Posts Tagged ‘1857’

Ode: Sweet Songs of Liberty

September 8, 2012

Image from The Ideal in the West

The Concord Hymn.

[Mr. R.W. Emerson’s Concord Hymn, for the 4th of July, 1857, contains so much more poetry and fulfilled and fulfilling prophecy than any equal number of words for the day, that we give it the preference over all other national songs for reutterance at this time.]

O tenderly the haughty day
Fills his blue urn with fire,
One morn is in the mighty heaven,
And one in our desire.

The cannon booms from town to town,
Our pulses are not less,
The joy bells chime their tidings down,
Which children’s voices bless.

For He that flung the broad blue fold
O’er mantling land and sea,
One-Third part of the sky unrolled
For the banner of the free.

The men are ripe of Saxon kind
To build an equal state;
To take the statute from the mind,
And make of duty fate.

The men are ripe of Saxon kind
To build an equal state,—
To take the statute from the mind
And make of duty fate.

United States! the ages plead —
Present and Past in undersong, —
Go put your creed into your deed,
Nor speak with double tongue.

For sea and land don’t understand,
Nor skies without a frown,
See rights for which the one hand fights
By the other cloven down.

Be just at home; then reach beyond
Your charter o’er the sea,
And make the great Atlantic pond
A ferry of the free.

And henceforth there shall be no chain
Save, underneath the sea,
The wires shall murmur through the main
Sweet songs of LIBERTY.

The conscious stars accord above,
The waters wild below,
And under through the cable wove,
The fiery errands go.

For He that worketh high and wise.
Nor pauses in his plan,
Will take the sun out of the skies
Ere freedom out of man.

The Herald and Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Aug 16, 1865

End of Icaria – Individualism Outshines Communism

November 18, 2011


NEW ICARIA ENDED

Judge Towner Signs the Decree Which Closes Its History.

END OF ICARIAN SYSTEM

The Adams County Community the Last of the Icarian Settlements — Some Interesting History as to Origin of the Colony.

The most long-lived and undoubtedly the most nearly successful of all the experiments ever made in the western hemisphere with pure communism, came to an end when, late Saturday afternoon, Judge H. M. Towner, in the district court, entered an order discharging the receiver of the New Icarian community, and formally declared the community and its affairs ended.

Etienne Cabet, scholar, historian, sociologist and philanthropist; who two generations ago was stirring all France with his socialistic and communistic writings, and who contributed much toward inciting the revolution of 1818, of which he was afterwards the historian; Etienne Cabet, contemporary and co worker of Proudhon in behalf of the poor and oppressed of France; agitator, essayist, historian, scientist, and finally, exile from his native country — was founder of the community which after an existence of almost half a century came to an end Saturday. In its palmy days, twenty years ago, American students of sociology used to come many of hundreds of miles to study the workings of what was said to be the most successful communistic community in the world.

Cabet tried to found his first experimental colony in France, but the government of Louis Phillipe was bitterly opposed to such experiments and its opposition forced the Icarians, as the adherents of the new communistic doctrines were called, to go to the new world. The movement had become almost a national one in France; Cabet’s Icaria, and Proudhon‘s “Bank of the People,” had set all France by the ears, and the established order of things was in serious danger of being overturned. Driven from the own country for their first experiment in communism, the Icarians went first to Texas, where they were offered as area as large as a good sized French department, for their experiment. Their emissaries after looking over the country decided against it, and went to New Orleans. Here they were joined by others and at last, when the Mormons left their seat at Nauvoo, Ill., the Icarians, who had brought considerable money, bought the old Mormon holdings in Illinois, and secured from the legislature of Illinois a charter granting them certain special privileges and immunities. About 2,000 French enthusiasts joined them here, Cabet at their head. He was practically dictator to the community; for years no question was raised as to his absolute authority in all things relating to the conduct of the community, and so long as he was left in charge all went well. The community grew and prospered and there was peace and plenty.

But the country round about settled up by people who saw no charm in the communistic idea; shrewd Yankees, who, instead of believing that the community ought to own everything, considered themselves called to secure individual control of the largest possible part of the community, pressed about the little settlement of communists. The new generation of Icarians was, brought up constantly confronted by the striking contrasts between their own simple, plain, frugal living and the comparative luxury and independence of the better classes of people around them. Of course they always make the comparison with the more well-to do of their neighbors; human nature could not have been expected to be more discriminating; and their conclusions were too often to the disadvantage of their own style of living. Dissensions arose, Cabet had given up his dictatorial powers, and granted a charter under which the community by ballot chose annually a sort of directorate. After experience with this plan he found it a failure; individualism was everywhere creeping in. He demanded that the elected directorate be abolished, and that he be vested with power to appoint directors. But he was defeated; the rising tide of individualistic ideas beat ever harder and more fiercely upon the little islet of communism; every year the instinct of human selfishness more and more overcame the sentiment of devotion to pure principle that had characterized the patriarchs of Icarianism. At last a schism came; Cabet and his minority of followers withdrew and established another colony at Sheltenham, Mo., a few miles from St. Louis. It lasted only a few years and dissolved.

Two or three years before this schism, Cabet, realizing that his social order could never be maintained in the midst of a great community inspired only by what he considered the selfishness of individualism, had concluded that he must transplant his communistic seed to some new region far beyond the frontiers of civilization; and fondly believing that civilization would not penetrate far beyond the Mississippi for generations to come, he sent agents out to western Iowa to seek a location. They came to Adams county and found the ideal tract of 4,000 acres of rich land, in a county almost utterly uninhabited. Cabet came out, examined the prospect, and ordered the land preempted and purchased. This was in 1853. The first case on the court docket of Adams county is a record of certain matters concerning the Icarian community, made in 1853. The new community grew fast, and prospered; after the division of the Nauvoo community it grew still more rapidly. But the troubles of the Nauvoo society involved the Iowa branch; a mortgage was given on the entire 4,000 acres in Adams county, to William Shepherd of St. Louis. In time this was foreclosed. Shepherd was friendly to the colonists, and suffered them to occupy his lands; and in 1859 an arrangement was made whereby the community bought back 2,000 acres from him. Before doing this, there had been a strong movement in favor of removal to California. The wise old men of the colony viewed with despair the advance of American civilization, with its distracting individualistic notions, and foresaw that the experience of Nauvoo would be repeated. They wanted to move to the heart of the unknown west, as the Mormons had done; but already the younger element was in control. By a majority of one vote in the great council of the colony the proposition to remove to California was rejected. The community enjoyed several years of comparative prosperity and growth after this decision. The people were devoted to agriculture. They introduced the French methods of grape culture, and the wonderful success in grape growing in southwest Iowa to this day is traced in large part to their influence. They lived in true communistic style. Like the Spartans of old, they dined from a common table; the community was charged with the general responsibility for education and raising of children; all property was owned by the community and partitioned in accordance with the requirements of the individuals, the community always reserving a store for the common safety. At this period of its history the colony seemed destined to success; indeed, it may be fairly said that it was a success; if not in a material way, at least in the respect of promoting the happiness of its people, safeguarding them against poverty, assuring the young fair education, and removing much of the temptation to selfishness and injustice. “Do unto others as ye would that others should do unto you.” the golden rule was the fundamental of Etienne Cabet’s theory of life, and it was applied so far as possible in the rule of the community.

But once more the delicate plant that must draw its nourishment from such intangible sources as a belief in the abstraction of human equality,; or a deep seated conviction that one’s neighbor is as good as one’s self; found its roots crowded and starved in the soil of selfishness and ambition and individualism. The younger Icarians looked around them, and saw that while they had but an indefinite and indivisible stake in their community, there were men among their neighbors who, with seemingly less work and toil and effort than they were required to put forth, in a few years came to own lands as extensive as all the estate of Icaria. They longed for the freedom of competition and individual effort and individual merit. Each was jealous of the other, for each felt that he was contributing a larger share of labor than was compensated by the proportion of the whole product which came to him. And so, in 1886, there was another division; the lands were divided and the community partitioned off. After this there was the Old Icarian community and the New Icarian community. The members of the New community had desired to admit all who might apply, to the advantages of membership in the community. Failing to carry their point, they brought action at law to annul the charter which the legislature had granted the community. In this they succeeded; their success led to the schism. The New community did not incorporate, for the experience with charters had not been satisfactory. After a year or two the Old community disbanded and divided its property among its surviving members. The New Icaria flourished a number of years yet, but it could not withstand the disintegrating influences from without. Troubles arose, disagreements that could not be settled. The younger and more capable members withdrew, and at last, on February 16, 1895, application was made for the appointment of a receiver, Eugene F. Bettannier was named, and to him was turned over about 1,000 acres of land and other property aggregating about $36,000 in value. Since that time he has disposed of the property, divided the proceeds in accordance with orders of the court, and finally, a month ago, filed his statement showing the disposition of everything. Mr. Bettannier was himself a member of the community. Still a comparatively young man, he remembers seeing Etienne Cabet and still regards him with a sentiment of reverence and affection. “It was not a failure,” declares Mr. Bettannier; “it is right in principle, and it will one day be recognized as the only right social order.”

Adams County Free Press (Corning, Iowa) Oct 27, 1898

Image from the French Icarian Colony Foundation website

THE LAST OF ICARIA.

On another page will be found a brief historical sketch of the famed Icarian community of Adams county, which, after an existence of almost half a century, had finally had its affairs wound up by the courts. Last Saturday Judge Towner issued an order for the discharge of Receiver Bettannier, and the organization of the communistic society as no more. Probably the Icarian community has attracted more attention in this part of Iowa than any other one thing. Students have come from distant parts of the world to see the communistic idea in practical application. They have reached widely divergent conclusions as to its practicality, but the end seems to justify the conclusion that communism cannot compete with individualism. The experience of the communists proved that individual effort and ambition were diminished under their system; everybody’s business was nobody’s business, and there was too much disposition to rely on the community as a whole for the discharge of responsibilities that under a different order would have been duties of the individual. So long as the communistic society could be isolated from individualistic society it flourished and attained a reasonable measure of success; but surrounded by and in competition with vigorous, aggressive, pushing devotees of individualism, it lacked the element of personal enthusiasm without which success was impossible.

While the lesson seems to teach the impracticality of the communistic tenure of property, yet it must be remembered that a little company of at most a few hundreds souls, devoted to the single occupation of agriculture, without diversity of interests and produced means, and surrounded on every side by the institutions of an older, established, and organized society entirely different in its scheme, could not but make a poor showing. Let us assume that the world was organized on a communistic basis, and that a little company of individualists should make the effort to establish themselves and their peculiar notions in the midst of the older society — would not the result be the same?

Despite all insistence to the contrary, the thought of the world trends today toward communistic things. The trust, by which competing concerns in a given line seek to eliminate competition; the great corporate organization, by which the available capital of the many is gathered into great amounts for the purposes of handling great enterprises; the tendency toward public control of natural monopolies — all these things obviously lead toward the socialistic consummation. glasgow, owning its own water works, gas works, street railways, public baths, public lodging houses, public laundries, public eating establishments and scores of like institutions, conducted for the benefit of the public and not for the profit; is the most striking example of the communistic tendency of the day. In America the movement toward municipal ownership of public utilities; the universally accepted principle of society’s right to control the transportation facilities, fix their rates, and regulate their methods of operation; the public control of the mails, and many other fixed theories of society, are evidences of the same communistic tendency. True, all this is a long way from the communism of Bellamy or Cabet; it may be sneered at and called “anarchy,” or “socialism,” or “nonsense,” by the unthinking; but the fact remains that the ever sharper competition, the ever decreasing share of product which is allotted to the hand and brain that actually earn the living of society — all these things are surely prodding society in the direction of a reversal of the fixed order of things. It may never reach us; but none the less, society is now moving in that direction.

Adams County Free Press (Corning, Iowa) Oct 27, 1898

Lake Park News (Lake Park, Iowa) Jan 31, 1957

MANY UNIQUE IOWA COMMUNITIES

Touches of romance have been given to the history of Iowa by the story of various little groups of idealists who from time to time found asylum within the borders of the State. Especially is this true of the people called the Icarians, who in the early fifties established a colony near Corning in Adams County. These people believed in and practiced communism — all property was held in common — and they were inspired by the ideal of restoring the principles of primitive Christianity. Persecuted in France, under the direction of their leader, Etienne Cabet they crossed the sea and settled in the wilds of Texas. But being an industrial people they found it too difficult to maintain existence so far from civilization, and so they journeyed up the Mississippi and took up the land and quarters at Nauvoo which had recently been deserted by the Mormons. Then about 1853 the colony in Iowas was established, and still later California became the home of the rapidly dwindling numbers of those who still held to the ideals of the founders.

In the April number of “The Iowa Journal of History and Politics” published by the State Historical Society, there is a translation of a history of the Icarian Community, written by Cabet himself about 1855.

The basic principles of the Community, according to the founder were “Brotherhood, Equality, Solidarity, the suppression of poverty and individual property, in a word Communism.”

The Iowa City Citizen (Iowa City, Iowa) May 2, 1917

Janesville Morning Gazette (Janesville, Wisconsin) Mar 17, 1857

Two and a half miles east of Corning, Iowa, is the Icarian community, with A.A. Marchand, an intelligent Frenchman, at its head. In this community are 75 person, living in 20 or 25 houses, and using a common dining hall 24×60 feet. The community own about 2,000 acres of land, with 600 acres under improvement. A fair share is good timberland. A steam grist mill and saw mill are on their lands, together with several barns.

The Perry Chief (Perry, Iowa) Jul 17, 1875

Will Divide the Property.

Corning. Feb 23. — Members of the Icarian Community founded in France before the revolution, coming to this country and living at various points in the south and at Nauvoo, Ill., finally settling here in 1856, have agreed to a division of the property and the dissolution of the society. The interests of the heirs and other legal obstacles have rendered it advisable to appoint a receiver to put the matter in the hands of the court.

The Perry Daily Chief (Perry, Iowa) Feb 24, 1895

DEATH OF A.A. MARCHAND.

Former President of the Icarian Community Passes Away in Georgia.

In Columbus, Ga., May 4, A.A. Marchand, one of the founders of the new extinct Icarian Community, was found dead in his bed, at the home of his daughter Mrs. William Ross, with whom he had lived since leaving Corning three years ago. the supposition is he died of heart disease, as he had not been sick and was apparently in fair health. Mr. Marchand had led an eventful life and died at the ripe age of 81 years. He was born in Rene, Bretagne, France.

In 1818 he became an enthusiastic follower of Etienne Cabet, the communist, who led a colony of some 5000 French to Texas where they purchased a tract in the Red river country. Misfortunes and disease overtook them and one half the colony died of yellow fever. A large number drifted back to France. A smaller number, Mr. Marchand among them, journeyed to Nauvoo, Ill., where they purchased the old mormon town site and farming lands, then being abandoned by the mormons in their exodus to Salt Lake. This colony flourished a few years, then succumbed. More than 100 of the colonists journeyed to Adams county where they purchased 20,000 acres of land about 1854. The colony thrived for many years. Then came dark days and disruption, the formation of a new colony which lived until 1895 when it was dissolved by petition to the court and a receiver appointed. The mother colony had expired several years before. Mr. Marchand was several years president of the colony. He was a man of rare refinement and education, and taught the Icarian children for many years.

Adams County Free Press (Corning, Iowa) May 12, 1898

Genesis of the Republican Party

September 10, 2011

Image from the Tarrant County Republican Party website 

Genesis of the Republican Party.
[S.F. Bulletin.]

The States, Maine, Wisconsin and Michigan — each claims to have organized the Republican party. Perhaps Wisconsin is really entitled to the honor. On the last day of February, 1854, a meeting had been held at Ripon in that State, comprised of both Whigs and Democrats, that resolved that in the event of Congress passing the Kansas-Nebraska bill, they would fling their old affiliations to the wind, and join in a determined movement to oppose the further extension of slavery.

The first convention on this platform — which may be called the first Republican platform — convened on the 6th of July of that year, and nominated

Kinsley S. Bingham for Governor, who was elected by an overwhelming majority.

Ohio followed Michigan in the same direction, and at a State Convention nominated a ticket that swept the field.

The next year, in 1855, New Yorkers in convention abandoned their old name of “Whig” and adopted the Wisconsin name “Republican.” In other States the party of “bolters” from both the Whig and the Democratic ranks were designated as “Anti-Nebraskas.” In 1856 they met in a National Convention and nominated John C. Fremont for the Presidency, and the Republican party for the second time under that name came into existence.

Daily Nevada Journal (Reno, Nevada) Jul 16, 1884

Richland County Observer (Richland Center, Wisconsin) May 6, 1856

TO THE VOTERS OF RICHLAND COUNTY.

Having appeared before you as a candidate for the office of Clerk of the Board of Supervisors of Richland county, I deem it my duty to lay before my friends and the public generally, my position in regard to the present campaign.

For the election of President, I have but one choice, and that is for Fremont; deeming him not only to be the republican candidate, but the only true democratic candidate in the field. For him I shall labor arduously, and hope successfully. For Congress and State, as well as all law-making offices, I shall support the republican ticket throughout.

For county offices I shall endeavor to vote for those men who are the most capable to fill the offices, without regard to party nominations. Holding to the true Republican doctrine of Thomas Jefferson, viz: Are they honest, are they capable?

Respectfully yours,
WM. F. CRAWFORD.
Richland Center, August 9th, 1856.

Richland County Observer (Richland Center, Wisconsin) Aug 19, 1856

Richland County Observer (Richland Center, Wisconsin) Aug 19, 1856

THEN AND NOW.

“We intend the Constitution to be THE GREAT CHARACTER OF HUMAN LIBERTY to the unborn millions who shall enjoy its protection; and who should never see that such an institution as slavery was ever known in our midst.” — James Madison.

“Slavery exists in Kansas under the Constitution.” — James Buchanan.

The former expresses the view of the Republican party; the latter the views of the so called Democratic party.

Richland County Observer (Richland Center, Wisconsin) Nov 24, 1857

Dust Off the Old Waffle Iron

June 29, 2010

Today is National Waffle Iron Day!

GRIDDLE-CAKES, WAFFLES, ETC.

If you have not used your griddle or waffle-iron for some time; wash it off hard with hot soap and water; wipe and rub well with dry salt. Heat it and grease with a bit of fat salt pork on a fork.

It is a mistake, besides being slovenly and wasteful, to put on more grease than is absolutely necessary to prevent the cake from sticking.

A piece of pork an inch square should last for several days. Put on a great spoonful of butter for each cake, and before filling the griddle, test it with a single cake, to be sure that all is right with it as well as the batter.

The same rules apply to waffles. Always lay hot cakes and waffles upon a hot plate as soon as baked.

Indiana Progress (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Feb 17, 1874

RAISED FLOUR WAFFLES.

Stir into a quart of flour sufficient lukewarm milk to make a thick batter. The milk should be stirred in gradually, so as to have it free from lumps. Put in a table-spoonful of salt, and half a tea-cup of yeast.

When risen, fill your waffle irons with the batter, bake them on a bed of coals.

When they have been on the fire between two and three minutes, turn the waffle irons — when brown on both sides, they are sufficiently baked.

The waffle irons should be well greased with lard, and very hot, before one is put in.

The waffles should be buttered as soon as cooked. Serve them up with powdered white sugar and cinnamon.

Title: The Ladies’ National Magazine, Volumes 7-8
Publisher: C. J. Peterson, 1845
(Google book LINK Pg 178)

WAFFLES.

We are indebted to the Germans for this cake, which, if this receipt is exactly followed, will be found excellent. Warm a quart of milk, and cut up in it a quarter of a pound of the best fresh butter, and stir it about to soften in the warm milk. Beat eight eggs till very thick and smooth, and stir them gradually into the milk and butter, in turn with half a pound of sifted flour. Then add two table-spoonfuls of strong fresh brewer’s or baker’s yeast. Cover the pan with a clean thick cloth, and set it in a warm place to rise.

When the batter has risen nearly to the top, and is covered with bubbles, it is time to bake; first stirring in a wine-glass of rose-water. Having heated your waffle iron in a good fire, grease it inside with the fresh butter used for the waffle mixture, or with fresh lard; fill it, and shut the iron closely. Turn it on the fire, that both sides of the cake may be equally well done. Each side will require about three minutes baking. Take them out of the iron by slipping a knife underneath. Then grease and prepare the iron for another waffle. Butter them, and send them to the tea-table “hot and hot;” and, to eat with this, a bowl or glass dish of sugar flavored with powdered cinnamon.

In buying waffle irons choose them very deep, so as to make a good impression when baked — if shallow, the waffle will look thin and poor. Those that bake one waffle at a time are the handsomest and most manageable.

Title: Miss Leslie’s New Cookery Book
Author: Eliza Leslie
Publisher: T. B. Peterson, 1857
(Google book LINK, pgs. 441-442)


RICE WAFFLES.

Two cupfuls flour, one-half teaspoonful salt, one teaspoonful baking powder, one egg beaten separately, one tablespoonful butter, one cupful milk, one cupful cold boiled rice, one-half cup of the water in which the rice was boiled. Sift the dry ingredients into a bowl; make a hole in the center, into which put the rice and the rice water. Add the well beaten yolk of the egg, the milk and melted butter. Stir until thoroughly mixed. Lastly, fold in the white of the egg beaten to a still froth.

Fry in a well greased waffle iron.

Fort Wayne News (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Mar 23, 1899

To make rice waffles take a teacup and a half of rice that has been well boiled, and warm in a pint of rich milk, stirring it till smooth and mixed. Then removed it from the fire, and stir in a pint of cold milk and a teaspoonful of salt. Beat four eggs very light, and stir them into the mixture, in turn, with sufficient rice flour to make a thick batter.

Bake in a waffle-iron.

Send them to the table hot, butter them, and eat them with powdered sugar and cinnamon, prepared in a small bowl for the purpose.

Indiana Progress (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Mar 27, 1873

How to Make Good Waffles.

Boil and mash about a pint of sweet potatoes. Sift one good teaspoonful of soda with three cups of flour. Beat two eggs light. Add one teaspoonful salt and sour milk enough to make a thin batter. Have the waffle-iron as hot as possible without burning the waffles.

Woodland Daily Democrat (Woodland, California) Mar 24, 1890

GERMAN WAFFLES.

1 quart flour, 1/2 teaspoonful salt, 3 tablespoonfuls sugar, 2 large teaspoonfuls Royal Baking Powder, 2 tablespoonfuls lard, rind of 1 lemon, grated, 1 teaspoonful Royal Extract Cinnamon, 4 eggs and 1 pint thin cream. Sift together flour, sugar, salt and powder; rub in lard cold; add beaten eggs, lemon rind, extract and milk. Mix into smooth, rather thick batter.

Bake in hot waffle iron, serve with sugar flavored with Royal Extract of Lemon.

***

SOFT WAFFLES.

1 quart flour, 1/2 teaspoonful salt, 1 teaspoonful sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls Royal Baking Powder, 1 large tablespoonful butter, 2 eggs, 1 1/2 pints milk.

Sift together flour, salt, sugar and powder; rub in butter cold; add beaten eggs and milk; mix into smooth consistent batter that will run easily and limpid from mouth of pitcher.

Have waffle-iron hot and carefully greased each time; fill 2-3, close it up, when brown turn over.

Sift sugar on them, serve hot.

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) May 25, 1895

South African Wafels.

South African “wafels” vastly differ from our waffles merely in being made with wine as a “moistener” rather than with milk for the principal liquid ingredient.

In South Africa when they are going to make “wafels” they take a pound of flour, three-quarters of a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, eight eggs, half a pint of wine and a teaspoonful of sifted cinnamon. The butter and eggs are creamed; then they mix in alternately one egg and one spoonful of flour, add the wine and spice and bake in a waffle iron.

Eau Claire Leader (Eau Claire, Wisconsin) May 10, 1903

CREAM WAFFLES.

Put into a bowl two cupfuls of sifted flour, three and a half level teaspoonfuls of baking powder and half a teaspoonful of salt. Beat the yolks of two eggs and add to them one and one quarter cupfuls of milk and then the flour mixture. Beat until smooth one teaspoonful of melted butter and the whites of two eggs whipped stiff.

Cook on a hot, greased waffle iron and serve with maple sirup.

The waffles should be thin and crisp.

The Daily Review ( Decatur, Illinois) May 14, 1904

Tomato Waffles

Pare six medium-sized ripe tomatoes, chop very fine and add one teaspoon salt, one-fourth teaspoon pepper, one tablespoon butter melted after measuring; sift one-half teaspoon soda in a little flour to make the mixture like a thin griddle cake batter; have your waffle iron very hot, grease both under and upper lids, place a small tablespoon of the batter into each section, close the lid upon it and bake at least one minute on each side; when serving, cut the sections apart and arrange on a napkin.

This makes a novel and delicious entree.

Title: Good Living and How to Prepare it
Authors    King’s Daughters of Iowa, King’s Daughters of Iowa. Circle No. One (Oskaloosa)
Publisher: Hedge-Wilson Co., 1905
(Google book LINK pg. 113)

Waffles, Southern Style.

Mix and sift one and three-fourths cupfuls of flour, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder and one-half teaspoonful of salt, add gradually one cupful of milk, the yolks of two eggs well beaten, one tablespoonful of melted butter and the white of two eggs beaten stiff.

Cook on a greased hot waffle iron and serve at once with maple syrup.

A waffle iron should fit closely on the range, be well heated on the one side, turned, heated on the other side, and thoroughly greased before the iron is filled. In filling put a tablespoonful of the batter in each compartment near the centre of the iron, cover, and the mixture will spread to just fill the iron. If sufficiently heated, it needs to be turned almost as soon as filled and covered.

Trenton Times (Trenton, New Jersey) Sep 14, 1906

Recipes For Waffles.

(By Mrs. J.M. Fine)

One-half cup of cornstarch, two cups of flour, three teaspoons of baking powder, one teaspoon of salt, three eggs, well beaten, one and one-half cups of sweet milk, three tablespoons of melted butter, one tablespoon of Karo corn syrup.

Mix to a thin batter.

Have waffle iron very hot before pouring in the batter.

Witchita Daily Times (Wichita Falls, Texas) Sep 3, 1914

Buckwheat Waffles.

2 cups buckwheat flour.
1/2 teaspoon salt.
4 teaspoons baking powder.
2 tablespoons molasses.
2 cups milk.
1 tablespoon melted fat.
2 eggs, beaten separately.

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add molasses, milk, melted fat and eggs.

Heat waffle iron and grease well, put a tablespoon of mixture in each compartment, cover and cook, turn occasionally until crisp and brown.

Serve with syrup.

These may be cooked on a griddle if a waffle iron is not available.

Fitchburg Daily Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Jun 17, 1918

The chocolate nut waffles are made by sifting together 2 cups of pastry flour, 1/3 cup of sugar, 1/3 cup of ground chocolate or 3 tablespoons of cocoa, 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg, 4 teaspoons baking powder, 1/2 teaspoon salt. Beat 2 egg yolks and add 1 1/4 cups of milk. Stir liquids into dry ingredients and add 1/2 cup melted butter. Fold in stiffly-beaten egg whites and 1/2 cup finely-chopped nuts and bake in hot waffle iron. This makes 7 or 8 large waffles.

Centralia Chronicle Advertiser (Centralia, Washington) Apr 24, 1936


“Mother Goose” on the Panic

October 28, 2009

“Mother Goose” on the Panic.

We have picked up the following capital applications of Mother Goose’s melodies to the present conditions of the money market, floating about in our exchanges:

Sing a song of specie
Gotham all away,
Seven and fifty Bank Birds
Knocked into pi;
When the Banks were open’d
The Cashier tried to sing,
Wasn’t that a pretty dish
To send to Gov’nor King!

Hark! hark! the Banks do bark,
The brokers have come to town,
Some with “bags” and some with “rags,”
To hunt the specie down.

There was a man in our town,
Who was so wondrous wise,
He jumped into the Barbary coast
And drew out his supplies.
And when he got his specie out,
With all his might and main,
He rushed into another Bank
And concluded that, all things considered,
he might as well deposit again.

Ba! ba! Bank sheep, have you any gold?
Yes, marry, have I, three bags told;
One for depositors, one for me,
And one for an old chap that lives across the sea?

One — Two! What shall we do?
Three — Four! Close up the door.
Five — Six! They are coming like bricks,
Seven — Eight! Ask them to wait.
Nine — Ten! Good friends, come again.
Eleven — Twelve! The deposits we’ll shelve.
Thirteen — Fourteen! Stop exporting.
Fifteen — Sixteen! Ain’t we fixed in?
Seventeen — Eighteen! Keep ’em waiting!
Nineteen — Twenty! Vaults are Empty!

Fort Wayne Sentinel, The (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Nov 7, 1857

 

BLOCK QUOTES run a muck again!

I Owe No Man A Dollar

October 25, 2009
Life Magazine 1937

Life Magazine 1937

I Owe no Man a Dollar.

BY THE LATE CHAS. P. SHIRAS

Oh, do not envy, my own dear wife,
The wealth of our next door neighbor,
And bid me still to be stout of heart,
And cheerfully follow my labor;
You must know, the last of those little debts
That have been our lingering sorrow,
Is paid this night! So we’ll both go forth
With happier hearts to-morrow.
Oh, the debtor is but a shame-faced dog,
With the creditors name on his collar.
While I am a king and you are a queen,
For we owe no man a dollar!

Our neighbor you saw in his coach to-day,
With his wife and his flaunting daughter,
While we sat down to our coverless board,
To a crust and a cup of water;
I saw that a tear drop stood in your eye,
Though you tried your best to conceal it —
I knew that the contrast touched your heart,
And you could not help but feel it;
But knowing now that our scanty fare
Has freed thy neck from the collar,
You’ll join my laugh and help me shout
That we owe no man a dollar!

This neighbor whose show has dazzled your eyes,
In fact is a wretched debtor;
I pity him oft from my very heart,
And I wish that his lot were better.
Why, the man is the veriest slave alive;
For his dashing wife and daughter
Will live in style thouge ruin should come —
So he goes like a lamb to the slaughter;
But he feels it the tighter every day,
That terrible debtor’s collar!
Oh, what would he give, could he say with us
That he owed no man a dollar!

You seem amazed, but I’ll tell you more;
Within two hours I met him.
Sneaking away with a frightened air,
As if a fiend had beset him!
Yet he fled from a very worthy man,
Whom I met with the greatest pleasure —
Whom I called by name and forced to stop,
Though he said he was not at leisure,
He held my last note! so I held him fast,
Till he freed my neck from the collar,
Then I shook his hand as I proudly said:
Now, I owe no man a dollar!

Ah now you smile, for you feel the force
Of the truth I have been repeating;
I knew that a downright honest heart
In that gentle breast was breathing!
To morrow I’ll rise with a giant’s strength,
To follow my daily labor;
But e’er we sleep, let us humbly pray
For our wretched next door neighbor;
And we’ll pray for the time when all shall be free
From the weight of the debtor’s collar —
When the poorest shall lift up his voice and cry,
“Now, I owe no man a dollar!”

Fort Wayne Sentinel, The (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Oct 24, 1857

Elizabeth Zane: Pioneer Heroine

September 29, 2009

This story was actually part of the the article with the Squatter Life story in my previous post, but since it was a completely separate incident, I broke it into separate posts.

Who has not heard of the heroic Miss Elizabeth Zane, at Fort Henry, in 1777, where the city of Wheeling now stands?

When a large army of savages had been collected under the infamous Girty, and had attacked the fort, having killed in an outside skirmish several officers and men,  fearful crisis had arrived. The fort was reduced to eleven men and boys. The houses of villages were occupied by the savage foe, who for the moment had ceased hostilities, and had withdrawn to the base of the hill, which rose abruptly and precipitously from the narrow valley.

The ammunition of the fort was nearly exhausted; and the stock must be replenished, or all would fall — men, women and children — a prey to the merciless savage. About sixty yards distant, at the house of Ebenezer Zane, there was a keg of powder. If that could be procured they would be enabled successfully to defend the fort, and keep the Indians at bay. Not a man or boy, for they were almost equally good marksmen, could be spared; and yet, some one must hazard his life in the undertaking. It was the forlorn hope of that little band, and on it their fate was to turn.

The commander, Col. Shepherd, called for a volunteer in this perilous undertaking. Several promptly offered their services, both men and boys; but they were the bravest of the band, and could least be spared. The difficulty seemed to be not so much in finding the heart stout enough for the fearful undertaking, but in making the selection. Just then, up stepped a slender, delicate girl. With the spirit of her father, she said to the commander,

“I will bring the powder. If I die in the attempt, my loss will not be felt.”

In vain they strove to dissuade her, she would most certainly be shot; besides she could not run with the fleetness of a man. All entreaties were vain, and she heroically exclaimed,

“Open the gates, and let me go!”

With tearful eyes the gates were opened, and the intrepid girl bounded toward the house. The moment she emerged from the fort she was seen by the Indians, who, instead of firing at her, seemed to be taken by surprise, and astonishment that for a moment suspended their murderous purpose. She reached the house, entered it, secured the desired keg, and started back to the fort. The soul of the heroic girl was in the effort, and bravely it sustained her. As she sped across the space with her burden, a dozen rifles were raised, and their sharp, simultaneous crack, seemed to announce her doom; but she neither fell nor faltered. On with accelerated speed she urged her way; and, passing the gates, she entered the fort in safety.

Elizabeth Zane (Image from www.wvculture.org)

Elizabeth Zane (Image from http://www.wvculture.org)

The deed of that brave girl saved the fort; and an advantage was gained over the savage from which they did not recover so as to renew their depredations in future on that frontier outpost. Pioneer life in the West abounds with incidents of female heroism; and the simple story of their deeds possesses a more thrilling interest than can be infused by the most fervent and fruitful imagination into any scene of fiction.

Pioneer of the West.

Richland County Observer (Richland Center, Wisconsin) Aug 11, 1857

*****

Interesting book on Google books, which mentions Fort Henry, but not this incident, that I could find:

Frontier defense on the upper Ohio, 1777-1778
By Reuben Gold Thwaites, Louise Phelps Kellogg, State Historical Society
Madison, Wisconsin Historical Society, 1912

LINK to the book

A similar book:

The Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 1775-1777
edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites, Louise Phelps Kellogg
Wisconsin historical society, 1908

LINK to book

Both books:compiled from the Draper manuscripts in the library of the Wisconsin historical society and published at the charge of the Wisconsin society of the Sons of the American revolution

*****

You can also read the book, Betty Zane, by Zane Grey (a descendant of Ebenezer Zane,) online HERE.

From the dedication and note:

For a hundred years the stories of Betty and Isaac Zane have been familiar, oft-repeated tales in my family–tales told with that pardonable ancestral pride which seems inherent in every one. My grandmother loved to cluster the children round her and tell them that when she was a little girl she had knelt at the feet of Betty Zane, and listened to the old lady as she told of her brother’s capture by the Indian Princess, of the burning of the Fort, and of her own race for life. I knew these stories by heart when a child.

Two years ago my mother came to me with an old note book which had been discovered in some rubbish that had been placed in the yard to burn. The book had probably been hidden in an old picture frame for many years. It belonged to my great-grandfather, Col. Ebenezer Zane. From its faded and time-worn pages I have taken the main facts of my story. My regret is that a worthier pen than mine has not had this wealth of material.

*****

“HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA”
EDITED BY BOYD CRUMRINE
1882

If you are interested in an account of the torture/death of Colonel Crawford (witnessed by Simon Girty, mentioned in the above article,) after clicking HERE, scroll down about to the sub-heading:

126 – HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA.

WARNING! It is very gruesome.

The Dangers of a “Squatter Life”

September 29, 2009
Log Cabin (Image from http://photographs.mccumber.us)

Log Cabin (Image from http://photographs.mccumber.us)

SQUATTER LIFE.

Among the early settlers of the West were many who moved out and selected sites for their homes upon the unoccupied land they might find, and, by clearing a portion of it and building a cabin, they obtained a pre-emption right to the soil, or, at least, a certain portion of it, and in possession of which they have been protected by the government, at least, so far as that no one could dispossess them without paying them an equivalent for the improvements; and even then they had a prior claim, or privilege of purchasing at government price over every other purchaser. Such pioneers have been denominated “Squatters.”

In an early day a man, who had left the sterile soil of an Eastern State, started with his young and rising family to better his condition in the rich and fertile valley of the West. He was a poor, but honest man; had struggled hard to raise his family, and by patient industry was enabled to obtain an outfit of a horse and cart to journey to the West. Passing through what was then a wilderness, he at length reached a spot on the Illinois river, about two hundred miles from its mouth, where he pitched his tent, and subsequently erected his cabin. His family consisted of a wife and three children the eldest, a boy, was in his nineteenth year, the next a girl, in her eighteenth year, and the youngest a boy of fourteen. They were all vigorous, the very material suited for the hard toil and poor fare of pioneer life.

One day there came to the squatter’s cabin three Indians, professing to be friendly, who invited the father to go out on a hunting excursion with them. As the family subsisted mostly upon game, he finally concluded to accompany them, taking with him his eldest son. They expected to be absent about a week, as they intended to take a somewhat extensive range.

After three days had passed away, one of the Indians returned to the squatter’s house, and deliberately lighting his pipe and taking his seat by the fire, he commenced smoking in silence. The wife was not startled at hsi appearance, as it was frequently the case that one, and sometimes more, of a party of Indian hunters, getting discouraged, would leave the rest and return. This was usually the case when they imagined they discovered some bad sign, and it would not only be useless, but disatrous, for them to hunt under such circumstances.

The Indian sat for some time in sullen silence, and at length, removing his pipe from his mouth he gave a significant grunt to awaken attention, and said —

“White man die.”

The squatter’s wife at his replied,

“What is the matter?”

“He sick; tree fall on him; he die. You go see him.”

Her suspicions being somewhat aroused at the manner of the savage, she asked him a number of questions. The evasiveness and evident want of consistencly of the answers, at length confirmed her that something was wrong. She judged it best not to go herself, but sent her youngest son, the eldest, as we have seen, having gone on a hunt with his father. Night came, but it brought not the son or the Indian. All its gloomy hours were spent in taht lone cabin by the mother and daughter; but morning came without their return. The whole day passed in the same fruitless look out for the boy; the mother felt grieved that she had sent her child on the errand, but it was now too late. Her suspicions were now confirmed that the Indians had decoyed away her husband and sons. She felt that they would not stop in their evil designs, and that, if they had slain the father and his boys, they would next attack the mother and daughter.

No time was to be lost; and she and the daughter, as night was approaching, went to work to barricade the door and windows of the cabin in the best manner they could. The rifle of the youngest boy was all the weapon in the house, as he did not take it when he went to seek his father. This was taken from its hangings, and carefully examined to see that it was well loaded and primed. To her daughter she gave the axe, and thus armed they determined to watch all night, and, if attacked by the savages, to fight to the last.

About midnight they made their appearance, expecting to find the mother and daughter asleep, but in this they were disappointed. They approached stealthily, and one of the number knocked loudly at the door, crying,

“Mother! Mother!”

The mother’s ear was too acute and she replied, “Where are the Indians, my son?”

The answer, “Um-gone,” would have satisfied her, if she had not been before aware of the deceit.

“Come up, my son, put your ear to the latch-hole. I want to tell you something before I open the door.”

The Indian applied his ear to the latch-hole. The crack of the rifle followed and he fell dead.

As soon as she fired, she stepped on one side of the door, and immediately two rifle balls passed through it, either which would have killed her.

“Thank God!” said the mother in a whisper to her daughter, “there are but two. They are the three that went to hunt with your father, and one of them is dead. If we can only kill or cripple another we shall be safe. Take courage, my child; God will not forsake us in this trying hour. We must both be still after they fire again. Supposing they have killed us, they will break down the door. I may be able to shoot one,” — for in the meantime she had re-loaded the rifle, “but if I miss, you must use the axe with all your might.”

The daughter, equally courageous with her mother, assured her that she would do her best.

The conversaton had hardly ceased when two more rifle balls came crashing through the window. A death-like stilness ensued for the space of several minutes, when two more balls, in quick succession came through the door, followed by tremendous strokes againt it with a heavy stake. At length the door gave way, and an Indian with a fiendish yell, was in the act of springing into the house; but a ball from the boy’s rifle, in the mother’s hand, pierced his heart, and he fell across the threshold. The surviving Indian, daring not to venture — and it was well for his skull that he did not — fired at random, and ran away.

“Now,” said the mother to the daughter, “we must leave;” and taking the rifle and the axe, they hastened to the river, jumped into a canoe, and without a morsel of provisions, except a wild duck and two blackbirds which the mother shot on the voyage, and which they ate raw, they paddled their canoe down the river until they reached the residence of a French settler at St. Louis.

Some time after, a party of hunters started over into Illinois, and scoured the country in every direction; but they returned without finding either the squatter or his boys. Nor have they been heard of to this day. Should the traveler pass by the beautiful city of Peoria, in his westward wanderings, the old settlers in that neighborhood can point out the spot where stood the cabin of the squatter, so heroically defended by his wife and daughter, and who so nobly avenged the death of the father and sons.

The pioneer women of the West, like the men, were made of sterner stuff than enters into the composition of most of our modern ladies and gentlemen. They were brave in entering the wilderness, and they showed themselves equally so in grappling with its difficulties, and encountering its perils.

Pioneer of the West.

Richland County Observer (Richland Center, Wisconsin) Aug 11, 1857

*****

Pretty awesome educational site: SQIDOO

The creator is a retired teacher/homeschooling mom and so the info is geared for children/teachers.  This particular page is full of information about the 1780s.

John B. Weller: Gold Rush Era Politician

April 28, 2009
John B. Weller (Image from www.house.gov)

John B. Weller (Image from http://www.house.gov)

While searching for “California Gold Rush” news articles, I ran across and transcribed the following article, assuming John B. Weller was was of the many “49’ers” who hailed from Ohio. However, after a little research, I realized he went to California for a different reason. As it turns out, he was an Ohio politician, who seemed to be in the midst of a scandal, which might have been the push needed to go elsewhere. Fortunately for him, the scandal didn’t follow him, and he eventually became the fifth governor of California.

First, some background on John B. Weller:

In this Ohio government biography, it states he was married four times! His wives seemed to just keep dying, although that was NOT the scandal I mentioned. I just thought it was interesting. This is a pretty good biography, although it seems to be written with a rather positive slant.

From the “Governors of California” bio, which is quite short, I quote the following interesting tidbits (emphasis mine):

He was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, served in the Mexican War, and was U.S. Commissioner of International Boundaries. …[Later, after a scandal] he was removed from the commission by President Taylor. Somehow recovering from the scandal, Weller entered politics in California first serving as State Senator. As Governor, he intended to make California an independent republic if the North and South divided over slavery, and he personally led an assault on San Quentin Prison to take back possession of it from a commercial contractor.

This Journal News article (1990) gives a good time line of his life, including the following:

In two of his three House elections, Weller defeated Lewis D. Campbell, who had been his roommate when both first came to Hamilton. Weller declined to seek a fourth term and returned to his law practice in Hamilton.

When the Mexican War started in May 1846, Weller enlisted as a private, helped raise troops in Butler County and rose to colonel and commander of the Second Ohio Regiment when its colonel was killed in the Battle of Monterey Sept. 24, 1846.

After the war, he was the Democratic candidate for governor in 1848, but lost to Seabury Ford, a Whig, during a questionable vote count. One tally gave Weller a 259-vote victory. But the version accepted by the Ohio General Assembly Jan. 22, 1849, made Ford the winner by 311 votes.

While the election was in doubt, Weller’s third wife, Susan, died in Hamilton Dec. 22, 1848, and was the second person buried in the new Greenwood Cemetery. (His first wife, Ann, also was reburied there.)

**The one above about his wife dying, is particularly of interest, given the mean-spirited poem written about the Weller family that you will find posted further down.

In January 1849, two months before the end of his term, President James K. Polk, a Democrat, appointed Weller chairman of the commission to determine the boundary line between the United States (California) and Mexico under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Political changes in Washington led to Weller’s recall in 1850 by the new president, Zachary Taylor, a Whig.

In 1851, the California legislature elected him to the U. S. Senate as a Union Democrat to succeed John C. Fremont. In the Senate from Jan. 30, 1852, until March 3, 1857, Weller supported building a Pacific railroad and homestead bills and was regarded as a pro-slavery Democrat.

In 1867 he moved to New Orleans to practice law. He died there of smallpox Aug. 17, 1875. The body of the former Hamilton lawyer was returned to San Francisco for burial.

Finally, from the National Governors’ Association comes this:

Weller also dealt with an ongoing feud between opposing factions in the Democratic Party, which was led by U.S. Senator David C. Broderick and U.S. Senator William M. Gwin. The feud culminated in September 1859 when David S. Terry, a former judge of the California Supreme Court, killed U.S. Senator Broderick in a duel.

Now, on to the newspaper articles, this first one being the one I mentioned at the beginning of the post:

From California.

We give the following extract from a letter dated San Francisco, Sept. 15th, 1850.

We have had a hard time of it here in the money market, during the past month, and many large houses have failed. The credit system is creeping into the profession, and although business is plenty, it is more difficult to collect. I have now three cases on hand, where success in either would give me as much as I want.

This city is improving more rapidly than any city in the world — the most extensive improvements have been made in every direction since you left. The city is fast running out into the Bay, and large and extensive business houses erected 500 yards from the shore on a line with the principal streets. And yet while all this is going on, money commands 10 and 12 per cent per month.

The miners are not so successful this year as last. Upon some of the rivers nothing is found. I doubt very much whether the average will be $2 per day — this may perhaps have a salutary effect upon the State, as it will drive the mechanics to their trades, and the farmers to agriculture. Thousands are leaving the mines and seeking employment in the cities.

JOHN. B. WELLER

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Nov 19, 1850

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Some further research turned up the following articles that give some political background, although it should be noted some are written by the opposing political party newspapers. In contrast, the article from the Mountain Democrat is from a “friendly” paper.

The Youth of Weller.

When a man by the aid of his genius, the lustre of his acts, or the force of circumstances, is ushered very prominently into the public view, his personal history becomes a topic of interest from his youth up, and a host of literary gossips are sent down to search out all the leading events of his babyhood.

As Mr. WELLER has been taken up by the Locofoco party of this State, for the purpose of making him a very great man, in short a Governor, it is proper to investigate his biography a little, in order that we may understand how his past achievements, are to coincide with his future honors.

We clip the following “incident” from a file of ’44 campaign papers, which was first published in the Richmond Palladium, of course sometime before Mr. WELLER was thought of in either of his military characters, as the Hero of Monterey or Generalissimo of the Revolutionary Forces in Ohio. We add to it another chapter, which is going the rounds of the press, and we presume that other chapters will come to light, until by the time that their interesting subject is comfortably seated in the gubernatorial chair, we shall receive from the hands of some publisher, an elegant edition of “The Youth of Weller,” complete in one volume, which will fit, in all our public libraries, cozily and decorously beside “The Youth of Shakespeare.”

AN INCIDENT. — Some ten or twelve years ago, a young man dressed in the tip top of the fashion of that day, with his ruffles floating at his breast, his fingers engemed with rings, his hat cap-a-pie, and the airs of the dandy pervading the whole of the thing called a man, appeared in the town of Centerville, as our hero no doubt thought, much to the astonishment of the natyves. He soon found his way to the Courthouse, which was then occupied by the circuit Court. He pompously entered within the bar, and seated himself among the lawyers. After a while a case was called, wherein Mr. A. of the State of Ohio, had sued Mr. B. of this county on a plain note of hand. Our hero, the dandy, appeared as Counsel of the plaintiff, and stated to the Court that he presumed there would be no difficulty in the case, it being a plain and simple obligation to pay money. —

One of the Whoosier lawyers, having a little fun in connection with his other qualifications, concluded to contest the case, and put in various pleas containing several foolish and untenable positions. Our hero, arose in surprise, and stated that he was not prepared to meet the case nor form the issue, as he had not anticipated any opposition, and concluded by asking a continuance of the case. It was continued by our hero paying the cost. At the next term of the Court, our county was again honored with the presence of the Ohio dandy. His case was again called, and he was about to proceed with it, when the impudent Whoosier asked permission to file some additional pleas, equally foolish with the first, saying that certain facts had come to his knowledge since the last term, which it might be important to have brought forward in his case; he was permitted to file them. Our hero, being thus nonplused again, asked for a continuance of the case until the next term. The next and third term of the court arrived, and with it, our effeminate, and astonishingly fine dressed hero. He was this time accompanied by his client, a plain and highly respectable man. The case was again called, but our fun loving Whoosier lawyer again rose to file more pleas. The client of our hero, fearing that his attorney would again be foiled, applied to one of the lawyers then residing in Centreville, to attend to the case, saying that he was under the impression that his attorney was not acquainted with the practice in this State. The lawyer thus applied to after pocketing a pretty fair fee, went into Court, and asked that the case might be brought up. —

The lawyer who had been putting in pleas, immediately rose and said that he confessed judgement! So ended the case; and our chop-fallen, peacock hero, dropped his feathers, and skulked out of town, and did not for some years show his face in the town of Centreville, and in conclusion we are compelled to say that our coxcomb hero, was a Mr. WELLER.

WHO IS JOHN B. WELLER? A writer in the Cleveland Times attempts to tell the public the answer to this mighty question. And the Telegraph, in its simplicity copies the article for the enlightenment of the people in this region who have been endeavoring for the last fifteen years to find out who is John B. Weller.

The writer tells us that Col. W. was born in Hamilton county, and has his home there; and then he tells us how the said Weller has been often elected in Butler county; that he was elected Prosecutor in 1835 by an overwhelming majority, over a very popular opponent, and re-elected the next term by acclamation, “no one being found willing to run against an individual so endeared to the people!!!” —

The people here recollect something like this:

–Mr. Weller was a very forward young man who studied law with Jesse Corwin, and was a Whig, and was Secretary of a Clay meeting as soon as old enough; but on entering business he turned Loco, and run for the office of Prosecutor, against his benefactor, Mr. Corwin, and in a county giving some 1500 majority, he was elected by the overwhelming majority of seventy-five!!! If the people did not remember this they might ask, who is John B. Weller?

He then run for Congress, says the narrator and was elected by a large majority, and in 1840, re-elected by a large majority. This majority, was just 57!! where two years before he received 800! But the people in this district were beginning to know “who is John B. Weller?”

In the late history of the Lieutenant Colonel his biographer seems better informed, and he tells how the Colonel volunteered as a private and was elected Captain, then Lieutenant, and went to Mexico; to which he adds much of the glorifying usually claimed for him here. —

But some how or other he has either forgotten or never heard all about the Colonel in Mexico. He never tells anything about the way he domineered over the men, and assumed airs of consequence, and rendered himself ridiculous generally — nor does he mention the great prudence of the Colonel in choice of positions, and a variety of other things that must yet be told in answer to the question, “who is John B. Weller?”

As material for another writer, it might be said that Lieutenant Colonel Weller has never run up with his party, in any instance when he was a candidate — that he is reserved and haughty in his demeanor, and anything but a favorite with the people — a demagogue of the most unmitigated character. But he is known here and may be known pretty well over the State this year. After the knowledge is attained, we trow no Locofocos will enquire “who is John B. Weller?” (Hamilton Intelligencer.)

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) May 9, 1848

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A Locofoco Jewel.

“Consistency is a jewel,” and so is the Sandusky City Mirror. When the Baltimore nominations were received, it sturdily refused to support Gen. Cass, because he was a doughface, or Gen. Butler, because he was a slave-holder. We notice that it has just unfurled the Barnburner flag, for VanBuren and Dodge; but it is patched with a most unseemly accompaniment —

After a conscientious delay of several moons’ duration, it has at last put up the name of Col. Weller. as its candidate for Governor; a man who has been the most abject slave of the slaveocracy that ever shamed the halls of Congress!

The fact has raised a difficult issue in our mind, which we will leave out to a baker’s jury of one dozen — which is the greatest doughface, Lewis Cass, John B. Weller, or the Editor of the Mirror?

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jul 4, 1848

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COL. WELLER’S DEFENSE. — The Commissioners of Butler county filed their bill in Chancery against John B. Weller, charging him, as one of the commissioners of the Surplus Revenue Fund, with being indebted to that fund in the sum of eleven thousand dollars and interest, which he does not pay, &c. &c.

To this Col. Weller comes and defends. And in what does that defence consist? Why, Col. Weller does not deny that he has the money. He does not traverse the facts set forth in the bill. But he says that he ought not to be called upon to answer the charges and allegations of the complainant’s bill, because, he says the said suit was commenced by and in the name of the commissioners of the county of Butler, whereas in fact said suit ought to have been commenced by and in the name of the Procecuting Attorney of said county.

He stands up to the fight at law, just about as well as he did in the wars.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Aug 1, 1848

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Colonel Weller
Has been into Clermont county, and he made a speech there which did not very much “astonish the natives.” The Courier thus sums it up:
The positions assumed, and the sum total of the speech, were as follows:
1. Abuse of the Whigs generally.
2. Abuse of General Taylor.
3. Abuse of Seabury Ford.
4. Polk did not annex Texas.
5. The war was brought on by Mexico.
6. Abuse of Senator Corwin.
7. Laudation of John B. Weller.
9. The “mouse in liquor,” like Weller at Montery.)
10. The dying soldier’s request — tears &c.

THINGS NOT ATTENDED TO.
1. The Eleven Thousand Dollars Defalcation! Forgot that entirely!
2. The Ohio Banks, and the Hard Money issue.
3. The Tax Law.
4. The Dorrite proceedings of the 10th of May, for which he took strong ground at the opening of the campaign, urging his friends to be prepared to march to Columbus next winter, and, if need be, drive the Whigs out of the State House “at the point of the bayonet!”
5. Cass’ Federalism.
6. Cass’ extra pay.
7. Cass’ bill reducing the allowance of the volunteers from $3,50 to $1,91 per month.
8. The much talked of “principles” of the party.

Not one of these subjects was deemed worthy of notice by Col. Weller, in his speech to the “democracy of Clermont.”

The Zanesville Courier (Zanesville, Ohio) Sep 8, 1848

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Keep it before the People,
That John B. Weller declared that the Apportionment Bill, passed at the last session of the Legislature, should be modified, if it had to be done at the point of the bayonet!

KEEP IT BEFORE THE PEOPLE,
That John B. Weller is in favor of abolishing every Bank in the State, and of Hard Money Currency.

KEEP IT BEFORE THE PEOPLE,
That John B. Weller was one of the Fund Commissioners of Butler county, and that he is now a defaulter to the amount of eleven thousand dollars!

KEEP IT BEFORE THE PEOPLE,
That John B. Weller compared all men who are in favor of Free Soil to “Ragged and Scurvy Sheep.” and said that he would not thank them for their votes!

KEEP IT BEFORE THE PEOPLE,
That John B. Weller, while a member of Congress, voted against the right of petition! Can the people of Ohio vote for such a miserable doughface? —Tusc Advocate

The Zanesville Courier (Zanesville, Ohio) Sep 11, 1848

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**This is the poem I mentioned earlier in the post:

From the Zanesville Courier.
THE WELLERS.
BY. J. GREINER.
AIR — Governor Tod.

Colonel Weller ran home in a hurry,
The Locos were shouting like fun;
Said he, Mrs. Weller, don’t worry,
I’m Governor! sure as a gun.

The cannons were booming like thunder,
The rockets went off in a whiz;
Said she, My Dear Colonel, I wonder
If me you aint trying to quiz?

Oh no! said the Colonel; keep shady —
I pledge you my honor upon it —
Now, since you’re the Governor’s lady,
My Dear, you must have a new bonnet.

And you must be dressed in the fashion,
In silks and in satins so fine;
A shawl you must have of Circassian —
The Governor’s Lady must shine.

But spoke Mrs. Weller, contending,
Our children must have some new clothes;
Their trowers I’m tired of mending,
Their shoes are all out at the toes.

The Colonel was highly excited
When each little dirty nosed Weller
Came running — their Papa, delighted,
Wiped each little Governor’s smeller.

Come, hold up your heads, little “fellers,”
And play with your neighbors no more;
These children of Governor Weller’s
“Must slide on their own cellar door.”

Be still, boys, don’t make such a racket,
And you shall be dressed in new suits;
Long tails shall be put to your jackets,
High heels shall be tapped on your boots.

We’ll start for Columbus soon — “may be;”
So children, look very sedate;
Your “Ma” is a Governor’s Lady,
And I’m the big man of the State.

A shout — a Whig shout — comes astounding,
Great “noise and confusion” was heard
High o’er the hill-tops resounding,
Hurra for Old Cheesebury Ford.

Colonel Weller he heard it, astonished;
Mrs. Weller she said with a tear,
Naughty fellow, you ought to be punished,
“Such castles to build in the air.”

So, smoothing her apron so tidy,
At the Colonel she looked with a leer —
“I have a queer sort of an idea,
You’re not yet a Gov’ner, my dear.”

The Colonel was left in great trouble —
The little young Wellers looked sad,
For they all got spanked with a shovel,
And squalling they ran off to bed.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Nov 21, 1848

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The California fever is raging here to a considerable extent, three companies are forming to start on the 1st of April next, and some of the best citizens of Columbus are of the number; they all take the overland route.
*****
Colonel Weller starts from Cincinnati next Wednesday and proceeds to New Orleans, where he will make the final arrangements for his expedition. He goes first to Santiago on the Pacific, I believe, and takes with him a company of 36 Engineers, Surveyors, Clerks &c., among the number is H.H. Robinson, of the Eagle, who goes as Secretary. I wonder if that nice Silk Hat won’t go without brushing — that near setting coat won’t get a little rumpled, that fine satin vest, and snowy shirt bosom won’t get a little soiled, those tight pants won’t want another pair of straps on, and if his boots won’t want heel tapping before he gets back; I think, myself, quite likely they will.

The Zanesville Courier (Zanesville, Ohio) Feb 10, 1849

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Colonel Weller, with his surveying party, left Cincinnati on Saturday morning on the “Daniel Webster,” for New Orleans. The Nonpareil says he proceeds direct to San Diego, to meet a similar party from the Mexican government, and from thence they run the boundary line between the two countries.

The Zanesville Courier (Zanesville, Ohio) Feb 27, 1849

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We learn from the Cincinnati Enquirer that Colonel Weller and suite left that city on Saturday last, on board the steamer Daniel Webster, for Mexico. — Ohio Statesman

We suppose, of course, this is the same suit that has been so long pending against the Colonel in Butler county for those $11,000, and that since his defeat for Governor, he has concluded to “change the venue.” — Dayton Journal.

The Zanesville Courier (Zanesville, Ohio) Mar 1, 1849

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From his time in California:

John B. Weller.

We have, for some time past, says the Sierra Citizen, been intending to speak of the services of this retiring Senator in behalf of the State he so ably represented, when the following statements, made by a correspondent of the San Francisco Herald, writing from Washington, met our eye; and embodying, as it does, an undisputed record of the acts and doings of this faithful servant, during his stewardship, we substitute it with pleasure for any remarks we had intended to make of our own. We must, however, be allowed to say, in this connection, that we have known John B. Weller from our boyhood, — we know his faults, but we know his virtues as well, — and to those acquainted with our relative positions, anything we might say in this connection will have doubly the weight that parties not cognizant of our relative positions, in our intercourse in the Atlantic States, will accord it.

We are familiar with the personal and political history of John B. Weller ever since he entered upon his public career, which was as the State’s Attorney in a County in Ohio, where all our own brothers and the greater portion of our own relatives reside. A warm friend, he was ever open and generous, — bitter, it might be, in the advocacy of his party’s interests, and unsparing in political warfare — he was ever generous even to his opponents, and, although possessing faults, no one was more popular in his private relations. Although time, that softens all bitter feelings — that in the end “makes all things even,” — has mellowed down much of his party acerbity, — yet John B. Weller, when the question was vital between his personal and his party’s interests, never hesitated to sacrifice himself upon the altar of his party. Had he, like his opponent of the Gubernatorial Chair of Ohio, in 1848, caught at and pandered to the popular “isms” of the day, he would have made his “calling and election sure,” beyond all doubt or cavil, but he spurned the idea, and, as the standard-bearer of the true in contradistinction to the bastard Democracy, that went astray after false Gods, he preferred an honorable political defeat to a victory won by dishonorable sacrifice.

Now that John B. Weller is a private citizen, all parties unite in according to him that mood of justice which his services deserve. He has signified his intention to resume practice of his profession, and retire for a season, from the political arena, in which he has figured through life. But, if there is anything in the gift of the people of the State of California that he will accept, it is his, beyond all doubt or peradventure. If he prefer, however, to retain that “post of honor,” — a private stations, — it may be said of him, as of the Roman Patriot:

Alone, more proud the great Marcellus feels
Than Caesar with the Roman Senate at his heels

*The article goes on to talk about the money he brought to the state and the bills he tried to get passed, but I didn’t transcribe that part.

Mountain Democrat, The (Placerville, California) May 30, 1857

Ex-Senator Weller Wants to be a Commodore.
{From the Seneca (Ohio) Advertiser.}

While in Washington we heard a good story in regard to Uncle Abe and John B. Weller, “the Mexican killer.”

Weller was at Washington settling his accounts as Minister to Mexico. After their adjustment, he concluded to pay his respects to Mr. Lincoln, with whom he had served in Congress. He called at the Presidential mansion, and was courteously received.

“Mr. President,” said Colonel Weller, “I have called on you to say that I most heartily endorse the conservative position you have assumed, and will stand by you so long as you prosecute the war for the preservation of the Union and the Constitution.”

“Colonel Weller,” said the President, “I am heartily glad to hear you say this.”

“Yes, Mr. President,” said Weller, “I desire an appointment to aid in this work.”

“What do you want, Colonel?” asked Abraham.

“I desire to be appointed Commodore in the Navy,” said Weller.

The president replied:

“Colonel, I did not think you had any experience as a sailor.”

“I never had Mr. President,” said Weller; “but judging from the Brigadier-Generals you have appointed in Ohio, the less experience a man has, the higher position he attains.”

Lincoln turned off, with a hearty laugh, and said — “I owe you one, Colonel.”

Davenport Daily Gazette (Davenport, Iowa) Feb 11, 1862

If you are interested in reading more about David Smith Terry, the politician with a temper, try these links:

The Virtual Museum of San Francisco

Dateline Sunday U.S.A.