Posts Tagged ‘1868’

A Traitor in the Garden of Justice

November 2, 2011

Image from HarpWeek presents The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

NEW CATECHISM.

Q. Who was the first man?

A. Andrew Johnson.

Q. How was the first man created?

A. By four and a-half tailors, (one half of a man,) and a goose.

Q. What other name is the first man known by among his followers?

A. Andrew Moses.

Q. How did he receive this name?

A. By becoming a traitor in the garden of Justice and joining the Democratic party.

Q. Who was the first woman?

A. Aunt Lorenzo Thomas.

Q. How was the first woman created?

A. By a man-da-mus of Andrew Moses.

Q. What other name is the first woman known by?

A. Old Ad Interim.

Q. Why was she created?

A. For the ostensible purpose of testing the legal authority of A. Moses.

Q. How was her creation received?

A. By the expulsion of A. Moses from the garden of Justice.

Q. What is the proper doom of traitors?

A. “The penalty of Treason is death.

Q. Who will meet their proper reward?

A. The Copperhead Democratic party.

Q. When will their punishment commence?

A. Immediately after the fall elections of 1868.

Q. Where will it be inflicted, and in what manner?

A. At the ballot box, by the ballot “Soldiers vote as they shot.”

Q. How do you know they will be punished?

A. By intuition.

Q. What is intuition?

A. The act by which the mind perceives the agreement or disagreement of two ideas.

Q. What authority has the Union party in the coming elections?

A. A. Grant.

Q. What other assurance have we of their strength?

A. They have Ben. Wade in the balance, (and not found wanting;) are honorable, trustworthy and competent.

Decatur Republican (Decatur, Illinois) Apr 16, 1868

*     *     *

For the person that wanted the source:

decatur republican - 16 apr 1868 pg1

By the Bullet and the Bowl

October 12, 2011

“By the Bullet and the Bowl.”
From the New York Tribune.

In 1840 the Whig party elected Wm. H. Harrison President. He was inaugurated in 1841, March 4th. One month afterward he died, and his office fell to John Tyler.

How “Tyler too” carried out the principles under which he was chosen, the world too well remembers. He added a new and disgraceful verb to the language — to Tylerize has ever since been synonymous with partisan treachery.

In 1844, through the efforts of the Birney Abolitionists, Henry Clay was defeated — Polk elected, with Dallas for his Vice; Texas was annexed, the area of slavery was extended by nearly 300,000 square miles, and all was lovely.

In 1848, Zachary Taylor, a moderate Whig, and Millard Fillmore, not much of anything, were chosen President and Vice. Taylor did not suit the Southern drivers; he had a stupid way of acting honestly and straightforward — and so, within a brief period, he fell under the malarious vapors of Washington, and died, Fillmore succeeding, and duly Tylerized.

Next we had the Herald’s “poor Pierce,” who has not, to this day ceased from expressing his boundless servility to the slave whips of his southern masters. He was “sound” and served out his term in peace — the water was good.

In 1856, Mr. Buchanan, fully as sound as Pierce, was raised to the Executive chair, and under his administration — as in that of his predecessor — Washington was free from malaria — that is, Democrats; but when the new Republican party began to gain strength, and it was possible that they might become the ruling power of Congress, the water of Washington suddenly grew dangerous, the hotels (particularly the National) became pest houses, and dozens of heretics from the Democratic faith grew sick almost unto death. This singular phenomenon re-appeared from time to time until the great outbreak after the election of Lincoln. Then the wells and springs of the capital came into the care of loyal soldiers, and the water persistently remained healthy. This continued, in spite of the prayers of the faithless, for four years; there was not a “sick” congressman after Davis and his followers left.

But when the struggle of 1864 was over, and the water of the capital flowed clearly, there came a change in the tactics of the poisoners; a single bullet sufficed to restore their hopes. Abraham Lincoln passed away; Andrew Johnson supervened, and — like every other President elevated to the main office, from Aaron Burr to himself — he too, Tylerized, swallowed himself with the dexterity of an East India juggler, and came out from his contortions the branded property of Howell Cobb and his crowd of unregenerated rebels. Urged by the sentiment of a betrayed people, the House of Representatives recently put the recreant Executive on trial.

The trial was over, the hour for voting approached, when we had a return of that bad water, and two or three senators — Republicans, mind you — are prostrated with sudden illness.

What does it mean?

Why does it happen that whenever the current sets against the monster demon of slavery (and never at any other time) we find the air, water, and the whisky of Washington full of poison?

Why does it happen that when some great deed for freedom is on the point of accomplishment (and never on any other occasion), we find Presidents, previously in rugged health, instantaneously sent to their graves, and traitors always on hand to take their places?

Why is it now, just as we should have the vote upon the great question of impeachment, and when — up to the latest moment — it had been universally believed that Johnson would be convicted, why, we ask, do we hear at this critical moment of the dangerous illness of some of the most firm and conspicuous advocates of impeachment?

Is there any thing of chances that can explain these remarkable Ku-klux coincidences?

Alton Daily Telegraph (Alton, Illinois) Jun 3, 1868

The Republican Party, An Address

September 12, 2011

AN ADDRESS,
–BY–
WILLARD C. FLAGG.

[Excerpt]

…The Republican party was a rebellion against the slave power, organized in 1856, and at first taking ground against the establishment of slavery in the territories. It began, and has maintained a constitutional but continued contest against the iniquity of human slavery, in spite of ridicule as “negro worshippers;” of scorn as sentimental philanthropists, and of hate as the steadfast friends of human freedom:

“To day abhorred, to-morrow adored,
So round and round we run;
And ever the right comes uppermost,
And ever is justice done.”

Defeated in 1856, it rallied under Lincoln and Hamlin in 1860; and on the platform of Free Territories, and Free Homes in those Territories, it carried the election by a plurality vote.

In 1861, though in a minority of a million of votes, it took up the gauntlet thrown down by the Slaveholders, and began the war for the Union. In the general uprising that succeeded, it received large accessions from the better part of the Democratic party. Inconsistent with their party dogmas, a host of loyal men rushed from the Democratic ranks in obedience to the higher law of patriotism; and joined the defenders of the Constitution and the Union. And although hundreds and thousands of the bravest and best of our young men were slain in battle, died in hospitals, or endured the lingering tortures of Southern prisons, yet the ranks of the Union party were filled and closed again, and marched on to victory.

In 1864 the Republican party took the more radical ground, that slavery is incompatible with free government, and was sustained therein by a majority of 400,000 votes, by two thirds of both houses of Congress, and by three-fourths of the States — led off, I am proud to say, by the State of Illinois. Throughout a long, bloody and wearisome civil war, they sustained the national arms, the national credit and the national honor; lavishing life and treasure without stint, that the Union and our liberties might be preserved. And when, under the auspicious leadership of Abraham Lincoln, Grant and Sherman crushed the armed forces of the rebellion, it turned from the easier arts of war to the more tedious tasks of reconstruction and regulation of finances. It was, perhaps, too merciful. It let men go unhung when the public safety demanded that they should not be suffered to exist on American soil. It encouraged men who could not appreciate the quality of mercy to presume on their toleration; and hence after the dark day of Lincoln’s death, when Andrew Johnson proved recreant to his trust, rebels essayed again to take up with polluted hands the Government they had trampled upon, and to reign where they could not ruin…

…On the question of Personal Liberty the Convention recognized “the great principles laid down in the immortal Declaration of Independence, as the true foundation of Democratic Government,” and hailed “with gladness every effort towards making these principles a living reality on every inch of American soil.” In this there is no uncertain sound. It affirms farther that “the guaranty of equal suffrage to all loyal men at the South was demanded by every consideration of public safety, of gratitude and of justice, and must be maintained.” In all this the Republican party arrives still more nearly to the radical principles of free government — “of the people, by the people and for the people.”…

…Examining our candidates, our parties, our government and our principles, I find a substantial accord between the christian idea of the State, and the Declaration, the Constitution, Republican principles, the Republican policies, and the men put up by the Republican party as its candidates. I find here the men, the party, the country and the principles of Freedom, Union and Public Faith; and whatever may be the short comings of the Republican party, I pardon them all when I look upon the alternative that awaits in the Democratic organization, controlled by ideas and men so hostile to all that seems greatest and best in our national history.

In the words of Dostie, “Let the good cause go on.” It must go on whether we would or no; whether we do what we can to aid that cause and carry it through peacefully and joyfully; or stand in the way and mark its passage with wars and weeping. For if I have been right in the premises I have laid down, radical republicanism is as inevitable as Fate. It is the fiat of Omnipotence.

“He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat;
He is sifting out the hearts of men before his judgment seat;
Oh! be swift, my son, to answer him! be jubilant my feet!
Our God is marching on!”

W.C. FLAGG.
ALTON, Oct. 21st, 1868.

Alton Weekly Telegraph (Alton, Illinois) Oct 30, 1868

About Willard Cutting Flagg:

Title: Pioneer Letters of Gershom Flagg
Author: Gershom Flagg
Editor: Solon Justus Buck
Publisher: Illinois state journal co., state printers, 1912
(Google book  LINK)


Title: Life of A. P. Dostie;
The conflict in New Orleans Western Americana, frontier history of the trans-Mississippi West, 1550-1900
Author: Emily Hazen Reed
Publisher:W.P. Tomlinson, 1868

Remember This Old-Time Favorite?

August 30, 2010

Um, nope, never heard of it. But while searching for something unrelated, I came across an advertisement for Chicken Cock Whiskey, and thought it was a rather funny name for whiskey.  Seemed sort of redundant to me. Anyway, that prompted me to search the keywords “chicken cock” to see what else I could find. The results follow, intermingled with several Chicken Cock Whiskey ads. I bolded each “chicken cock” so they are easy to spot if you don’t want to read each complete article.

1869 - Galveston, Texas

SAM HOUSTON’S DUEL.

In 1826, six miles south of Franklin, Ky., on the farm of H.J. Duncan, two hundred yards from the Tennessee line, was fought a duel which created widespread excitement throughout the Union, owing to the reputation of the principals. In 1826, Gen. Sam Houston was a member of Congress from the Nashville district in Tennessee, and sending home for distribution a number of documents, he claimed that Curry, the postmaster at Nashville, suppressed and failed to deliver them and, denounced him a scoundrel. For this Curry sent him a challenge by Gen. White. Houston refused  to receive the message, as he stated, “from such a contemptible source,” throwing it on the ground and stamping on it. Gen. White said he was surprised, as no one expected Houston to fight.

To this Houston retorted, “Do you try me.”

Of course a challenge followed from White which Houston promptly accepted. The terms and conditions were, “fifteen feet distance; holster pistols; time sunrise.”

The place chosen as stated, was in Simpson county. On the 23d day of September, 1826, the parties met at the designated point with their seconds. The fact that a duel was to be fought had gone abroad, and a number of persons had secreted themselves near the field to witness the affair, a fact unknown to either principles or seconds. After the first shots had been exchanged and White had fallen to the ground the people rushed to the spot. Houston seeing them, and fearing an arrest, started toward the state line with a view of escaping.

Gen. White called to him, “General, you have killed me.”

Houston then faced the crowd with pistol still in hand, and inquired if there were any officers of the law in the among them, and being answered in the negative he advanced to the side of his late antagonist and kneeling by him took his hand saying: “I am very sorry for you, but you know that it was forced upon me.”

Gen. white replied, “I know it and forgive you.”

White had been shot through just above the hips, and to cleanse the wound of blood the surgeons run one of their old fashioned silk neckerchiefs through the wound. Gen. White recovered from his fearful wound as much to the joy of Houston as himself.

During the week preceding the duel Houston remained at the home of Sanford Duncan, near the field, practicing meanwhile with pistols. At his temporary home were two young belligerent dogs, named for their pugnacious dispositions Andrew Jackson and Thomas H. Benton. These were continually fighting, Houston’s political sentiments leading him to espouse the cause of the Jackson pup, who, very much to his delight, was a constant winner in the frays.

The hour of arising and preparing for the duel on the arrival of the day was 3:40 a.m. Just before that hour “Gen. Jackson” barked beneath the window of his admirer’s room, awakening him. Houston arose without disturbing his attending friends, and began the task of molding bullets with which to fight Gen. White. As the first bullet fell from the mold a game-cock, which he had admired scarcely less than he did the dog, crowed a loud, clear note. Houston, with that element of superstition which finds a place in nearly every mind, accepted the early greetings of his friends as a happy omen, and marking the bullet one side for the dog and the other for the chicken, made up his mind that his pistol should be loaded with it, and that he would first fire that particular ball at General White.

He afterward said that “he was not superstitious, but these two circumstances made him feel assured of success,” thus disproving his own words. The bullet was used and White fell at the first fire, as stated.

After the duel Houston selected as a coat-of-arms “a chicken cock and dog,” and many were the comments made by those unfamiliar with the facts in after years, when as president of Texas and senator in Congress, he sported so strange a crest. These facts are authentic, having been related by Gen. Houston to Sanford Duncan, jr., late of Louisville, while the two were en route to Washington city during Houston’s term as senator.

The Herald And Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Aug 4, 1887

1893 - Lowell, Massachusetts

False Salute.

The rebel sympathising papers throughout the length and breadth of the land have been celebrating what they are pleased to consider a victory in the late election in Connecticut, by displaying at the head of their columns the consecrated emblem of their party and principles, namely a dominica dunghill chicken cock.

This is a fit emblem of the principles of their party. It is only upon the dunghills of ignorance, vice, immorality and barbarism that the toeless, frozen comb, and frost-bitten chicken-cock of Democracy can flap his dirty wings and utter a feeble cock-a-doodle-doo of galvanized delight. But even the poor privilege of doing this with any degree of assurance the elections that have occurred since that of Connecticut have rendered absurd and ridiculous.  These election returns can be seen in another place, and they are anything but an indication of progress backwards by the American people.

The Herald And Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Apr 10, 1867

For background; from same page of the paper:

At an election on the  1st inst., in this State the Copperheads succeeded in electing their candidate for Governor, and three out of the four Congressmen. Two of these Congressional districts were Democratic at last year’s election, and the third only showed a small republican majority.

The enemies of intelligence and freedom have, therefore, only succeeded in overcoming a small majority in one of the Congressional districts, and carried the same against P.T. Barnum, a most unfortunate nomination on the part of the Republicans. Mr. Barnum of course is vastly less objectionable to the moral consciousness of the people, than a prize fighter, such as John Morrisy, whom the Copperheads of New York sent to Congress….

The Herald And Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Apr 10, 1867

1906 - Reno, Nevada

Superstitions.

Country folk – some in jest, some in earnest – translate the voice of a chicken cock crowing at the door into “Stranger coming to-day,” and we remember an old lady who invariably made preparation for company when the waring note was sounded upon her premises. In thirty years, she declared, the sign had never failed.

The Indiana Democrat (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Jan 6 1881

1936 - Mansfield, Ohio

Not Appreciated.

The following is all the notice which our contemporary, the Mail, takes of the splendid triumph of Republicanism in Vermont.

“First reports from Vermont give an increased majority for the Republicans. Vermont is all theirs, and the Green Mountain chicken crows loudly on its own wood-pile.”

We understand that paper had made arrangements to put its “tooting” apparatus in full blast in case rebelized Democracy had increased its vote in that State, but the jollification didn’t come off. The fire went down quietly, or was as quietly put out. That election is the grave of the hopes of the Mail and its friends. Good by Democracy. Good bye to the “tooting” performances of the Mail. The 1st of September has smashed the former and silenced the squeak of the latter. Prepare to reverse the position of your dominica chicken cock. Let it have its back to the ground and its heels, gaffed with treason, in the air.

The Herald And Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Sep 3, 1868

1936 - Mansfield, Ohio

Back in the day, the newspaper editors seemed to really duke it out in their columns. They can be some of the most entertaining things to read in the old papers,  particularly if you can find both sides, which is not the case  for this one:

FOR THE REPUBLICAN COMPILER.
Copy of a letter dated
HARTFORD, Aug. 1, 1820.

Dear Jonathan. – Received yours — nation great favor — very glad to get it; don’t thank you much neither, for copying off my letter and sending it back again — think you might made something of your own; but you used to make new spoons out of old pewter dishes — thought you’d try it again. Heard you’d chang’d your name — glad you got your old one back again — guess you got ‘shamd of your new one — think its no wonder — best a kept your old one — people know you any how, think. Talking about whitewashing, had a mind to whitewash you, to hide the stains — took another look of you — found it must be a foot thick — even wouldn’t do; the stains all over only want another shade; think you best buy lampblack, get some one paint you – if you’re axt how fair you have a mind to be — say jist as white outside as in. Heard you were dead; some say you were and rose again — quite queer thing — have to b’lieve it letter looks so like you — little scaly too; think you’re sick — you look something like a half drowned chicken cock, pecked ‘most to death — too soon begin to crow — too many old games ’bout here — better hold your tongue; they’ve got long spurs — cut your comb for you think — not leave a feather on you — look a little odd when naked — better be still. Queer kind of fowl, Jonathan — put me in mind of the jackdaw with peacock’s feathers on — difference jist this; jackdaw got his stolen feathers plucked out, got a drubbin, and thats enough for him — you better stuff — got worse whipt — won’t behave yet — think you get as much as you’ve a mind to; They say you’ve got turkey feathers put on to cheat the eagles with — want to pass for one; wno’t do, Jonathan — your eyes too bad — too near a been blind — eagles always seen to sharp for you. Cousin doughface got a cart for sale, made for two horses — I got one — you’d best bring a nag from ‘mong the Pennamites with you — but they say Pennamite and Yankee naggies wont pull together; s’pose you found that out by this time.

You promise to come my road — be sure when you come to bring something with you — dont do as you did last time. Talk something ’bout celebrations and modest people — think they’re scarce where you came from — guess you never seen a modest man before; you must know, Jonathan, every one hant got as much impudence as you and

CAUSTIC.

P.S. You may write as many letters as you have a mind to; but dont take the Hiesterics too bad, as you did tother time — tell your secrets when you’ve a mind to keep them; think you had not much mind to tell your real name, if you had not got a fit of them, which mostly makes people insane.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Aug 16, 1820

1936 - Mansfield, Ohio

ROOSTER STORY CONCERNS FIGHT AT FORT M’HENRY

Baltimore — (AP) — Whether there was a rooster at Fort McHenry during the bombardment by the British in 1814 has been a controversial matter for many years. Legend has it that a rooster, because of his happy crowing, made everybody feel a lot better during the battle.

After James E. Hancock, president of the Society of the War of 1812, said at the recent Defenders’ day exercises, he believed the rooster story was a myth, John A. Hartman of Baltimore brought forth the memoirs of his father, John B. Seidenstricker.

Seidenstricker wrote that his uncle, Henry Barnhart, “was under Colonel Armistead at Fort McHenry during bombardment by the British fleet. He had a chicken cock there that he prized very hightly, because of its beauty perhaps, and was careful to preserve it from all harm.

“But he could not protect it from a fragment of a bursting shell which struck the rooster on his foot, causing it, from alarm of pain, to fly up and light upon the flagstaff, where he remained, crowing occasionally, until the conflict ceased.

“Colonel Armistead offered to purchase the cock but he would not part with it and kept it until it died, when he placed it in a suitable box and in company with a platoon of fort soldiers, buried it with the honors of war, firing several rounds over its grave.”

The Daily Northwestern (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Sep 16, 1932

1936 - Uniontown, Pennsylvania

This one is really long, so I bolded the section, rather than just the “chicken cock.” I think this person was some sort of an armchair general or something.

The Aspects of the War — What Next?

The Army of the Potomac has just performed one of those evolutions, for which it is so justly renowned. It has marched forward and then marched back again. As a gymnastic performance, it has been well done, and as exercise is absolutely necessary to health, it is not to be regretted that the army has had an opportunity of stretching its limbs and breathing the fresh air. It has at last arrived at “Brandy Station.” The frequency with which both the rebel and Union armies dwell at this station shows it to be a fashionable place of resort to military gentlemen. We trust the name is rather metaphorical than real. It is “given out” (see the Washington telegraphs) that the grand march over the Rapidan was made to prevent reinforcements from Lee to Longstreet. Perhaps so; but there are some objections to that theory. — Meade began his march on the 27th (Friday) and the army of Bragg had been defeated two days before, leaving Grant at liberty to cut off Longstreet and reinforce Burnside; besides which more than a week must elapse before any efficient reinforcements could reach Longstreet — bringing it to the 4th of December — before which time the fate of the contest between Burnside and Longstreet must have been decided. — Let the theory stand, however, till a better can be given. The facts seem to show that Meade’s army went on very well till it ran against some fortifications, which not liking to storm, it turned back. But, the question may be asked, why not go around them? Why should a man run against a fort, when there is room enough to go around?

It seems that Meade’s army crossed partly at, and partly above where Hooker did; that being across the river instead of moving onward toward Richmond; it wheeled to the right and formed a line of battle across the road from Frederick to Orange Court House, with the right resting on the Rapidan; that between this line of battle and Orange Court House, Lee with his army, in his fortifications. It seems to me that this performance was exactly like what I have seen performed by a chicken cock on the farm, who by deploying his squadron from the barnyard in front of his rival at the chickenhouse, stops, flaps his wings, and crows (in his expressive language) “Come on!” But his enemy will not come, but crows in the intrenchments of the chickenhouse; whereupon the challenger thinks enough has been done for his honor, and retreats on the barnyard. I hope no military hero, renowned in war, will feel aggrieved at this comparison. The analogies of nature are very strong. The great and illustrious men of science are now engaged in tracing man back to monkey. For my own part, I consider a comparison with a game cock far more dignified. I never saw a baboon without a supreme contempt for him, while a game cock has many admirable qualities.

To return form our digression. Meade’s army did not pass by Lee’s; because, if it did, Lee could pass behind it, on the road to Washington. In fact, we must consider the Army of the Potomac as (what it has been for a year past,) a mere movable breastwork for the defense of Washington. Nor is that fact of any positive importance. — Unless Richmond can be taken, from the west side of James River, there is no great use in taking it at all, for, in any other case, the army and the great criminals who compose the rebel Government, will all escape to Lynchburg or Danville. Richmond, as a strategic point, is not worth a straw.

Leaving the Army of the Potomac to its winter quarters, at Brandy Station, we pass to the glorious Army of the Cumberland. That army, which, in the poetic language of General Meigs, fought part of “its battle above the clouds,” which stormed Lookout Mountain, 2,000 feet high, and crowned its summits with living laurels, green as its mountain pines. That army may be thankful, if covetous of fame, that it is not within reach of Washington. To that army our eyes must turn. Will that, too, go into winter quarters? Or will Gen. Grant, with his characteristic vigor and judgment, asking no leave of winter or of enemies, push on, dealing deadly blows at every step? This is what ought to be done. Can he do it? The first thing in the way of the army is the necessity of establishing a new depot of provisions and munitions at Chattanooga. Whenever an army advances a hundred miles, or more, a new center of supplies must be established, and one of the first considerations in the plan of a campaign is where the depots of supplies shall be. Admitting the successful advance of the army, new depots must be established at each and every successive advance. — Nor is this all. Their communications must be kept open, and their defenses such that they can stand a moderate siege. Gen. Grant has had one very instructive example of this in the seizure of his stores at Holly Springs. Heretofore Nashville has been the great center of supplies for the armies in Tennessee.

Now, Chattanooga must be made a center. Nor will there be any great difficulty in this. From Nashville to Chattanooga by rail, is 151 miles, which will make an easy and safe line of transit, when we occupy, as we now do, the defensible points south of Bridgeport. The bridge over the Tennessee must be completed; a great mass of stores removed from Nashville to Chattanooga; and the defenses on the Northern extremities of Mission and Lookout Ridges made strong. When this is done, the army is ready to move two hundred miles further. But this is heavy work, and may take two or three weeks or more. Will Grant then advance? Certainly, if he does not contradict his own character, and all the demands of the war. He has already given us, an example of what he will do in his march on Holly Springs and Grenada, in the middle of December.  Besides, what is there to arrest the march of an army in the South in winter? Is there any reason to stop the operations of an army in Southern Ohio, during winter? Not at all; and there is still less in Georgia. When the troops get disentangled from all the ridges of mountains, that extend about forty miles south of Chattanooga, they will find a winter march comparatively easy. It will not do for our armies to stand still. Now is the time, when every blow tells upon the rebels with double force. They are like the sinking pugilist, who after having stood several rounds with apparent strength and courage, begins to feel the blood oozing from his veins; his sight grows dizzy; his limbs become unsteady, and he deals hard, but ill-directed blows, which often strike the empty air, till he begins to stagger. Then two or three blows from his adversary, fell him to the earth, and he rises no more. Cut off from half their territory; cut off, from their cattle in Texas, and their sugar in Louisiana; their men exhausted by war and disease; their money worthless; their people dissatisfied, how much longer can they last? Toombs’ speech; the North Carolina election; the Richmond papers; the constant accounts of distress and exhaustion from every quarter, tell the story without any resort to argument or imagination. The rebels are staggering from exhaustion, and their only hope is that Lee and Bragg may keep the field till somebody offers them peace or compromise.

The hope is in vain.

Unconditional surrender is the only terms they will be allowed.

Whether their rebel dominion perishes in the last ditch or not; whether they die in battle or by exhaustion, they will come to an early end, and be remembered only for the most signal folly and the most signal punishment which the world ever saw since the downfall of Rome. — Cin. Gaz.

Burlington Weekly Hawkeye, The (Burlington, Iowa) Dec 12, 1863

The Great Grasshopper Raid

August 24, 2010

A variety of grasshopper plague related news spanning from 1819 through 1948, some of it reporting on the devastation, some explaining the methods used to try to limit the damage, mixed in with quite a bit of grasshopper humor that was published as well.

The Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Sep 1, 1819

GRASSHOPPERS. — In the Southern and Western portions of this State the grasshoppers are doing considerable damage, already, to the crops, and the people are becoming discouraged with the present prospects. A gentleman from the Southwestern part of the State, informs us that the ground is completely covered with them, and still they come, not by the “hundred thousand more,” but by the millions. Emigration of this kind is not desired in Iowa.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) May 29 1868

Grasshoppers in the West.

EDITOR GAZETTE. — The old saying that “pestilence and famine follow war” is likely to be verified in our own country from present appearances on our Western frontier. I refer to the grasshopper plague, which is becoming a sad reality, as many of the farmers of Western Iowa are beginning to realize to their sorrow. — Living as I do in the border of what is known as the “grasshopper district,” (Boone County) and having had opportunities to post myself as to their movements and workings, I wish to say a few words to your readers, all of whom are directly interested in this subject.

During the month of August, 1867, millions of grasshoppers inhabiting the plains and Rocky Mountains took up a line of march across the continent, and by the middle of September reached from a point in Minnesota to the half of Mexico, covering the Western half of Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana, and the entire States of Nebraska, Kansas and Texas, also including Dacotah and Indian Territories and extending into Mexico. Much damage was done to crops last fall and millions of eggs were deposited for this years’ crop; and while in the colder regions the old “hopper cusses” perished with the severe winter, in the Southern climes not only the young crop, is now on hand, but the old ones still live to curse the country with their presence. In Arkansas the woods have been burnt this spring to destroy the plague and thus save the crops, but to little purpose.

The best information I can get from Western Iowa is that crops are being destroyed in many places totally and in other localities only partially as yet. Many pieces of wheat in Boone County, west of the Des Moines River are being plowed up, while others are completely destroyed, so much so that there is not a vestige of wheat left to show that then days since the prospect was good for a fair crop. The corn crop has also been attacked and on many farms entirely destroyed. Some farmers replant but others prefer to save what corn they have, considering it useless to throw it away by planting, as there is as yet no prospect fro a better state of affairs. The grasshoppers at present vary in size, from one-sixteenth of an inch to two inches in length, all of whom are busily engaged in destroying everything green in their reach.

Some idea may be obtained of their number by a little circumstance which occurred on the C.& N.W.R.R., near the Des Moines River a few days since, and lest some of your readers may question the truth of the statement, I will refer them for particulars to the officers of that company in charge of the Western Iowa Division. An engine started out of Moingonn with three empty cars, bound for one of the many coal mines in that valley. A little distance from town the train run into a mass of grasshoppers which so completely soaped the track that it was impossible to proceed. Backing up they started again and was again brought to a halt. This time they could neither go ahead or back and another engine was sent to their relief.

I see nothing to save the crops of that country. Should the hoppers cease work now, Western Iowa may average a half crop, but it is doubtful while the prospect is that they will continue their work for weeks yet, perhaps all summer, in which case, crops must be an entire failure throughout the grasshopper district.

The question has been asked me many times in this city, was to the course the hoppers will take at the close of the season. Of course no one can answer that question, but the supposition is that as they always travel with the wind, of necessity, and as the prevailing winds in the Western States are from the Southwest and West, they will probably continue their course easterly. We would of course much prefer that they take themselves back to the wilds of the rugged mountains, where

Lo, the poor Indian, whose untutored squaw,
Sees bliss in grasshoppers and devours them raw.

Should the farmers of Black Hawk County look up some day to see millions of insects fill the air as high as the sight can penetrate, so that the heavens shall present the appearance of a heavy fall of snow, they may calculate that one of the worst plagues of Egypt is upon them and that it will be more profitable next year to raise chickens than wheat.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Jun 19, 1868

The grasshoppers have invaded Utah, and the consequence is the invention by a Mormon of a “two-horse grasshopper smasher.”

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Jul 15, 1871

EVERYTHING EATEN. — A gentleman who recently passed over the Sioux City & St. Paul road says that the grasshoppers have eaten thousands of the settlers in Minnesota out of house and home, and he saw men with their families at the stations begging to be passed to St. Paul so that they might work and earn something to live upon.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Jun 12, 1874

The Grasshopper.

Letters from one old townsman, Joe Wells, to his friends here, state that the grasshoppers are making a clean sweep in his vicinity in Palo Alto County. Joe has charge of some 400 acres of land the crops upon which were entirely destroyed last year; but with dogged perseverance he determined to “grin and bear it,” and this spring once more seeded the entire area only to see the pests return in such myriads as to sweep the ground clear of the last vestige of vegetation. This is a hard blow and visits upon him the entire loss of two years hard labor and upon A.A. Wells, who owns the land, a cash expenditure of nearly $2,00, without a dime’s return.

If riches don’t “take to themselves wings” in this case, it’s because grasshoppers can’t fly.

Another person writing from the afflicted country, says “it has been ascertained by careful count that this entire prairie was planted with grasshoppers eggs or in average of 1800 to the square foot, and most of the d____d things hatched twins — the rest triplets.” They have appeared in large numbers as far east as the country between Clarion and the Boone River, and our people need not be surprised to receive a visitation from the festive hopper as soon as he has tarried long enough for his wings &c. to grow. — Iowa Falls Sentinel

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Jun 19, 1874

Grasshopper Devastation (Image from http://www.soonerfans.com)

How the farmers of Wright county, Iowa drove away the  grasshoppers is revealed by the local papers The crops in that county were abundant, and the anxious husbandmen were in hopes that these destructive pests would not appear until after the harvest. At once they came, however, in clouds that darkened the sun. By a preconcerted plan, the farmers set fire to piles of dry straw on the borders of wheat fields, and smothered the blaze with green hay. That caused volumes of smoke to roll over the fields. The grasshoppers didn’t relish the procedure at all. They rose with such a multitudinous hum of wings as to deepen into a roar like distant thunder, and fled the country. In that way the Wright county farmers have a fair prospect of saving their crops.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Aug 4, 1874

Image from Wikinews

The Destructive Grass(w)hopper.

The editor of the Bucyrus Forum has been visiting in the west, and thus writes of the grasshopper pest:

Some forty miles west of Omaha we commenced seeing the ravages of the grasshoppers. We are fully warranted in saying that the half has never been told concerning the wide spread destruction of these insects. It cannot be told. When we assure our readers from actual observation  that we have seen hundreds of thousands of acres of corn that have been literally eaten up by them, we still fall short of the facts.

To particularize: These grasshoppers, which are smaller, blacker and more fierce than the varieties usually seen in Ohio, are so numerous that they resemble a dark cloud slowly moving over the prairie. They are migrators and do not remain long in one place, for the best of reasons — they leave no green thing on which to subsist. Corn, buckwheat, fruit, garden vegetables, leaves of trees and bushes, all are stripped. They attack a corn field of two or three hundred acres, in the morning, and before “high noon” not an ear, tassel or blade is left to tell the tale. Often the stocks are eaten down to within fifteen inches of the soil in which they grew. Frequently strings of grasshoppers from twelve to fifteen inches in length, may be seen hanging on the same ear of corn. It is no uncommon sight to see them two inches deep on the ground. In half an hour they eat all the paint from a Buckeye Reaper and Mower. The only exception we found they made on the farms was sorghum or Chinese sugar cane, which probably contained too much saccharine matter for their delicate appetites.

When crossing Railroads they frequently stop the trains, the unctious matter of their bodies when crushed on the rails, causing the wheels of the locomotives to revolve with the rapidity of lightning without making any progress. From the point where we first observed their ravages to Kearney, we did not see a single field that contained an ear of corn. That unfortunate country is as bare and destitute as if it had been swept by one of the historic prairie fires. The effect may be better imagined than described. We saw dozens of families returning in their covered wagons to their friends in the different states. Many are unable to return.

We learned that aid would be given out of the State Treasuries of Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri to alleviate the sufferings, and to prevent the general exodus of emigrants out of these States to their kindred and friends. Thousands of these people are in a most deplorable condition. Comforted a few days ago with the thought of a large and profitable crop with which to make payments on their land and supply themselves with the necessaries of life, they now find themselves destitute, far from “Home” and among strangers equally as unfortunate as themselves. As we saw the settled look of despondency sitting on the brows of the hard-working, callous-handed men of toil, and their wives and children whose eyes were red with weeping, we thought the original characters of Longfellow’s pathetic lines had re-appeared:

“Hungry is the air around them,
Hungry is the sky above them.
And the hungry stars in heaven,
Like the eyes of the wolves glare at them.”

It is generally believed here by those whose experience and judgment pass for authority that the grasshopper scourge will be short lived. We trust so. The weevil, chintz, and Colorado bug have had their day and are now but little feared.

The Ohio Democrat (New Philadelphia, Ohio) Oct 2, 1874

Congressman Orr, of this State, has secured the passage of a bill through the House allowing homestead and pre-emption settlers in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Kansas, whose crops were destroyed or injured by grasshoppers in 1874, to leave and be absent from their lands till May, 1876, without prejudice to their rights. This is eminently just.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Dec 18, 1874

KANSAS CITY, May 27. Rain has been falling here in torrents for the past twenty-four hours. It is reported to be general throughout the country. Some damage has been done to fences, railroads and crops. Great numbers of grasshoppers have been destroyed by the flood, as the Missouri river opposite the city is black with them, and it is thought the bulk of the insects in this vicinity have been destroyed. The feeling of dread is rapidly giving way to one of rejoicing, and Governor Hardin will doubtless be called on to issue a proclamation of thanksgiving instead of one for fasting and prayer.

Decatur Daily Republican (Decatur, Illinois) May 28, 1875

Mr. Grasshopper.

He laughs best who laughs last, says the proverb. The agile grasshopper of the western plains may find before he gets through this season’s business that he has carried his conquest too far and made himself an article of Western food, to the peril of all future generations of grasshoppers.

Some days ago the telegraph brought news that a grasshopper dinner had been eaten and relished by an adventurous party of gourmands at Warrensburgh, Missouri. Still later comes the report of another similar feast prepared with great care and critically enjoyed by a select company, including not only the leading local epicures, but several scientific gentlemen, among whom was Prof. Riley, the State entomologist. A bushel or more of “hoppers” were scooped up in an adjacent meadow and a talented cook especially engaged for the purpose brought them to the gridiron. They were stewed into soup, broiled crisp and dainty as smelts; they were fried in the omnipresent grease of the frontier, and baked in mass with curry and “champignons,” and in all these forms were pronounced delicious.

John the Baptist, who ate locusts and wild honey in the wilderness, was accused of riotous living. If this sort of thing goes on for a time it will be useless for the grasshopper sufferers of the far West to work up much sympathy in other States, or gather future subscriptions for food. Simply let them corral the insouciant hopper in their fields, bake him, broil him, and serve him up on toast; let them salt him down in barrels for winter use, and bid gaunt-eyed famine defiance. If the locusts insist upon eating up everything, let them be taught that there are two kinds of creatures who can play at that game.

The Ohio Democrat (New Philadelphia, Ohio)Jun 24, 1875

The farmers in Missouri and Kansas are elated at the discovery of a new kind of buffalo grass springing up in sections devastated by the grasshoppers. The crops in both States are represented to be in a promising condition.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Jul 12, 1875

GRASSHOPPERS have been a burden so long that it is a relief to know that a use has been found for them at last. Some French fishermen, who were lately out of sardine bait, discovered that grasshoppers dried and pounded were just the thing; and hundreds of bags filled with the festive ‘hopper are being imported into France for fish bait. Here, in future, may be found an employment for our home-made ‘hoppers. We cannot all eat them, like Prof. Riley and his brother scientists, and the next best use is to make them provide us with something we can eat.

Globe Democrat.

Decatur Daily Republican (Decatur, Illinois) Apr 14, 1876

Grasshopper Trapper

Image from The Plague of 1875 in the Longmont Ledger.

A New Discovery.

An Iowa man had discovered that the very best of machine oil can be made out of grasshoppers, at a cost only from fifty cents to a dollar per barrel. If such machine oil will only stop the squeaking of ‘machine’ politics it will be worth five dollars per barrel at least. And if the grasshopper can be made into oil, why not that oil into butter better than oleomargarine; and if into oleomargarine, why not, by subtle chemical processes, into creamy butter to fatten the white loaves and lard the tender steaks of the provident. Hoppergrass butter is not an impossible extract or compound, if it be proven that oil can be fried or pressed from their bodies; and the song of “When the cows come lowing home” will be superceded by “When the locusts have gone to roost, Phoebe!”

If in the economy of nature even the perturbing flea has utility, surely the grasshopper, whose demoralizing super abundance afflicts the sad farmer of the West with countless agitations may be converted, by schemes of science, into lubricating food, or at least into anointments for the hair and shoes, and for the neater and better appropriation of an insect plague. Of course such discoveries weaken the work of the Grasshopper Commission; but we trust that the Iowa man will continue to rack his brain and the grasshopper until both shall bring “peace to troubled waters,” and oil to the ways up which “”Hope springs eternal” in the human breast.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Apr 21, 1877

Image from The Grasshopper Plague of 1874 on the Kansas State Historical Society website.

Character and Habits of the Grasshopper.

[From the Faribault Republican]

We have received a circular from the publishers of the New York Graphic asking us for information as to the character, habits, movements and depredations of the locusts of the West, to be embodied in an illustrated supplement they are about to issue. We much dislike to disappoint any one who appeals to us in a candid spirit for information, and we therefore, cheerfully contribute from our abundance:

1. As to the character of the grasshopper, it is bad. Like the deadbeat that he is, he eats his landlord out of house and home and then skips. He is a thief, poacher, robber, glutton and an unmitigated nuisance.

2. The grasshopper has three habits which it adheres to faithfully. In fact, if anything is the creature of habit it is the grasshopper. The first is to hatch under any circumstances; this is a point of honor and duty that it faithfully observes. The second is to eat and eat continuously. From the rising of the sun until the going down thereof it crams its abdomen with victuals, and its digestion is equal to its appetite. It always eats at the first table, for it clears it so clean that there is no chance for a second. Its third habit is to lay eggs, and all the time not devoted to eating is improved in this recreation. How many eggs a well-developed, healthy grasshopper will lay has never been accurately stated, but the Government has a lightning calculator now at work upon the problem.

3. With respect to its movements we are enabled to state that it moves frequently and takes all its baggage with it except the aforesaid eggs. It moves hastily, “gets up and gets,” so to speak, on very short notice and the simple provocation of lack of sustenance. No habit of the grasshopper excites so much interest in the farmer as its movement, and the interest is concentrated in the point whether the ‘hopper is moving towards or away from his farm.

4. His depredations: This is a profound mathematical problem, of which the total number of grasshoppers, the amount each will consume on the average per day, their rate of progress and the amount of forage to be found in the counties where they stop, are essential elements in the calculation. We would respectfully refer the Graphic to the Government commission for information upon this branch of its inquiry.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) May 23, 1877

The grasshoppers were at one time pretty thick this year in Richardson county, Nebraska, so the farmers set seven hundred grasshopper machines in motion, and they have succeeded in scooping up 2,800 bushels of lively insects. One set of laborers in Nomah also cleaned up 150 bushels. This shows that the farmers are turning the tables on the ‘hoppers and are gathering them in instead of allowing them to gather the crops. It also shows that the farmers can do much towards saving their crops, it they only try.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 26, 1877

Image from the  Rural Missouri website’s article: Louses & Locusts.

Grasshopper Eggs.

Mr. Cunningham showed a GAZETTE reporter a small box of earth yesterday which was taken from his ranch in Sierra Valley. In it were myriads of grasshopper eggs. There seemed as much eggs as earth, and the roots of several bunches of grass were thickly imbedded with them. The eggs are of a brownish white in appearance, and about a quarter of an inch in length. Mr. Cunningham said the box of earth shown was a fair sample of all the soil in Sierra Valley, every yard of it permeated with millions of the larvae. Unless the insects migrate after hatching, every green thing in the valley is doomed.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Apr 23, 1879

Grasshopper Sparrow

Image from the World News website.

A VALUABLE BIRD.

The great grasshopper raid upon Nebraska and Kansas a few years ago led to the better protection of birds, particularly quail. Previous to that time both sportsmen and professional hunters from all the cities of the Union took a yearly hunt and the slaughter of quails, ducks and turkeys was almost incredible. Tons upon tons were shipped into Chicago and St. Louis and even New York and Philadelphia. The result was, the grasshoppers had their own way and multiplied exceedingly. The quail is particularly fond of both grasshoppers and their eggs, and where they are at all numerous the destruction is enormous.

They are besides a valuable article of food and add not only to the dainty table of the rich, but help to fill the poor man’s pot as well. In addition to these uses the quail is a game bird of the first order and commands the skill of both man and dog in its capture.

We publish a column of letters from the Chicago Field on the migratory quail of southern Europe, which we hope may prove both interesting and profitable under the present circumstances. We very much fear that the Truckee meadows are doomed to be overrun in 1880 to some extent, and in 1881 and 1882, very seriously by the grasshopper.

We do not expect that any addition to the stock of birds in Nevada and eastern California could be made in time to serve in the crisis, but they will get a good hold and be a great help in future years. They will flourish and increase beyond all doubt.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno., Nevada) Jun 2, 1879

In view of the threatened invasion of Kansas by the grasshoppers next year, it is comforting to reflect that the country is swarming with English sparrows, which were imported especially to eat grasshoppers.

Atchison Daily Globe ( Atchison, Kansas) Aug 2, 1885

Grasshoppers Colorado Springs 1899

Image posted by FuzzyTomCAt

A SHOWER OF GRASSHOPPERS.

HELENA, ARK., November 20. — About 4:30 o’clock last evening this place was visited with a shower of grasshoppers that proved an astonishing feature to the oldest inhabitants, as such a thing had never been seen here before. As they fell on the houses it sounded like a heavy shower of rain. All the stores and houses had to be closed to keep the insects out. The negroes were badly frightened, and most of them claim that it is a bad omen. A cold wave struck the town early last evening and brought the grasshoppers with it. It is very fortunate that this incident did not happen earlier in the fall, as it would have proved very destructive to the crops.

Atchison Daily Globe (Atchison, Kansas) Nov 21, 1885

Image from Family Tree Magazine.

Grasshoppers in Indiana.

DECATUR, Ind., May 15. — Grasshoppers have appeared in this (Adams) county in vast numbers. Never in the history of this section have these pests been seen in such great numbers. Recently a farmer brought in a large farm basket filled with grasshoppers, which he shipped to Chicago and for which he received the rate of $8 a bushel.

Conjecture is rife in this city as to what the purchaser intends to do with the hoppers. As they were sent near the Board of Trade building some conclude the pests are to be used to influence the market in cereals. It will  doubtless be a grasshopper year in this section.

The Daily Review (Decatur, Illinois) May 16, 1886

Grasshoppers’ Foe.

Minneapolis, Minn. — A cricket in the field is worth two on the hearth. His once doleful fiddling now is music to the ear of the farmer of the northwest. So doubtless muses M.P. Somers, grasshopper expert for the state department of entomology, after a summer-long investigation in the grasshopper infested districts of Minnesota and the Red river valley. The cricket is declared by Mr. Somers to have an insatiable appetite for grasshopper eggs and is eating them by the millions.

Sheboygan Press (Sheboygan, Wisconsin) Sep 27 1911

GRASSHOPPERS MOVING AT MILE-A-DAY SPEED

WILLOWS, Cal., Jun 29. — (By International News Service.) — Moving forward at the rate of a mile a day, an immense swarm of grasshoppers is now near Artois and moving eastward toward the Orland irrigation project. Farmhouse porches have been covered to a depth of nearly a foot by the insects, which are the small species.

Grasshopper plagues in other sections of northern California have also been reported.

Billings Gazette (Billings, Montana) Jun 30, 1919

Now for something scientific:

WASHINGTON, Dec. 9. (AP) — An elaborate process so intricate that nature alone can guide it to perfection, is credited for the survival of American agriculture.

The tremendous scheme, revealed by Dr. N.A. Cobb, federal chief nematologist, is built around the subtle function of the Mermis subnigrescens, commonly called the hairworm. Years of study and investigation have convinced Dr. Cobb and his associates, whose work has been assisted by approximately 150 of the nation’s foremost zoologists and entemologists, that grasshoppers, in limitless hordes and a thousand species, would devour practically every farm crop but for hairworm parasitization.

An avaricious enemy, the nema enters the grasshopper’s body when it swallows eggs of the hairworm, matures there, and bores its way out. The grasshopper dies from the wound.

Every Detail

Nature has perfectly correlated every detail. The nematizing process is as ruthless and deliberate as premeditated murder. Instinct forces the grasshopper to feed several inches from the ground, on the exposed surface of plant leaves. To make sure the victim is trapped, the female hairworm is so constituted that she cannot lay eggs in a shadow. Emerging from the ground in the spring, she ascends to a position well lighted by the sun, irrevocably the spot on which grasshoppers feed.

An overdose of eggs would cause premature death for the grasshopper. It must live until the nematode has reached an adult stage, and nature makes it her business to see that is does. Twenty eggs may be deposited in one place, but each egg is equipped with polar filaments that become entangled with the “fur” of young leaf hairs. As the leaf grows and the hairs spread apart, the eggs become sufficiently scattered to keep the grasshopper from getting more than two or three eggs during the entire feeding season.

The contents of a grasshopper’s alimentary canal are eliminated approximately once every hour. IN that time the hairworm larvae must work from the egg into cavities of the victim’s body, there to thrive on the food it has digested. Again nature is prepared. The equatorial region of the nema egg is composed of a substance soluable in less than an hour.

Color Scheme

An even more astounding circumstance, leading scientists to believe environment may be responsible for determination of sex, enters nature’s colorful scheme. Female hairworms, growing from half an inch to six inches in length in six weeks, usually are many times larger than male nemas. Whether it is because of limited room to develop in the grasshopper’s body or because of insufficient food supply, the hairworms, regardless of the sex propensity in the larvae, always become male when a large number of eggs are swallowed and as invariably are females when the number is limited.

In every case, Dr. Cobb says, a parasitized grasshopper immediately becomes sterile. Tests have shown that fields attacked by nematized grasshoppers are free of the pests in following years or until uninfested grasshoppers from adjacent territory invade them. That, he says, explains “grasshopper waves” in this country.

The Evening Huronite (Huron, South Dakota) Dec 9, 1927

Watertown Sieged By G’hoppers

Watertown  (AP) –Clouds of grasshoppers invaded Watertown and the surrounding countryside over the weekend and yesterday began attacking corn and vegetable crops.
The invaders rode on the waves of Lake Ontario in the Chaumont area Sunday, swarmed over the beaches, docks and summer cottages, driving vacationers indoors.

Farm Bureau officials here said the insects already are making inroads on crops, but that damage so far in not extensive. It is the worst grasshopper invasion in ten years, officials said.

The base of operations for the grasshoppers’ is not known, but the Farm Bureau said they were larger than recently hatched insects, and therefore probably are not local products.

This belief was strengthened by reports from Chaumont that large patches of the pests were seen floating in from the lake. When they reached shore they swarmed inland.

The city of Watertown was less attacked than rural areas of Jefferson County, but thousands descended upon the city, especially on the golf course.

The Farm Bureau notified farmers that poison bait made of wheat bran, molasses and arsenic is the only safe way to halt the pests. A sufficiently strong concentration of DDT would harm crops also, the bureau.  [said?]

Oneonta Star (Oneonta, New York) Aug 24, 1948

Printing Press Trivia

March 26, 2009

r-hoe-hand-stop-cylinder-printer-18741

These are some random “printing press” items I ran across while searching for printing related topics. Previous related posts :  The Poetic Printers, Robert Hoe of R. Hoe & Co., and Richard M. Hoe: Celebrated Inventor.

A citizen of Connecticut has invented a printing press, which he claims will strike off four thousand copies of the New Testament per diem, or four hundred copies of a newspaper per minute.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Sep 27, 1867

squiggle54

The first printing press ever taken West of the Missouri was established by the Mormons at Independence, in 1832.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Aug 13, 1868

Robert Hoe, the printing press inventor, began life as a Leicestershire (England) mechanic, and came to New York in 1815.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Dec 31, 1868

Not satisfied with the great advances in the printing press, R. Hoe & Co. are at present engaged in perfecting a press on the principle of printing both sides at once from a continuous roll of paper.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Oct 21, 1869

overman

The well known press builders, R. Hoe & Co., have instituted an industrial school in their manufacturing establishment, convinced that the efficiency and success of their corps of workmen would be greatly increased if they possessed a good English education and a thorough knowledge of the fundamental principles of mathematics and mechanics.

mechanics-overman

The course of study embraces grammar, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, reading, writing, drawing, composition, the ten science principles and Overman’s Mechanics. The classes in these various branches recite once a week, the recitation being an hour in length. The lessons given are long, but the apprentices have ample time out of work hours not only to prepare them but to reflect upon and study their practical applications. All the apprentices, numbering upward of a hundred, are compelled to go through this course of study, and as the term of apprenticeship ranges from five to seven years, they have time to become proficient in every branch taught, so that when their apprenticeship is over they have a thorough English and technical education so far as mechanics is concerned. Everything is furnished gratuitously, the best of instruction, text books, and drawing materials; and the annual outlay required is very trivial compared with the valuable results already attained.

Daily Gazette and Bulletin (Williamsport, Pennsylvania) Jan 19, 1875

squiggle55

THE will* of the late George P. Gordon, the inventor of the printing press that bears his name, and who left an estate valued at $800,000, has been contested in the King’s county Surrogate’s Court, New York, and refused admission to probate on account of insufficient execution. It seems to be an easier matter to make an intricate piece of machinery than to legally give away the profits of it. Millionaires must feel disgusted with themselves as they contemplate the fun their taking-off gives rise to.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Apr 11, 1878

George Gordon, aged 68, died Jan 27, 1878 at his farm near Norfolk, VA.

*This will contest was not settled until 1897, after the heirs had all passed away.

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Pioneer Women Journalists.

Of the 37 newspapers in the American colonies at the time of the Revolution, says E. Cora Depuy in The Household Realm, several were owned and managed by women.

The first newspaper published in Rhode Island was owned and edited by Mrs. Anna Franklin and established in 1732. She and her two daughters wrote the items and set the type, and their servants worked the printing press. For her quickness and correctness Mrs. Franklin was appointed printer to the colony, supplying pamphlets to the colonial officers. In 1772 Clementine Rind was publishing a paper in Virginia called the Virginia Gazette, favoring the colonial cause and greatly offending the royalists. Two years later Mrs. H. Boyle started a paper under the same name, advocating the cause of the crown. Both were published at Williamsburg, and both were short lived.

In 1773 Elizabeth Timothy started a paper in Charleston. After the Revolution Anna Timothy became its editor and was appointed state printer, which position she held for 17 years. About the same time Mary Crouch started a paper in Charleston in vigorous opposition to the stamp act. She afterward moved it to Salem, Mass., and continued its publication for many years.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Feb, 21 1898

For more, read Women in Newspapers at the Matilda Joslyn Gage website.

Samuel Pennypacker

Samuel Pennypacker

All the newspapers of Pennsylvania, regardless of party, have joined in the crusade against Gov. Pennypacker on account of his signing the new libel law. It is quite possible that they will find that they are protected under the clause of the Pennsylvania constitution which says that “the printing press shall be free to every person who may undertake to examine the proceedings of the legislature or any branch of government, and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof.”  That is very broad and seems to cover amply such cases as those designed to be hit by the new law. It would be most logical if the law were declared unconstitutional.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) May 18, 1903

Lynched for a Case of Mistaken Identity?

February 18, 2009
Slaughtered Hogs

Slaughtered Hogs

On the 14th instant a man named Casteel, living near Des Arc, Arkansas, was taken from his home and hung. He was charged with being unable to distinguish his own hogs from his neighbors.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Nov 2, 1868

Charles Dickens: Over the Years

January 3, 2009
Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens

Boz.
The Sunday Morning News says the Reporters of N. York are taking measures to give Mr. Dickens (Boz) a slendid public entertainment, on his arrival in this country, which it is expected will be early in January next. – From present prospects, the dinner will be a magnificent affair.

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine)  Nov 6, 1841

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Arrival of the Britannia — Twenty eight days Later from England — Arrival of Charles Dickens — Twenty eight Thousand Russians killed or taken Prisoners by the Circassians, &c. &c.

As good luck would have it, just as our paper was going to press E. HARRIS, Esq. handed us a copy of the Evening Gazette, containing the news by the Britannia…

The Britania arrived at half past four o’clock on Saturday in 18 days from Liverpool. She experienced very heavy weather, having had her Paddle boxes much impaired and her Life Boasts stove? to pieces during a severe gale on the night of the 15th. In entering the harbor of Halifax she grounded but was got off again in a few minutes and anchored for the night. She brings an unusual large number of passengers, among whom is CHARLES DICKENS, the principal literary writer of the age.

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine) Jan 25, 1842

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Charles Dickens, in behalf of the passengers of the Britannia during her last voyage on Saturday, last, presented Capt. Hewitt several pieces of plate as a testimony to the skill and gentlemanly conduct of that gentleman during the passage. The address was delivered at the Tremont? House, Boston, and was very neat.

Charles Dickens, Esq. alias “Boz,” as you will have heard before this reaches you, is now here. A complimentary dinner is to be given him next week. He is decidedly a good looking fellow wears long hair, and is of course the “lion of the city.” The Earl of Mulgrave is entirely eclipsed by him. It is stated that the tickets to the “Boz dinner,” are to be put at the moderate price of ten dollars, and I make no doubt the company will be sufficiently select.

Mr. Dickens is a pleasing writer, and I have no doubt is an amiable man, but, I question the propriety of feasting any man or set of men. There are a thousand as good men as Dickens in Boston, and probably double that number men who are in all respects his equals, if not his superiors. If they visit England, are they feasted, and worshipped? No. And here the people of that country shew their good sense. Let us receive distinguished strangers with cordiality and a hearty yankee greeting, and with all those little civilities which should characterise the meeting of friendly strangers, but at the same time eschew all that foolish and disgusting parade, which is but too common at the present day. Besides, I am so much of a republican, that I would no sooner honor a lord, a duke, a prince, or a literary man, than I would a mechanic who had become famous in his calling. A skilful engineer, or cordwainer, if he is a gentleman, is as deserving of homage, (and frequently more so,) as is a representative of the aristocracy, or of the literature of a country. However, as I shall not attend the ten dollar fete, I will say nothing more.

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine) Feb 1, 1842

squiggle3Groupies, circa 1842

Several Plymouth girls made a request of Dickens for a lock of his hair. In a letter to them says the Rock, he declines a compliance with that request, because it would afford a precedent, which, if followed, would shortly result in total baldness. Boz concluded his letter in very pretty terms, and his reply was a very proper one.

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine) Feb 15, 1842

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Charles Dickens.
At a late dinner given to Mr. Dickens at Hartford about 80 gentlemen, and among the, Gov. Ellsworth, Bishop Brownell, Mr. Niles and other distinguished men sat down to the table. After several toast had been given, the president of the day introduced, with some appropriate complimentary remarks, the following toast.

The health of Charles Dickens Elected by the world’s suffrage, to an elevated station in the great republic of letters, his fame is written on the heart, and the head approves the record.

This toast was received with enthusiastic and long continued applause. Mr. Dickens, when the applause had subsided, rose and in feeling and unaffected terms thanked the company for the kind feelings which they had expressed towards him…

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine) Feb 19, 1842

You can read his speech here:

SPEECH: FEBRUARY 7, 1842.

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N.B. — Mr. BONNER has the pleasure of announcing that CHARLES DICKENS, who is universally conseded to be the most popular author living, has been engaged to write a Tale expressly for the columns of the LEDGER; and that he is now at work upon it. Advance sheets of Mr. DICKENS’ stories have at different time been obtained by American publishers, but this is the first time that a tale has been written expressly and solely for an American periodical by such an eminent author as Mr. DICKENS; and yet Mr. BONNER would not have the public suppose that he thinks there is anything very remarkable about this engagement — it is only part and parcel of his policy.

The New York Times (New York, New York) Arp 25, 1859

Congratulations

Congratulations

A translation of Charles Dickens’ Tale of Two Cities is to appear in the feuilleton, Le Pays, the semi-official journal of the French Government.

The New York Times (New York, New York) May 26, 1860

squiggle6Literary Humor:

A facetious correspondent sends us a query — Which is the most industrious writer, Dickens, Bulwer Lytton, or Mr. Warren? to which he answers Dickens; for he writes All the Year Round, while Bulwer has written Night and Morning, and Warren Now and Then. In justice to the latter gentleman our friend should have remembered that when he was merely writing novels, Mr. Warren wrote Ten Thousand a Year.

The New York Times (New York, New York) June 30, 1860

This Dickens fan was a bit extreme:

A boy of fifteen lately committed suicide in London because the servant maid took away his candle while he was reading “Pickwick Papers.” Mr. Dickens should immortalize him in his next novel.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Sep 30, 1865

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CHARLES DICKENS FOR PARLIAMENT.
Charles Dickens is being again importuned to become a candidate for Parliament. Says an English contemporary: “Mr. C. Dickens should be heard by every one who wishes to hear oratory. In vain will he listen in the House of Commons for the like. Gladstone and D’Israeli have not a tithe of the command of the brilliant spirit, flowing, uninterrupted words, beautiful and truthful thoughts, of our great English novelist. He has been asked over and over again to stand for some place or another. He knows any part of London would return him, free o’ cost, and give him a statue in precious metal at the same time to commemorate the event. But he will not. It is his pride, perhaps, to wash his hands of any institution he has so freely rediculed; but there is good still in it, and he might honor the House and the country by taking his seat there.”

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) May 17, 1866

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Dickens Reading

Dickens Reading

HOW CHARLES DICKENS READS.
Mr. Dickens’ method is thus described in the Philadelphia Ledger:
He takes one of his works, “David Copperfield,” for example, and in about an hour and a half tells the whole story of the book, occasionally selecting a favorite passage, which he repeats in full, making all the characters act and talk precisely as he fancied them at the time of their creation in his own mind. All this is done with the finest dramatic effect, as Mr. Dickens, among his other intellectual qualities, has those of a finished actor of the highest grade. He has, too, the great advantage of knowing all about the characters he personates in his readings. To use one of his own expressions, he “knows their tricks and their manners.” It is on account of these elements that the “Dickens readings” are said to excel all other entertainments of the same general character.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Sep 22, 1867

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BOSTON, Nov. 18. — The sale of tickets to Dickens’ course of readings, which took place at Ticknor & Fields’ to-day, cause no little sensation. At sunrise the crowd begain to gather, and the aid of a strong police force was required to enforce fair play among the eager applicants. Nearly all the tickets for the course, about 8,000, were sold, and hundreds were disappointed in securing any. A few tickets got into the hands of speculators, who offer them at $20 each.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Nov 30, 1867

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The Philadelphia correspondent of the London Times says that Mr. Dickens will have to pay $20,000 of his receipts for reading, in this country, as an internal revenue tax.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Mar 14, 1868

Dickens

Dickens

Mark Twain is lecturing to crowded houses in California and Nevada.
Dickens is writing a $10,000 Chirstmas play for Jarrett, of Niblo’s, New York.
For $60,000 in gold, Strauss has consented to make a concert tour in this country.

Mrs. Ann S. Stephens has written a new fiction which is “Doubly False.”

Anna Dickinson is going to England to lecture.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) June 6, 1868

$$$$$$$$$

The London Court Journal says that Charles Dickens made more than $260,000 in America, and has just concluded an engagement for 100 farewell readings in England, for which he is to receive L8,000 without risk.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Sep 26, 1868

Tom Thumb

Tom Thumb

Personal and Literary.
Charles Dickens’ only surviving brother died, a few weeks ago, in England.
Emerson is getting deaf.
Tom Thumb is growing taller.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Nov 28, 1868

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Dickens is coining money by his farewell readings inthe large cities of England, and only one-quarter of the applicants for tickets are successful. After reading in Scotland and Ireland he goes to Paris, where his audiences have heretofore been large and enthusiastic.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Jan 23, 1869

Humorous letter to the press, asking for a correction, after they incorrectly reported his sister-in-law had DIED!

The following is the text of Charles Dickens note to the London News, a summary of which was received by the cable: “Sir– I am required to discharge a painful act of duty imposed upon me by your insertion in your paper of Saturday of a paragraph from the New York Times respecting the death, at Chicago, of  ‘Mrs. Augustus N. Dickens, widow of the brother of Charles Dickens, the celebrated English novelist.’ The widow of my late brother, in that paragraph referred to, was never at Chicago; she is a lady now living, and resident in London; she is a frequent guest at my house, and I am one of the trustees under her marriage settlement. My temporary absence in Ireland has delayed for some days my troubling you with the request that you will have the goodness to publish this correction. I am, &c., CHARLES DICKENS. “Belfast, Jan. 14.”

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Feb 20, 1869

Declining Health?

Charles Dickens suffers from palsy in the right hand, induced by writing too much.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Mar 6, 1869

AND

Dickens has suspended his readings under medical advice.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Mar 20, 1869

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Charles Dickens was banquetted in Liverpool on the 11th. About 700 persons sat with him at the table. In responding to a sentiment, Anthony Trollope intimated that the appointment of Mr. Dickens as Minister to Washington would be beneficial to both countries.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Apr 24, 1869

Dickens Writing

Dickens Writing

Mr. Dickens is again reported to be writing a novel.
It is reported that Anna Dickinson is worth $100,000.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) June 5, 1869

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In a recent speech at Birmingham, Charles Dickens alluded to the fact that a former speech of his had been misunderstood, and he would therefore take this occasion to restate his political creed. He had no faith in the people with a small “p” governing, but entire faith in the People with a large “P” governed. He put entire trust in the masses, none whatever in the so-called ruling class.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Jan 15, 1870

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EVERY SATURDAY, No. 15, for April 9, contains the first installment of Mr. Dickens’ new story, “The Mystery of Edwin Drood.” This 1st published from advance sheets, by special arrangement with Mr. Dickens, and appears simultaniously with its publication in England. It is accompanied by the illustrations drawn for the English edition by Mr. Fildes, under the supervision of Mr. Dickens himself. Those who desire to read this great story in its earliest and only authorized form in America, can find it in Every Saturday. This number of Every Saturday is rendered additionally attractive by an excellent new portrait of Mr. Dickens, and views of his residence at Gad’s Hill Place. A supplement is issued with the number, entitled “Mr. Pickwick’s Reception,” drawn expressly for this number by Mr. S. Eytinge, Jr. It represents the numerous personages of Mr. Dickens’ novels passing before Mr. Pickwick, to whom they are pointed out by the trusty Sam Weller. The admirers of Mr. Dickens will easily recognize their favorites and aversions, — Mr. Pecksniff and his daughters, jolly Mark Tapley, Mr. Micawber and the twins, Fagin, the Artful Dodger, the Fat Boy trying to grow fatter, Little Nell and her Grandfather, Dombey, Bob Cratchit with Tiny Tim, and indeed almost the entire roll of characters that throng Mr. Dickens’ unequalled stories.
FIELDS, OSGOOD & Co., Publishers, Boston.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Apr 9, 1870

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens

It is said that the advertisements which will be printed at the end and beginning of each part of Mr. Dicken’s new novel will not only pay the cost of the novel’s “composition,” but leave a very handsome overplus. The only cost, therefore, to the author will be the paper and press-work. Mr. Dickens is his own publisher, and allows the trade publishers a commission on sales made, in this way reversing the usual relations between authors and publishers.

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) May 14, 1870

Charles Dickens and the Unintended Joke

January 2, 2009

The “Butler” being referred to is Benjamin Franklin Butler.

He was nicknamed “Beast Butler,” and “Spoons,” for his alleged habit of pilfering the silverware of Southern homes in which he stayed.  [wikipedia]

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Gen. Benjamin F. Butler

Butler at a Dickens Reading.

The Washington correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial gives the following incident:

An incident worth mentioning occurred in Carroll hall on the second night of the Dickens readings. Ben. Butler entered after the performance had commenced, and walked down the center aisle while Dickens was describing one of the most interesting scenes in his selection from David Copperfield. Perhaps Benjamin was unavoidably detained, or perhaps he wished to make his appearance at a time when he could attract that amount of attention which he thinks is due to his eminent abilities and great public services. There are those who adopt this as one of the ways of keeping before the people; some of them men of marked zeal in religious affairs, who never enter the church till the congregation is well-seated, and then walk straight to the front pew. If General Butler hadn’t had his mind’s eye on this idea on the occasion referred to, his motives were misunderstood by many, that’s all.

Well, the hero of Bermuda walked down the aisle the observed of all observers, and took his seat in a very select and advantageous part of the hall. The first selection was soon concluded, and Mr. Dickens retired as is his wont for 10 minutes of rest and refreshment. The rustle and bustle consequent upon a relaxation of attention followed. There were whisperings among the old folks, and flirtings among the younger, in the midst of which up rose Butler from his seat, either to observe or be observed, hard to tell which though I am inclined to the latter belief. There was no mistaking that bald head, or that strabismic eye. It was Benjamin F. Butler, and nobody else.

The intermission, like all things on this earth, had its end, Dickens reappeared and the readings were resumed. This time it was a selection from Pickwick — the famous Bob Sawyer scene. It was very funny, as we all know, and the laughing, at times, immoderate. There was a point, however, at which the laugh became very much like a vulgar roar, and it wasn’t the funniest part of the reading by any means. Mr. Dickens felt a little confused, I thought, for a man of his nice perceptions knows exactly where the fun comes in, and we all know there is such a thing possible as a laugh at the expense of an actor, which is always more vivid than that provoked by the play. Dickens evidently thought he had blundered. But he hadn’t. He had simply read the following colloquy between Hopkins and Noddy — and the audience had just seen Butler, and every one knew he was present.

“I request that you’ll favor me with your card, sir.”
“I’ll do nothing of the kind, sir.”
“Why not, sir?”
“Because you’ll stick it over your chimney-piece, and delude your visitors into the false belief that a gentleman has been to see you, sir.”
“Sir, a friend of mine shall wait on you in the morning.”
“Sir, I am very much obliged to you for the caution; and I’ll leave particular directions with the servants to lock up the spoons.

The laugh, Mr. Dickens, which so exceeded all bounds as to perplex you, was due solely to a connection in the popular mind between General Butler and spoons!

St Joseph Herald (Saint Joseph, Michigan) Feb.  22, 1868