Revolution.

These, the companions of his father, were his great moral exemplars. He was favored beyond this with the companionship of some of the most distinguished men of the Old World. John Adams, even at this time, when his son was not 18 years of age, in one of his letters, spoke of him with the affection and respect of a true father, in these words: “The strict and inviolate regard you have ever paid to truth, gives me pleasing hope that you will not swerve from her dictates, but add justice, fortitude, and every manly virtue, which can adorn a good citizen, do honor to your country, and render your parents supremely happy, and particularly your affectionate mother.”

Young Adams soon visited many parts of Europe. He was put to school alternately at Paris, Amsterdam and Leyten, and afterward accompanied Francis Dana, in 1781, to St. Petersburgh, where he acted as the private secretary of our Minister.

He returned home, after visiting Northern Europe, Germany in part, Holland, France and England. It was his good fortune to be with his father at the signing of the treaty of Peace in Paris, 1783.  At London he was favored, as a listener to the eloquence of Burke, Sheridan, Fox, Pitt, a galaxy of names that no one English Parliament before or since, has ever exhibited. All these men at this time were in the zenith of their powers. Pitt stood at the head of the British Ministry, with his three great rivals arrayed against him. This was before young Adams was 20 years of age. Indeed soon after he was 18, he entered Harvard College, far advanced in his studies, and in 1787 graduated and turned his attention at once and with great assiduity to the law, a profession on which at one time he thought he should have to depend for the means of support. He studied vigorously under Theophilus Parson — once a distinguished Chief Justice in Massachusetts. He became at this time apparently ambitious of fame, and distinguished himself particularly with his pen, in his opposition to some popular essays from the famous Thomas Paine.

Later in life he was the public defender of Washington, for the course pursued by the father of his country toward the then singular minister of France, the famous Genet. His first honors came from the hands of the first President, and under all administrations, since then, he has held conspicuous positions derived from the people, the State, or from the Federal government. — Washington sent him to the Netherlands under the recommendation of Thomas Jefferson — who afterwards also gave him a distinguished post abroad.

The conflict with the father would not allow Mr. Jefferson to be alienated from the son. Mr. Adams, therefore went hither and thither at the call of his government, & was ever ready to go where he could do the most good. Now at the Court of Holland, and again at the Court of St. James; to day hurrying off to Berlin, and to-morrow to Portugal; this year an important negociator with Prussia, the next serving in the Legislature of his State, the third a Senator in Congress, the 4th a Professor of Oratory and Rhetoric in his old Alma Mater, and soon after again, flying upon the wings of the wind for distant Russia, as the Minister Plenipotentiary of his government.

It was Mr. Adams who incited the emperor of Russia to mediate as a friendly power for the restoration of peace between the governments of England and the United States. It was he too who was one of the Commissioners (with Clay and Gallatin) to negotiate the treaty of peace which was signed at Ghent, in Dec. 1814. His father, in his presence, had signed the first treaty of peace at Paris, and it was his good fortune to sign the second treaty himself at Ghent. Honors still followed him. Mr. Madison appointed him Ambassador to England, which office he held, until Mr. Monroe, at the commencement of his administration, called him home, not to retirement, but to be his Secretary of State — an office which all will admit be filled with the most marked ability. Still his course was onward and upward, and when Mr. Monroe served out his two terms, Mr. Adams became his successor in the Presidential office, receiving the votes of 13 states, which was then the requisite number in the house of Representatives, as one of the 3 competitors who had failed to be elected by the people.

Since then the career of Mr. Adams has been too familiar to need comment at my hands. There are various opinions, too, as to the propriety of his course, and the justice of his sentiments. Desiring not to discuss party or sectional questions in these sketches, I prefer to leave the subject of this sketch just where it is, only adding that Mr. Adams was elected to Congress in 1831, that he has been a member ever since, and that he will in all probability die at his post, and with the harness on his back. Most heartily do I believe him to be governed by the patriotism and the highest sense of honor. — Those who differ from him — and there are few men who have not widely differed from him at times, — are bound to concede this. — To praise his vast amount of intelligence, whether the result of his observation or study, or whether appertaining to political historical or biblical knowledge, would be “the wasteful and ridiculous excess of gilding refined gold.” The life of such a man is one of the most incidents that illustrate our nations history, and as such it ought to be cherished as a precious legacy by the American people.

Ohio Repository, The (Canton, Ohio) Jun 24, 1847


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From the New York Tribune.


Another, and almost the only link which binds the political history of our country’s present to the past era of her first existence as a nation, has been broken by the death of this venerable statesman. It is as if that great time, with the great men to whom it gave birth, and who have now taken their revered places in the world’s history, were removed farther from us, with the departure of one in whom they still lived and spoke. It is the fate of no common life, to contain within the span of its earthly rising and setting, such experience as his embraced; — the growth of a feeble colony, into one of the mightiest empires of all time — the spectacle of a total revolution in the world’s politics, science and philosophy — the birth and development of a wonderful age. Yet such a life was his, whose loss we deplore — for whom the nation will sorrow, as one man — whose memory will become a part of our childrens’ heritage, and whose labors will stand as a pillar, upholding the majesty of human Freedom.

John Quincy Adams was born at Braintree (afterward Quincy) Mass. on the 11th of July, 1767. He received his name from his great-grandfather, John Quincy, who, in the early part of the century, was honored with many civil distinctions from the Governor of the Providence, and who died a few hours after the birth of the boy who took his name. His childhood was passed during the stormy times of the Revolution; and even as a child he participated in some of its most memorable occurrences. — When John Adams was appointed Joint Commissioner to France in 1777, with Franklin and Lee, John Quincy accompanied him, though at this time but eleven years of age. He spent eighteen months in Paris, at school, and returned to America with his father in 1779. During this visit he enjoyed the instructions of Franklin, who conceived a strong attachment for his young countryman.

In three months after their arrival, John Adams was again dispatched by Congress to Europe, and set sail, with his son, in a French frigate for Brest. They has a perilous passage, for the ocean was at that time thronged with British fleets, and their capture was only avoided by the daring and courage of the commander. The frigate was driven by violent storms into the port of Ferrol, in Spain, whence they traveled by land to Paris. They went soon after to Holland, where he studied for some time at Amsterdam and at the celebrated University of Leyden.

In July, 1781, Francis Dana, (father of Richard H. Dana, the poet,) who had accompanied John Adams as Secretary of Legation, was appointed Minister to Russia, and took with him young John Quincy, then but fourteen years of age, as his Private Secretary. After a year’s residence in St. Petersburg, he left Mr. Dana, and in the Fall of 1782 and the following Winter traveled alone thro’ Sweeden, Denmark and Hamburg to Holland, where he arrived in April. His father was then in Paris, but visiting the Hague in July, he took his son with him on his return. The treaty of peace was signed in September, and from that time till May, 1785, he resided with his father in England and France, having intercourse with the most distinguished society of those countries. In London he was introduced upon the floor of Parliament, and heard some of the finest efforts of Pitt, Burke, Fox and Sheridan. His acquaintance with Jefferson, who was then Minister to France, dates from this period, and he was afterward strongly recommended to the notice of Washington by that great statesman.

When his father was appointed Minister to the Court of St. James, in 1785, as he was desirous of completing his education in his native country, he obtained permission to return. He entered an advanced class in Harvard University, and graduated at the end of two years. — Making choice of the law for his profession, he studied in the office of the celebrated Theoplilus Parsons, at Newburyport, and afterwards established himself in Boston, where he remained four years, satisfying himself with extending his knowledge of the principles of law, and writing occasional political essays.

But when, in 1794, the country was aroused and excited by the appeals of the French Minister, Genet, Mr. Adams entered the field with three articles under the signature of “Marcellus,” in which he set forth, what has since been a prominent part of his political creed — the obligation of neutrality concerning the policy or conflicts of other nations. In these letters he anticipated the precise course which was recommended by Washington and agreed to by his cabinet. His reputation for clear judgment and political foresight, thus honorably established, introduced him to the notice of Washington, to whose esteem and confidence he was at once admitted.

At the recommendation of Jefferson, he was appointed Minister to Holland in May, 1794, and from that time until 1801, remained abroad, serving the country in various diplomatic capacities. Immediately before the expiration of Washington’s term he received the appointment of Minister to Portugal, but while on his way to Lisbon, his destination was changed by President Adams to Berlin, where he resided four years. During this period he visited the Riesengebirge, the wild mountain district of Silesia, the haunt of German fairy tradition, which at that time was hardly known to tourists. He was the first American who ascended the Schneekoppe, which is considered the highest mountain in Central Europe, north of the Danube. His letters descriptive of this tour appeared in the Portfolio, published in Philadelphia, but were afterwards published in a volume, which was reprinted in London, and translated into French and German. His position in Europe at this time, enabled him to look upon the great scenes enacted around him, as an unprejudiced spectator, and his calm philosophic mind improved this opportunity of studying a terrible page in Modern History. He supported the character of his country abroad with dignity and honor, and returned divested of party prejudice by his long absence, and glowing with a spirit of hte most pure and single-minded patriotism.

His friends did not allow him to pause in the career which had been marked out for him both by nature and education. He was elected to the Massachusetts Senate in 1802, and in the same year to the Senate of the U. States. In addition to this high distinction, he was appointed Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory in Harvard University, and during the recesses of Congress delivered a series of lectures which were attended by crowded audiences, and afterwards published in two octavo volumes. A course which he delivered on the “Art of Good Speaking,” was exceedingly popular, and his own fine oratorical talents enabled him to do the subject full justice.

His course in the Senate was in harmony with the circumstances of his election. He was unpledged to the support of any particular men or measures, though considered a moderate Federalist, and chosen Senator by a majority of that party. But his long experience of public life and the principles of Government placed him above distinction of party, and his course was independent, and marked by a conscientious adherence to his sense of right and duty. For his course in relation to the Embargo he received the censure of the Massachusetts Legislature, and on this account resigned his seat in 1808.

Immediately after Madison’s accession to the Presidency in 1809, he received the appointment of Minister to Russia, and during his residence of five years in St. Petersburg, he enjoyed the respect and confidence of the Emperor Alexander to a degree seldom bestowed upon the representatives of other nations. It was this esteem which induced the Emperor, after the Peack of 1812, to offer his mediation in the then existing war between the United States and England. Though this was declined by England, it produced an offer on her part of direct negotiation, and John Quincy Adams was placed at the head of the Commissioners who met at Ghent. Singularly enough, he occupied the same situation as his father, thirty years before, and sustained the national honor with equal faithfulness.

In February, 1815, he was appointed Minister to Great Britain, and continued to act in that capacity until Monroe’s accession, in 1817, when he was recalled in order to serve the country in a more exalted and important station — that of Secretary of State, which is only second in responsibility to the Executive office itself. His long absence abroad rendered him better competent to conduct our relations with foreign nations than any statesman our country has ever produced.

During the eight years of his service as Secretary of State, he retained the full confidence of Mr. Monroe, and assisted in the accomplishment of measures which have contributed to our national glory and prosperity. We need only mention the recognition of the independence of the South American Republics, first advocated by Henry Clay, in the House of Representatives, and the successful acquisition of Florida and adjustment of the Spanish claims, to point out the value and importance of his official labors.

When the time of Monroe’s retirement drew near, the claims of Mr. Adams to the high office could not be overlooked. His long and eminent services, firm integrity of principle and lofty patriotism, made him the choice of all intelligent and calm-thinking men. From the popularity of Jackson, Crawford and Clay, each of whom was the candidate of a large party, the electoral colleges were able to make no nomination, and the question devolved on Congress. At the first ballot Mr. Adams received the votes of thirteen States, which constituted a majority. A Committee of the House accordingly waited upon him to notify him of his election, and received an answer of acceptance.

During the four years of his administration he preserved the same calm balance of judgment, the same undeviating attachment to principle, which had distinguished his former political life. His course was moderate, dignified, and characterized by great republican simplicity. The financial affairs of the nation were conducted with the strictest integrity; large sums were expended upon internal improvements — more, indeed, was effected in the permanent improvement of the country than during all the administrations of his predecessors; upward of five millions of dollars were appropriated in pensions and private bounties, and yet thirty millions of the national debt had been paid off at the end of his term. The violent and bitter opposition he met with, is well known. The friends of Jackson and Crawford combined in a hostility to the measures of his administration, which rested not until it had produced his defeat at the Presidential election in 1828. The effect of this unprincipled partisan feeling, in its opposition to the high liberal arms of Mr. Adams, was felt in the embarrassments which were brought on the country by his successor. Some later historian, scanning this period with an unprejudiced eye, will do full honor to his acts, and the high principles by which he was governed.

After Jackson’s inauguration he retired to the old homestead at Quincy, where he passed a year or two in the enjoyment of tranquil domestic life, and surrounded with the happiest social relations. But such a man as he could not be spared long from the Councils of the Nation. — In 1830 he was elected to represent the Congressional District in which he resided, and in the following year took his seat in the House of Representatives. Since then he has been elected to nine successive Congressional terms, the duties of which he has faithfully performed; till, after sixty-seven years spent in the service of his country, he has died with his hand to her labors — his last words uttered in her Hall of Council.

His acts in the House of Representatives are part of the knowledge of every American. — They will be cited, in after years, as noble example of that exalted honesty which can sacrifice everything in pursuance of what it believes to be just and true. It was owing to his persevering efforts alone that the disgraceful gag law was removed form the statutes of Congress; and there is scarcely a more thrilling incident in the history of our legislation than the effect of his eloquent reply to the dark menaces of the Southern spirit.

Despite the violent opposition and enmity which his upright and independent career excited, we doubt whether any man has been more universally venerated and beloved. — There is no sublimer instance of popular affection on record, than was exhibited during his visit to the West, a few years ago. The spontaneous expression of love and reverence, which men of all creeds and parties offered to the old man, gave his journey the character of a triumphal march — but a grander march than ever followed the laden chariots of the ancient victors of the world, along the Appian or Flaminian way. It was one of those spectacles of a nation’s gratitude, which rarely occur more than once in an era — an expression of such deep and touching feeling, and such fervent enthusiasm as could have been exhibited by no other people on earth.

His youth, almost his childhood, was consecrated to his country’s service; his long life and wonderful energies have been consumed in building up the fabric of her greatness; and he has drawn his last breath under the shelter of her legislative dome. His nearer relatives will lament his departure, but she will be left, most vacant at his loss — she will be chief mourner beside his grave.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 7, 1848

From the National Intelligencer.


Few of our readers but will read with deep and tender interest the following copy of verses, written by Mr. Adams on the day preceding his fatal attack of illness, and designed to accompany his autograph signature, which had been requested by a female friend.

Written for MISS C.L. EDWARDS, of Massachusetts, on the day preceding his attack.


In days of yore, the poet’s pen
From wing of bird was plundered,
Perhaps of goose, but, now and then,
From Jove’s own Eagle sundered.
But, now, metallic pens disclose
Alone the poet’s numbers;
In iron inspiration glows,
Or with the poet slumbers.

Fair damsel! could my pen impart,
In prose or lofty rhyme,
The pure emotions of my heart,
To speed the flight of time;
What metal from the womb of earth
Could worth intrinsic bear,
To stamp with corresponding worth
The blessings thou shouldst share?

Ohio Repository, The (Canton, Ohio) Mar 8, 1848


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