Posts Tagged ‘1870’

The Indian Student

December 3, 2011

Image from Susquehanna Indian Tribe History

THE INDIAN STUDENT.

From Susquehannah’s utmost springs
Where savage tribes persue their game,
His blanket tied with yellow strings
The sheperd of the forest came.

Not long before a wandering Priest,
Expressed his wish with visage sad,
Ah, why he cried in Satan’s waste,
Ah, why retain so fine a lad.

In yankee land there stands a town
Where learning may be purchased low;
Exchange his blanket for a gown —
And let the lad to College go.

From long debate the council rose,
And viewing Shellum’s tricks with joy; —
To Harvard hall, o’er drifts of snow,
They sent the tawny colored boy.

A while he wrote, a while he read,
A while attended grammer rules;
An Indian savage so well bred,
Great credit promised to the schools.

Some thought he would in law excel —
Some thought in physic he would shine,
And some who liked him passing well —
Beheld in him a sound divine.

But those of more deserving eye,
Even then could other prospects show, —
They saw him lay his virgil by
To wander with his dearer bow.

Ah, why he cried did I forsake,
My native woods for gloomy walls,
The silver streams, the limpid lake
For musty books and college halls?

A little could my wants supply,
Can wealth or honor give me more,
Or will the sylvian God deny,
The humble treat he gave before?

When nature’s ancient forests grow,
And mingled laurel never fades, —
My heart is fixed and I must go
To die among my native shades.

He spoke, and to the western springs,
His gown discharged, his money spent,
His blanket tied with yellow strings
The sheperd of the forest went.

Returning to his rural plains,
The Indians welcomed him with joy,
The council took him home again
And blessed the tawny colored boy.

Cambridge City Tribune (Cambridge City, Indiana) Dec 8, 1870

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Lad of Seventeen Butchers an Octogenarian

November 28, 2011

Image from the University of Vermont website An Agricultural History of Hinesburg, Vermont – (Preliminary Research page)

New York Herald (New York, New York) Apr 27, 1869

THE BOY MURDERER IN VERMONT.

A Lad of Seventeen Butchers an Octogenarian.

Sketch of His Crime, Capture, Trial and Sentence.

WINDSOR, Vt., Dec. 23, 1870.
In the State Prison in this place is now confined, under sentence of death, a young man only nineteen. His crime, the murder of a defenceless old man in his own doorway, is justly considered one of the worst cases of homicide ever known in Vermont. His cool indifference and apparent carelessness of the consequences of his diabolical performance show an amount of depravity seldom found in one so young. This boy’s name is Henry Welcome, of French parentage, and his victim was Mr. Perry Russell, of Hinesburg, Vt. Mr. Russell was a well known and respected farmer, a member of the methodist Episcopal Church, of some considerable property and aged about seventy-six years.

THE MURDER
was committed on the evening of the 3d of October, 1868, about half-past eight. Mr. Russell and his wife, the sole occupants of the house, had retired to rest about eight o’clock, but half an hour afterwards were startled by a knocking at the door. Mrs. Russell told her husband not to open the door until he assertained who was there. Mr. Russell accordingly made inquiry, and was answered, “Joe Bushy, I want to come in.” Deceived by mention of a name with which he was familiar, he opened the door and was instantly felled by a blow from a heavy barndoor hinge, twenty inches in length, in the hands of Henry Welcome. His groans and exclamation, “O Lord!” aroused his wife from bed, who, coming to the spot, saw the young assassin standing over the unfortunate old man and raining a shower of blows upon him with the murderous hinge. Almost paralyzed with terror for her own safety, the old lady fled to the nearest neighbors, one hundred rods distant, and alarmed them, who proceeded in turn to the next house, and from there they all returned to the scene of the tragedy. The murderer had gone, but his victim was lying on the floor, where he had first fallen, in a pool of blood and breathing heavily. He lingered in an unconscious state until the next morning at ten o’clock, when he died. The surgeons in attendance found nine scalp wounds from one to three inches in length and a deep cut in the crown of his head. The murderer, after finishing his horrid work, ransacked the house for the plunder he expected to obtain, but could find nothing except a small black trunk containing notes, deeds and other valuable papers. This was afterwards found on an adjoining farm in a field half a mile distant, the contents taken out and strewed around. Welcome was induced to murder the old man in hope of finding a large sum of money, but in this he was foiled, as Mr. Russell had, a few days previous, deposited his funds, some $5,000 in United States bonds, in a bank at Burlington, a few miles from Hinesburg. He knew that Mr. Russell possessed this money, because he had at one time worked for him.

THE PURSUIT OF THE ASSASSIN
was active and successful. The services of N.B. Flanagan, an expert detective of Burlington, were immediately secured, and a reward of $1,000 was offered to bring the villain to justice. On the 5th of October, just two days after the butchery, he was arrested at Waterbury, Vt., where he had gone on the cars from Essex Junction, and he was taken to Burlington. On his way there he met the funeral procession of his victim and displayed the most astonishing indifference and utter coolness.

THE TRIAL.
After a preliminary examination before a justice he was committed to jail to await trial at the County Court. The following April his case came up, and a verdict of guilty was given. On a technicality of law he was allowed to appeal to the Supreme Court. Pending the session of that tribunal he was remanded to the State Prison at Windsor, the jail at Burlington not being considered sufficiently secure. The Supreme Court having confirmed the edict of the County Court, Welcome was sentenced “to solitary confinement one year in the State Prison at Windsor, and then to be hanged by the neck until dead.”

EFFORTS FOR COMMUTATION
of sentence to life imprisonment at hard labor were nearly successful. The Legislature in session last October were petitioned on two grounds, viz., the extreme youth of the prisoner and the dodge of insanity. The House of Representatives turned a willing ear to these petitioners, notwithstanding the fact that a much larger number of his own townsmen prayed that the extreme penalty of the law might be enforced in his case. They even went so far as to allow his lawyer to plead before them as a jury, as it were — a proceeding which has no precedent in the doings of of any legislative body. A committee was also appointed to visit him in the prison; and the result was that two bills were passed, one to commute Welcome’s sentence, the other to abolish capital punishment. Such summary action startled the people of the whole State tremendously. Protests arose from every quarter, especially from the clergy and the press. The Senate, however, to their honor be it said, refused to pass either of the bills. People breathed free once more. The efforts of a few false philanthropists to override the just and wholesome laws of the State, which have heretofore been rigidly enforced, have signally failed. In consequence of this extraordinary effort made to save one of the worst villains from his just deserts  great interests is manifested in this case. The people of Vermont feel that their safety lies in a vigorous execution of the law.

THE CRIMINAL
is now in close confinement, calm and quiet. He occupies his time mainly in reading the books furnished by the prison library. Although he takes no exercise, his health is excellent and he eats hearty meals. The chaplain of the prison visits him constantly, and it is to be hoped that the doomed young man will seriously contemplate his dreadful end, so fast approaching. The execution is to take place on Friday, the 20th day of January next.

New York Herald (New York, New York) Dec 26, 1870

[Excerpt]
WINDSOR, Vt., Jan. 19, 1871.

Henry Welcome, a lad of nineteen, who has been in close confinement in the State Prison in this place the year past for the crime of murder, is to be executed here to-morrow. This young man was born in Hinesburg, Vt. His father is a French Canadian and his mother an American. Though poor they were very respectable, and the mother, a professing Christian, trained up her family, consisting of eleven children, in the same pathways of virtue in which she herself had been instructed. But, alas, her pious teachings did not restrain Henry from an early career in the paths of crime. At a tender age he developed some very bad qualities; was idle, disobedient, ill-tempered and of a very revengeful spirit.

HIS FIRST EXPLOIT
which brought him into the clutches of the law, at the age of sixteen, was the hiring of a horse and buggy, which he ran away with. He was captured and lodged in the jail at the city of Burlington; here he remained awaiting trial until he was nearly seventeen years old. His case coming before the County Court, the jury brought in a verdict exonerating him, on account of his extreme youth, from any vile intent, more than a boyish scrape in running away with the team. He was accordingly discharged from custody and arrived home just three days previous to the night of the murder.

THE VILLAGE OF HINESBURG,
where the deed was committed is a mere hamlet, consisting of a few houses, church, store, tavern, &c., the central trading point and Post Office of the township of the same name. The population are almost wholly farmers. It is situated in the southern part of Chittenden county, about ten miles from Burlington, the county seat. The nearest railway station is Charlotte, on the Rutland Railroad, about five miles distant. One would suppose that in such a quiet, Christian and comparatively secluded community incentives to vice would be rare; but where is evil not found?
…..

New York Herald (New York, New York) Jan 20, 1871

The Gallows

WINDSOR, Vt., Jan. 20, 1871.
Henry Welcome, formerly of Hinesbury, to-day paid the awful penalty of death for the murder of an old man named Perry Russell, in September, 1869. This is the ninth execution for murder which has taken place within the boundaries of the State of Vermont.

Yesterday afternoon several people visited him, among them a reporter, to whom he made some further and interesting statements in regard to his early life. It seems that he left home at the age of fifteen, contrary to the commands of his parents, to go to Boston, and worked there a while. From this step he dates his commencement of a career of crime. He soon fell into the company of wicked men and lewd women, and from drinking he took to gambling, and then taking money in small sums from his employer, who, finding out these things, warned Welcome to desist or leave his employ, which latter course he immediately pursued, arriving home only a short time before he stole the horse and buggy.

During the afternoon he was calm, collected, ate well and slept some, being ever ready to converse with those who were disposed to see and talk with him. Last evening a special guard was placed at the door of his cell, who remained in attendance until he left the cell for the last time. The chaplain remained with him until eleven o’clock P.M.

THE CULPRIT’s STATEMENT TO THE CHAPLAIN.
Welcome appeared much broken down. Tears and sobs came from his bosom. He wrote a last farewell to his sorrow stricken family, which was extremely affecting. He did not appear to have as much fortitude as the time drew near. To the chaplain he made the following statement:

I hope that my sad end will be an effectual warning to all young people against disobedience to their parents, the use of strong drink and the choice of bad company. These things have been my ruin. May God save others from coming to my miserable end. I have no ill will toward anybody, and I ask forgiveness of all that I have wronged. My prayer is that god would have mercy on my soul and make my example of use to others. The Word of God and the hopes of the Gospel are now my only refuge, and the cry of my heart is to Jesus, “Lord remember me when Thou comest into Thy Kingdom.”

THE LAST PRAYER.
His last prayer in the cell before the chaplain left him was, “God be merciful to me a sinner.” During the latter part of the night he got considerable sleep.

THE NIGHT BEFORE THE EXECUTION.
Early in the evening some considerable excitement was caused by the attempted escape of a convict, who his in one of the shops, but was found, after a thorough search with a rope tackle for climbing the wall, and was incarcerated in the solitary cell. Also during the night two men were brought in, who were arrested by detectives Flanagan and Squires on the night express, suspected of being the burglars concerned in the Waterbury Bank robbery, which took place on Wednesday night. Notwithstanding these disturbances, Welcome slept quite well from two to four o’clock. He had conversation with the guard about the army, &c., which diverted his mind so that he was almost cheerful again.

This morning he partook of a slight breakfast, and the chaplain reached his cell about nine o’clock.

THE ERECTION OF THE SCAFFOLD
commenced about that time also. The noise of the hammers could easily be heard throughout the prison. It was the same one which had been used in former executions — a common gallows, two drops, with a fall of six feet six inches. From the platform, which is nine feet long by four feet wide, to the crossbeam is eight feet. The drop itself is four feet long and eighteen inches wide. The rope is common half-inch, and is the same that was around the necks of Cavanaugh, Ward and Miller. The gallows stands in the southeast corner of the prison, between the corridor and the wall.

VISITORS TO THE PRISONER.
During the forenoon quite a number of visitors entered the prison and watched the erection of the gallows with eager interest. At ten o’clock all reporters were given an opportunity by the Sheriff to see Welcome as he sat in his cell. He looked very bright, and talked with quite a degree of cheerfulness. In answer to an inquiry about how he had passed the night he replied, “Pretty well; I slept a little from two o’clock and ate some breakfast.”

“You look brightly,” said a reporter; “keep good courage. Its pretty tough, but keep up.”

“Yes,” said he, “I mean to.”

“Do you remember any one in Boston?” was then asked.

“Oh, yes. I remember Mr. Bates, lawyer, near Cornhill.”

“Do you want to send any word to him?”

“No; don’t know as I do particularly.”

“How about North street?”

“I have had enough of North street,” he said, with a smile and shrug of the shoulders.

“Well, goodby.”

And all shook hands with him and left the cell, only two friends and the chaplain remaining. All through this conversation he maintained a cheerful demeanor, standing erect, with folded arms. His is about five feet ten inches in height and of average form, with a rather pleasant face and black eyes.

PREPARING FOR THE FINAL SCENE.
As the hour of the final scene drew nigh the crowd around and in the guardroom of the prison augmented rapidly, and at half-past twelve there was a great press to obtain admittance; but none were allowed to go except those who had passes from the Sheriff or Superintendent of the prison. Among those present were the twelve legal witnesses selected by the Governor, and one or two friends or acquaintances of the deceased; also Dr. Robinson, a physician of Felchville, Vt., and Rev. Mr. Gadworth, a Baptist clergyman. The directors of the prison, Messrs. Hartshorn, Rice and Shedd, were there too. About noon the chaplain asked him if he would like anything to eat. He said he would like a cup of tea, which was brought to him. He then prayed for himself and the chaplain prayed with him.

THE DEATH MARCH.
At twenty minutes to one o’clock the death march commenced. The procession issued from the cell in order as follows: — The chaplain, Revs. Franklin Butler and Surrey, W. Stimson, Sheriff of Windsor county; the condemned, between Deputy Sheriffs Rollin, Amsden and Luther Kendall; the twelve legal witnesses, &c. Passing by his coffin, which stood near the scaffold, he ascended the stairs with tolerable firmness and stood upon the platform of the gallows. The persons upon the platform were the chaplain, the Sheriff, his deputies, Amsden, Kendall and Armstrong, and J.A. Pollard, Superintendent of the prison.

READING THE DEATH WARRANT.
The exercises commenced with the reading of a short passage of Scripture and prayer by the chaplain, when the death warrant was read by the Sheriff, after which he addressed the prisoner thus: — “Henry Welcome, have you anything to say why you should not suffer the extreme penalty of the law?”

THE CULPRIT’S LAST WORDS.
A moment of silence, and Welcome began: —

I cannot say much. Words are inadequate to express my feelings. I hope my situation and fate will be an example to others to keep out of bad company and low-bred places, and obey their parents and stay at home. Disobedience to my good parents has brought me here. I hope God will have mercy on my soul, for Christ’s sake. I have made my peace with God, and I want to caution young men, before these witnesses, not to touch liquor, for if they take one glass they will want another. I cannot say any more, my heart is too full.

These words were delivered in a trembling voice and with tearful eyes. After being placed on the drop, his hands and feet were strapped by Deputy Sheriff Amsden, and the noose adjusted around his neck.

A PRAYER FOR MERCY.
He then shook hands with the Superintendent, Sheriff and deputies; then he broke forth into a most fervent, touching and heartfelt prayer, his accents being quite distinct, although his whole frame was shaken with the violence of his emotions. He distinctly expressed his faith in Jesus and hope of full pardon for his transgressions, saying much in substance that was contained in his address. He particularly prayed for his poor mother; that he name might not be a lasting disgrace to her, and though dying so ignominiously in this world, felt confident in the hope of a blessed immortality. The chaplain then stepped and took his hand, speaking a farewell to him in tones inaudible to the deeply moved spectators.

THE BLACK CAP WAS THEN ADJUSTED,
and Sheriff Stimson said, in calm tones, “The time has now arrived when the extreme sentence of the law must be executed on you, Henry Welcome, and may God have mercy on your soul.”

THE LAST OF EARTH.
The spring was pressed by a deputy and at precisely two minutes before one P.M. the body of Henry Welcome shot downwards and his soul took its everlasting flight. In six minutes the pulse ceased to beat, and the prison surgeon, Dr. H. Clark, pronounced him dead. In twenty minutes the body was cut down and put in the coffin, to be burned within the prison walls. Thus the law is vindicated in Vermont.

New York Herald (New York, New York) Jan 21, 1871

Social Reforms – Equality in Slavery

November 1, 2011

Shall the Names of “Wife” and “Mother” become Obsolete?

THE eloquent Father Hyacinthe offers the following hints to our social reformers of the present day: In the poorer classes there was a time when woman was called wife — mother; they have baptized her now-a-days by a name that does not belong in our language — the work-woman!

The workman I know and honor, but I do not know the workwoman. I am astounded. I am alarmed, whenever I hear this word.

What? This young woman — is toil, unpitying, unintelligent toil, to come bursting in her door early in the morning, to seize her in its two iron fists, and drag her from what ought to be her home and sanctuary to the factory that is withering and consuming her day by day?

What! Is toil — brutal, murderous toil — to kill her children, or at least to snatch them screaming from their cradles and give them over into stranger hands?

And all the time a false philosophy will be lifting its head and shouting, “Equality! equality for man and woman! Equality for the workwoman by the side of the workman!”

Ah! yes, equality in slavery! Or, rather, a profound inequality in slavery and martyrdom.

The Portsmouth Times (Portsmouth, Ohio) Jul 2, 1870

Image from the New York Architecture – Gone but not forgotten website

STEWART’S NEW HOME FOR FEMALES.

This immense structure, now in course of erection on Fourth avenue, near Thirty-second street, New York, is fast approaching completion. The building is to be seven stories high, 192 1/2 feet on Fourth avenue, and 205 feet on Thirty-second street and Thirty-third streets respectively. It will cover an area of 41,000 square feet.

The rent to each tenant, it is expected, will be fixed at $1 a week, and food will be furnished on the European plan. A resident can live here for about $2.50 or $3 per week. The establishment is calculated to hold 1,500 persons. The ground floor will be occupied as stores.

The total cost of the structure will be about $3,000,000. This building is intended for the benefit of single women in poor circumstances, such as shop girls, sewing girls, &c.

The Portsmouth Times (Portsmouth, Ohio) Oct 15, 1870


A GOOD little girl of the period:

I want to be a voter,
And with the voters stand;
The “man I go for” in my head,
The ballot in my hand.

*******

WOMEN who claim to have been pioneers in the woman’s rights agitation are scarce. The movement was started twenty-two years ago, and they don’t like to admit the necessary age.

The Portsmouth Times (Portsmouth, Ohio) Nov 5, 1870

WOMEN’S right and women’s tights, now occupy a deal of public attention.

The Portsmouth Times (Portsmouth, Ohio) Jan 21, 1871

In School Days

September 6, 2011

In School Days
—–
BY J.G. WHITTIER.
—–

Still is the school house by the road,
A ragged beggar sunning;
Around it still the sumachs grow,
And blackberry vines are running.

Within, the master’s desk is seen,
Deep scarred by raps official;
The warping floor, the battered seats,
The Jackknife’s carved initial.

The charcoal frescoes on its walls;
Its door’s worn sill betraying
The feet, that creeping slow to school,
Went storming out to playing!

Long years ago a winter’s sun
Shone over it at setting;
Lit up its western window panes
And low eaves’ icy fretting.

It touched the tangled, golden curls,
And brown eyes full of grieving,
Of one who still her steps delayed
When all the school were leaving.

For near her stood the little boy
Her childish favor singled,
His cap pulled low upon a face
Where pride and shame were mingled.

Pushing with restless feet the snow
To right and left, he lingered,
As restlessly her tiny hands
The blue-checked apron fingered.

He saw her lift her eyes; he felt
The soft hand’s light caressing,
And heard the trembling of her voice
As if a fault confessing;

“I am sorry that I spelt the word;
I hate to go above you,
Because” — the brown eyes lower fell —
“Because, you see, I love you!”

Still memory to a gray-haired man
That sweet child-face is showing.
Dear girl! the grasses on her grave
Have forty years been growing!

He lives to learn in life’s hard school,
How few who pass above him
Lament their triumph and his loss,
Like her — because they love him.

Indiana Progress (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Oct 20, 1870

A Poet’s Birthday.

Our boys and girls will see in their column this week the portrait of a very good and famous man, John Greenleaf Whittier. He was born Dec. 19, 1807, so that this month he is 78 years old. He is called the Quaker poet, because he belongs to the Society of Friends. His father and mother were Friends, too.

He wears the plain dress and uses the pleasant old “thee” and “thou” speech of his Quaker ancestors.

When a boy Whittier worked on a farm. Then he learned the shoemaker’s trade. The man who makes the sweetest, strongest verses of any American poet made shoes in his boyhood. No doubt they were good shoes, too, for geniuses do their best at everything.

Image from the Migration Heritage Center website

But a little bird began to sing in the boy’s soul. It sang more and more loudly till at last young Whittier dropped last and awl, and began to write. From his Quaker mother and father he inherited a passionate love of liberty. It was in the days of slavery and he began to work in his way for breaking the bondman’s chains. He wrote lyrics of freedom that will live forever. During the war one of his strongest Union poems was “Barbara Frietchie,” which so many of you know by heart. In the last fifty years he has written many poems. They are full of strength and fire and music. The names of some of his books are: “Voices of Freedom,” “Home Ballads,” “Snow Bound,” “Maud Muller,” and “Ballads of New England.” There are many others.Mr. Whittier is a fine example for all boys and girls to imitate. He has proved that people can rise from the poorest station to be honored and famous. He is not a rich man, but he is something far better. His poems have given peace to the troubled and hope to the despairing. They have been recited and sung around the world. Boys and girls commit them to memory, and it does them good all their lives. This is better, far better, than to be rich. In schools all over America Whittier’s birthday is celebrated every year by bright-eyed children. In some schools the pupils have had real letters from the grand old poet, which are treasured and shown to visitors year after year.

Mr. Whittier, old as he is, still writes and gives the world from time to time beautiful poems.

He lives very quietly at Amesbury, Mass. He is a modest man and shy of meeting strangers.

The poet is a bachelor. Many of you have, no doubt, read his poem, “In School Days.” It is about a little girl that spelled a word that a boy missed, and went above him in the class. The boy and girl were particular friends, and the girl was sorry that she had gone above him. In the poem, she creeps softly up to him after school and says:

“I’m sorry that I spelt the word,
I hate to go above you,
Because — the brown eyes lower fell —
Because, you see, I love you.”

They say this little girl was a real one, and that the boy was Whittier himself. They were dear friends and child playmates. But the sweet little girl died, and the poet has remembered her and mourned for her all his life. The poem says:

“Still memory to a gray-haired man
That sweet child-face is showing;
Dear girl! The grasses on her grave
Have forty years been growing.

“He lives to learn, in life’s hard school,
How few who pass above him
Lament their triumph and his loss
Like her — because they love him!”

Davenport Daily Gazette (Davenport, Iowa) Dec 19, 1885

Image from Find-A-Grave

Whittier’s School Friend Is Honored

HAVERHILL (Mass.), Oct. 28. — (INS) — Undying tribute of John Greenleaf Whittier to Lydia A. Ayer, his childhood sweetheart, a six foot stone memorial bearing an inscription depicting the schoolhouse they both attended, stood in Walnut Cemetery today.

The memorial was erected as a result of several months’ research by Fred L. Noyes of the Haverhill Whittier Associates, who learned Miss Ayres was buried in the cemetery.

In his poem, School Days, Whittier quoted her as saying after she had spelled him down in a spelling bee:

“I’m sorry that I spelt the word;
“I hate to go above you,
“Because” — The brown eyes lower fell —
“Because, you see I love you.”

Fresno Bee Republican (Fresno, California) Oct 28, 1937

Uncle Smiley’s Boys

August 21, 2011

From The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

UNCLE SMILEY’S BOYS.

BY LOUISA M. ALCOTT.

“WHAT’S the matter, Bob?” asked the kind old gentleman, as my brother came in, looking both angry and ashamed.

“Got whipped at school, and I don’t like it,” growled Bob, rubbing his right hand, the palm of which was still red and tingling.

“I’m sorry, but I guess you deserved it,” said uncle, soberly.

“Don’t care if I did; it’s a mean shame; ought not to be allowed;” answered Bob, indignantly.

“I don’t like it, either, and when I was keeping school I never tried but once.”

“Tell about that, uncle; I like to hear your stories,” said Bob, brightening up a little.

“Well, I was a young man, and I took a country school to begin with. It was winter time, and a good many boys came. You know I’m a mild man, naturally. I was very mild, then, and the boys thought they could do as they liked with the new master.

“I bore their tricks and disrespect as long as I could, hoping to conquer by kindness, but they didn’t understand that sort of discipline, and I soon found that the order of the whole school would be destroyed, if I did not assert my authority and subdue these fellows.

“So I made up my mind to punish the worst boy of the set, as an example to the rest. I didn’t like the task, and put it off as long as I could, but this boy soon gave me a chance which I could not pass by, and I whipped him.

“He was almost as large as myself, and resisted stoutly, so we had a regular tussle; for when I once began, I was bent on finishing the job. I did finish it, and the boy went home entirely subdued.

“The others appeared to be deeply impressed, and treated me with more respect after conquering the biggest and worst boy in the school.

“It seemed to have a good effect, but I was not satisfied with myself. I felt ashamed when I recalled that scene, and saw myself fighting with the boy. It wasn’t dignified, and, worse still, it wasn’t kind. Something must be wanting in me if I couldn’t sway the lad by gentler means, but had to set an example of brute force and unlovely anger.

“Well, I turned the matter over in my mind and resolved to try some other way if I was called upon to punish any more of my pupils.

“For some time they behaved very well, and I hoped there never would be any need of another scene. But one day two of the middle-sized boys behaved very badly, so badly that I could not let it pass, and decided to try my new punishment.

“So I bade all the scholars put down their books and listen to me. The two unruly lads were called up. and looking at them as kindly and sorrowfully as I felt, I said:

“Boys, I’ve tried to be patient with you; tried to remind you of the rules and help you to keep them; but you won’t be good, and I can’t let you disturb the whole school, so I must punish you. I can’t bear to whip you; it hurts me more than it does you, and I’ve thought it might help you to remember better if you feruled me, instead of my feruling you.

“There was dead silence as I paused, then a stir of excitement all through the room. The girls looked half-scared, half-indignant, for they all loved me and did their best to be good. Most of the boys looked sober — all much surprised, and a few rather amused.

“Bill, the elder culprit, laughed, as if he thought it would be a good joke to whip the master. Charley, the younger, a boy who was naughty from thoughtlessness more than from the love of evil, looked much distressed, and seemed covered with shame at the idea.

“Handing the ferule to Bill, I said, gravely, as I held out my hand:

“Give me half-a-dozen strokes, and if it pains you to do it to me as it does me to do it to you, I think you will try not to forget the rules again.

“Bill was a poor, neglected lad, who had never had home care and love, and so was bad because he thought no one cared what he did. He took the rule, struck three blows, then paused suddenly and glanced around the room, as a sob was heard. Several girls were crying, and all the boys looked ashamed of him.

“‘Go on,’ I said, and he hurriedly added three much lighter strokes, then dropped the rule as if it burnt him, and thrust both hands in his pockets, trying to look unconcerned.

“‘Now, Charley,’ I said, still kindly and sorrowfully.

“The poor little fellow looked from my reddened palm to my face several times, but couldn’t do it, and throwing the rule away from him, he caught my hand in both his, saying, with the tears running down his cheeks:

“‘Oh! sir, I can’t hit you! Don’t ask me to! I deserve a whipping, and I’d rather have two than strike you once.'”

“Good for Charley, he was a regular trump,” cried Bob, much excited.

Uncle smiled at his forgetfulness of his own tingling palm and went on:

“Well, that touched us all, of course. It was just what I wanted; and it did more good than a dozen whippings.

“I just took both the lads by the hand and said:

“‘My dear boys, I think this is punishment enough, so let us forgive, and try to do better for the future. Only remember one thing — I don’t want to be nothing but a master to you; I want to be a friend; to help you, and make not only good scholars, but good and happy boys. Come, shake hands, and promise me you will try.’

“I got two hearty squeezes, two muttered ‘thanks sirs’ and the boys went back to their seats perfectly subdued and very penitent. Charley never gave me any more trouble, and Bill tried his very best. I knew how much he had to fight against, so I did my best to make things easy for him, and interested the scholars in him by telling how rich they were compared to him, and how much they could do for the poor fellow.”

“They all had kind hearts, and all lent a hand, to Bill’s great surprise and gratitude, and by spring he was a different boy.”

Youths’ Companion.

The Portsmouth Times (Portsmouth, Ohio) Apr 23, 1870

You Say Korea, They Say Corea

October 7, 2010

Corea – Korea: How do we spell thee?

In the 1870s,  it was spelled COREA.

EXPEDITION TO COREA.

A New York special of the 31st inst., says: The frigate Colorado, and the corvettes Alaska and Benicia, ordered to the Asiatic squadron, have been equipped with an extra supply of howitzers and regulation rifles and pistols for the special purpose of punishing the natives of Corea and Formossa for their depredations on American shipping. The English, French, American, Dutch and Russian squadrons will unite in an expedition which will land five or six thousand men to attack the principal cities in Corea and bring the authorities to terms.

Galveston Daily News (Galvestion, Texas) Apr 8, 1870

 

NEWS BY MAIL.
DOMESTIC.

WASHINGTON, June 16. — A Cabinet meeting was held to-day, at which Secretary Robeson read a dispatch from Admiral Rodgers, commander of the Asiatic squadron, giving an account of the fight between the Chinese on the Corea peninsula and the combined forces of Americans and Europeans connected with the squadrons in these waters. Although the dispatch has not yet been made public, it is understood that Admiral Rodgers was conveying to Corea a number of Coreans whom he had rescued from shipwreck, intending to illustrate the friendship of civilized nations as contrasted  with the acts  of the Coreans, who not long ago murdered a French crew wrecked on that coast. The boats’ crews from the French, English, Russian and American vessels on this mission were fired upon by the Chinese, who probably were not aware of the object of the expedition. A fight ensued, in which the Chinese were punished, and Admiral Rodgers intimates that the conflict would be renewed next day.

The dispatch from Admiral Rodgers, of which the following is the substance, was received at the Navy Department and dated at Borsee Island, Corea, June 3, and sent from Shang hai:

Our minister and the Corean Envoys exchanged professions of amicable intentions. The Coreans made no objection to a survey of their waters. The Monocacy, Palos and four steam launches, under Commander Blaker, were sent on June 1st to examine the river Sable at a point called Difficult Passage on French chart No.2750. At a point where the navigation was most perilous, masked batteries, manned by several thousand Coreans, were unmasked and opened a heavy fire, without warning, on our people. The French ship in advance fought gallantly, our vessels bearing up drove the enemy from their works. The tide swept all the boats past the batteries. They anchored and threw shells among the retreating enemy. Eight-inch shells were evidently not expected.

The Monocacy was slightly injured by knocking upon a sunken rock, but is now temporarily repaired. The vessels on returning received no fire, the enemy having been driven from the forts. Our people displayed great gallantry, and one or two were slightly hurt.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Jun 23, 1871

 

 

 

SPECK OF WAR.

The rencontre between the French and English squadrons on the one side, and the Coreans on the other, will probably teach the “Heathen Chinee” that both nations have a good deal of fight left in them.

The Coreans are a treacherous, false-hearted race. By profession pirates on the sea and assassins on the land.

Corea is a narrow strip of land on the northeast coast of Asia, jutting out into the water for a distance of four hundred miles. It separates the Yellow Sea from the Sea of Japan. Its coast is rugged and dangerous. Many vessels are annually wrecked thereon, and their crews are frequently murdered. With a view to lessening the dangers of the navigation, Christian nations have engaged in the survey of these coasts, with the consent of the Corean Government. As the squadrons entered the river Sable in the pursuit of this object, they were fired on from masked batteries. Of course they replied in a manner that sent the Celestials howling inland.

Corea is tributary to China. In fact, its relation to China is similar to that of Canada to England. The standing army amounts to half a million.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Jun 28, 1871

 

 

THE COREAN EXPEDITION — THE SECOND FIGHT.

NEW YORK, August 22. – The mails bring details of the second fight in Corea.

It appears that on the morning of June 10 the expedition started from the fleet. It consisted of about nine hundred men, of which seven hundred, including one hundred and five marines, were to operate on land, four hundred and twenty-five from the Colorado, and one hundred and twenty-five each from the Alaska and Benicia, all the crew of the Monterey and Palos being required to work the guns on board. The Monocacy took the lead, followed by the Palos, with all the smaller boats in tow, except the steam launches.

The main object of the attack is built on top of a small conical hill on a tongue of land that projects from the right and west bank of the river, and extending out into the water about half a mile. Its average width from north to south is about 400 years. The river makes a sharp bend around the points of this peninsula, and during the rise and fall of the tide the water rushes past it with fearful rapidity. About 300 years from the extreme point of this small conical hill arises about three hundred feet high.

The Coreans have fortified this in such a manner, that looking from the water the walls of the fort appear but a continuation of the extrusion upward of the steep sides, only approaching more nearly to a perpendicular, the sides of the hill forming an angle of about forty-five degrees with the horizon, and the fort so built on top as to occupy a whole level space of almost eighty feet in diameter, leaving no level ground.

Outside of the parapet wall the ground between this and the water’s edge is very rough, steep and rocky, and difficult for military operations. The Coreans had a water battery of twenty-four and thirty-two pounders, and a small old brass piece, commanding the channel past this point, and protecting the approaches to the fort from the water on the front. As this was the grand object of the attack it was determined to land several miles below and take it in the rear.

Accordingly, when the boats reached the first fort, about two miles below the point above mentioned, the Monocacy and Palos opened fire on it with vigor, but the Palos, unfortunately running on a rock, was held fast there, and her effectiveness impaired for a while. The Monocacy’s fire continued, silencing the fort and driving in its defenders, and under cover of this fire, the smaller boats which had been towed up by the Palos, cast off and rowed rapidly to the beach and landed a portion of the force designated to operate by land. The landing was effected in good order, and without difficulty, but the men had then to toil through some 200 years of mud, from one to two feet deep, and over sluices, in some parts much deeper, before reaching good firm dry land.

This done, the first fort was easily occupied, its defenders having been silenced by the fire from the Monocacy and Palos, and retreated on the approach of the skirmish line of marines, who were thrown out in advance of the attacking party, firing a few harmless shots as they fled. Night now coming on, the whole land force bivouacked till next morning, posting strong guards in advance.

On Sunday, the 11th inst., the whole expedition moved forward on the next fort, and took it without resistance. They then extended their line across the peninsula and advanced on the main fort, called by the French Fort de Condeoff (Fort of the Elbouaf,) from its being located in the bend or elbow of the river. This being a place of great strength, and the way of approach rough and difficult, some time was necessary to get the whole force up into position, when the order was given to charge.

About half-past 10 o’clock our whole line went with a rush and yell, which was responded to by the death-wail or war-whoop of the Coreans in the fort. The Coreans here made a firm stand and desperate resistance, firing their clumsy gongals with great coolness and deliberation at our men as they charged up the hill, then fighting hand to hand with long spears and swords.

When the fort had been stormed, and our men were inside the ramparts, Lieut. McKee, of Kentucky, who led the charge into the fort, was the first to enter, and fell, fighting bravely, being overwhelmed by superior numbers. Two hundred and forty-three dead Coreans were found in the fort, and several prisoners taken, among whom was the Deputy Commander-in-Chief, who was wounded.

Our own loss was Lieut. Hugh McKee, Seth Allen, ordinary seaman, of the Colorado, and private Houlahan, of the marine corps, killed. Seven were wounded, including Passed Assistant Surgeon, C.J.S. Wells, of the Colorado.

After the capture the destruction of the forts was immediately begun; the houses were fired, the works and guns destroyed and the magazines exploded.

The land force encamped in the neighborhood of the fort on the night of the 11th, and early next morning took up their line of march to the fleet, the object of the expedition having been fulfilled, namely, avenging the insult to the American flag on the 1st of June.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Aug 26, 1871

**********

JAPAN.

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov. 7. — The steamship China brings Yokohoma (Japan) dates to October 14th. The murderer of Mr. Haberth, the North German Consul, was beheaded on the 26th of September, and the government of Corea has promised to send to Japan the heads of all persons implicated in the insult to the Japanese the government.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Nov 8, 1874

**********

Fast forward to the 1880s, and things become muddled:

 

Daily Northwestern - Feb 20, 1885

 

Newspapers use both Corea and Korea… in the same articles!

 

Galveston Daily News - Apr 2, 1886

 

In 1891 we have new rules for spelling geographical names:

By a recent decision of the United States board f geographic names the letter “c.” whenever it has the sound of “k,” must be replaced by “k.” For instance, Congo must be spelled “Kongo,” and Corea becomes “Korea.” When we come square down to fact there is really no use for the letter “c” in the English language anyhow. It has no independent sound of its own. Give it the soft sound, as in “society,” and it steals the work of the letter “s.” Pronounce it hard, as in “Columbia,” and here it steals the sound of “k.” Why not abolish it altogether, and let young America have one less letter to learn?

The Daily News (Frederick, Maryland) Aug 5, 1891

**********

Let’s see how well the papers adhere to the new spelling rules:

THE real ruler of Korea is said to be the premier, whose name is Min Yung Jun. According to all accounts he must be the “boss” premier. A few years ago he was worth practically nothing, and now at the age of forty he is a millionaire, rides about town in a chair, seated on a leopard skin, accompanied by hundreds of cheering followers and nimble-footed dancing girls, and has a home containing scores of rooms. The “boss” does not seem to be confined to American politics.

Adams County Free Press (Corning, Iowa) Sep 27, 1894

**********

So far so good……….oops!

 

Nebraska State Journal - Jan 15, 1898

 

London appears to be a real spelling rebel, or maybe they just didn’t get the memo:

 

Lima News - Sep 15, 1898

 

Hmmm…copycat crime in Michigan?

Conspirators Are Hanged.

A dispatch from Seoul, Corea, says that Kim Hong Nuik and two other men who were the leaders of a conspiracy to poison the Emperor of Corea, were hanged. The populace secured the bodies of the conspirators, dragged them through the streets and mutilated them.

Bessemer Herald (Bessemer, Michigan) Oct 22, 1898

**********

Almost everywhere else, they seem to be playing it safe:

 

Daily Northwestern - Mar 31, 1900

 

Wisconsin

 

Nebraska State Journal - Jul 19, 1900

 

Nebraska

 

Atlanta Constitution - Mar 14, 1902

 

Georgia

 

Daily Review - May 31, 1902

 

Illinois

 

Atalanta Constitution - Sep 25, 1902

 

Massachusetts continues to defy Uncle Sam:

OPEN MARKET ASKED OF COREA.

Seoul, Corea, Dec. 5. — United States Minister Allen had a long interview with the emperor of Corea today on the subject of the request of the United States for the opening to the commerce of the world by Corea of Wiju on Yalu river. No definite decision was reached. The government is placed in a dilemma by the request of the United States.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Dec 5, 1903

 

Reno Evening Gazette 0 Dec 26, 1903

 

Above are two articles printed side by side. The one coming out of Washington uses a “K,” while the one from Paris uses a “C.”

 

 

The Daily Northwestern Dec 28, 1903

 

My theory was going to be that the foreign papers continued to use  Corea, but that doesn’t appear to be the case. They seem just as confused as the American papers.

 

Reno Evening Gazette - Jan 14, 1904

 

The map below uses the  COREA spelling:

 

Richwood Gazette - Jan 21, 1904

 

Uncle Sam seems to notice not everyone is playing along. He makes another attempt to spell it out for us:

 

 

Washington Post - Jul 17, 1904

 

 

 

Washington Post - Jul 17, 1904

 

The prime object is to secure uniformity in the spelling of geographical names in all government publications. A board sitting in Washington takes up all place-names of more than one form that may be submitted to it, applies to them a code of rules formulated for the purpose, and then votes on the forms suggested by the members. The form receiving a majority vote becomes the official one, and, under the act of Congress creating the board, will thereafter be used in all government publications, including maps. to effect the desired reform, the board proceeds under the following rules:

1. The avoidance, so far as it seems practicable, of the possessive form of names.

2. The dropping of he final “h” in the termination “burgh.”

3. The abbreviation of “borough” to “boro.”

4. The spelling of the word “center” as here given.

5. The discontinuance of the use of hyphens in connecting parts of names.

6. The omission, wherever practicable, of the letters “C R” (Court House) after the names of county seats.

7. The simplification of names consisting of more than one word by their combination into one word.

8. The avoidance of the use of diacritic characters.

9. The dropping of the words “city” and “town” as parts of names.
…..

Washington Post, The (Washington, D.C.) Jul 17, 1904

 

Bessemer Herald - Sep 16, 1905

 

TITLES COMMAND PRICE IN MARRIAGE MARKET

ONE EXCEPTION.
There is one conspicuous exception, in the case of the wife of the heir apparent to the throne of Corea, who is an American girl, Emily Brown, daughter of a Presbyterian missionary from Wisconsin, long resident in that country. She brought practically no dowry to her royal husband.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Dec 28, 1905

 

Sheboygan Press - Jan 29, 1927

 

Old habits die hard:

 

Sheboygan Press - Jul 23, 1928

 

At The Marmot’s Hole, Robert Neff has a post wondering who is responsible for the spelling change: Corea or Korea – who is responsible? He includes links to other articles discussing the same topic.

Using the two spellings wasn’t unique to articles about Corea – Korea. Newspapers had the same problem with Pittsburgh and Galveston.

Punctuation, Typewriting and Telegrams

September 24, 2010

A bit of a mixed bag for Punctuation Day:

Fire Inspector Not in Jail as Telegram Stated

Lack of punctuation in a telegram received at the state fire marshal’s office Friday morning made it appear that L.J. Butcher, state fire inspector, was in jail at North Platte waiting for somebody to go his bail. But by inserting a period where the telegraph company had omitted it, Chief Clerk Eva Anderson figured it out that two incendiary suspects and not Butcher, were in jail.

The inspector was sent there two or three days ago to probe the circumstances of several supposed incendiary attempts to burn a residence in North Platte. He wired Friday that one blaze which started April 9 at 11 p.m., had been put out, and the next morning at 8 o’clock fire broke out again at six different places in the house.

“Owner and wife made complete confession to County Attorney J.T. Keefe and myself are in jail awaiting bail,” the message concluded.

This looked bad, on its face, for “J.T. Keefe and myself.” But telegram English is a little different. Miss Anderson finally decided that this was the way it should read:

“Owner and wife made complete confession to County Attorney T.J. Keefe and myself. Are in jail awaiting bail.”

The Lincoln Star (Lincoln, Nebraska) Apr 14, 1922

Sarcoxie, Missouri (Image from http://www.sarcoxielibrary.org)

Getting Into Print.

A certain gentleman who wanted to get into print sent the following to the Sarcoxie Record

The scribe arose
And rubbed his nose —
His eyes expressing exultation
Aha — cried he —
I will be free —
I will be free from punctuation

This writer then
Seized on his pen
Writing fast with fiery flashes —
And to him came —
One morning — fame —
Instead of commas he used dashes

The magazines
And pictured screens
Acclaim’d him genius — great – annoited —
His stuff was grand —
You understand —
Because it was so oddly pointed.

The Lincoln Star (Lincoln, Nebraska) Mar 21, 1922

A Little Punctuation.

People who fail to punctuate their communications are invited to study the following line, which is a correct sentence

“It was and I said not or.”

We got that line one day this week by wire, where punctuations are always omitted. We nearly wrecked our mentality trying to clear up the mystery of the single line, when all of a sudden it occurred to us to look up a copy of our letter to the party, when we discovered that our friend wanted to inform us he did not use the word “or,” but did use “and.” To be plain, the sentence is correct and should have read, “It was ‘and’ I said – not ‘or.'”

Another party who has been studying Pope wrote us as follows: “My Dear Mr. George — I have been thinking over the statement you made last week, and I too believe that that is is that that is not is not, and I take pleasure in believing so.”

A good way to untangle the above is to write it as follows: “That that is, is. That that is not, is not.” In other words, it is a play on Pope’s “whatever is, is right.” People who eschew punctuation should not feel hurt if their meaning is not always readily grasped.

— George’s Denver Weekly.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Jul 22, 1899

While the rest of us are looking for truth in the book of life the Cynic spends his time searching for small flaws in the punctuation.

Daily Mail (Hagerstown, Maryland) Sep 6, 1927

PUNCTUATION.

It is a prevailing fad of job printers to omit punctuation. The consequences are sometimes far from satisfactory to the customer, as witness the following street car sign of a well-known Connellsville druggist:

Your Doctor’s Orders
Are Obeyed Strictly and Accurately
I Never Substitute
Pure Drugs and Medicines

What the druggist does do, and what he wanted to say, was that he fills prescriptions accurately; that he never substitutes other remedies for those called for in the prescription; and, finally, that he sell nothing but pure drugs and medicines.

The job printer has made him say that he obeys the doctor’s orders by never substituting pure drugs and medicines for the impure kind prescribed!

The Daily Courier (Connellsville, Pennsylvania) Mar 15, 1906

HEARD IN THE PROOFROOM.

How Poetry, Prose and Advertisements Sound Via the Copyholder.

If one of our modern graduate elocutionists could hear a copyholder reading aloud in the proofroom of a daily newspaper, it would be very apt to drive the elocutionist to drink. For the benefit of those who have never heard this class of reading an imitation thereof in type may be of passing interest.

In the first place, be it understood, a copyholder is a proofreader’s assistant, and it is his (or her) business to read aloud the copy, including punctuation, spelling of names, etc., so that the proofreader may have a correct understanding of just what the copy is without bothering to look and see for himself.

This is about the way it sounds when the copyholder starts in:

“The G-r-a-m-m-e Machine — three up — E type — period. In the diagram before you A B — two small caps — is a ring of soft iron — comma — with its ends connected so as to form a continuous circuit — period. This ring can be made to rotate on its axis between the poles N S — two small caps — of an electro-magnet — compounded — period. How the magnetism of the electro-magnet — compounded — is established will be explained by-and-by — compounded — no e on by — colon — for the present I simply assume that N — small cap — and s — small cap — are two magnetic poles — comma — north and south respectively — period — parry — no dash.”

Perhaps the next bit of copy is a news item, and we hear:

“Accident in Newark — H 1. About 6 o’clock this morning as William — abbreviated — Clarke — with an e — was crossing E-v-a-n-s st — comma — near the corner of Clover — comma — he was struck by a trolley-car — compounded — No. 42 — figures — comma — and thrown to the ground on one side just in time to fall under the wheels of a passing wagon — period. He was picked up unconscious and conveyed to G-r-o-s-v-e-n-o-r hospital — comma — where his injuries were pronounced dangerous — period — more to come.”

Possibly a little poetic gem may be the next thing on the proof, and this is how it sounds:

“Miss P-e-g-g-y-pos-s Bonnet — three up — K type. Poetry — begins flush.

The century was six years old — comma — one em — Miss Peggy — two up — just sixteen — spelled, of course — comma — dash — flush — not yet a woman — comma — nor a child — comma — one em — but that sweet age between charms from either side — comma — dash — one em — the dimpled smile of four — spelled again — comma — flush — with gentle mier and glance serene — one em — of twenty-one — hyphened — or more — scarce — stanza.”

Next an advertisement appears and as this is more important than poetry or news the copy reader’s pace slackens very perceptibly, and we catch:

“Two inches — daily — top of column — third page — send five proofs — four blank lines — avoid consumption — 38 — 1 line — pica old style lower next — begins flush — don’t wait until the hacking cough — all caps — has weakened the system and strained the Lungs — one up — period — take — break — S-m-i-t-h-pos-s E-m-u-l-s-i-o-n — two lines 27 — upper and lower — centered — no — point — goes on in pica old style — flush — the cream — one up – of Cod liver — cod up — hyphened — Oil — up — and Hyposphosphates — up — comma — to supply the nourishment your system craves — period — no address — that’s funny — better show it to the boss and see if it goes.”

And thus the copyholder hurries along, dissecting his material at a rate only a printer can properly appreciate. — American Bookmaker.

The Mountain Democrat (Placerville, California) Mar 21, 1896

A Writing Machine

The first of the writing machines manufactured in New York has been received by E.S. Belden, phonetic reporter of Washington. The invention was made in England, but it has been added to and improved in this country. The machine is about the same size of an ordinary sewing machine, and can be worked by a child who can spell, as easily as by a grown person.

It consists of a series of forty-two keys, to which are attached steel hammers, and each one of these represents a letter, figure, or a punctuation mark. The keys are arranged in four rows, like the keys of an organ, and are operated on precisely the same principle. The hammers are arranged in a circle, and when the key is pressed the corresponding letter moves to the centre, receding again immediately when the pressure is removed. A space key is provided, by means of which the spaces between words are made. Mr. Washburn, of San Francisco, patented an improvement on the machine, and he contemplates the use of printers’ ink. In the original, the color is taken from a prepared ribbon, which is between the hammer and paper. At the end of each line the machine is adjusted for the next line by means of a treadle, which is worked by the feet of the operator.

By this machine three times as much can be written as an ordinary man can write. The Western Union Telegraph Company has already ordered all that can be manufactured for the next six months. They are to be used manifolding copy telegraphed to the press.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Oct 19, 1873

Charles A. Washburn’s 1870 patent illustrations:

Here is a link to last year’s post for National Punctuation Day!

Seth Bullock – Before Deadwood

August 4, 2010

Main St. - Helena, MT - 1872 (Image from http://www.cardcow.com)

While I was researching Robert V. Carr, the official poet of Seth Bullock’s Cowboy Brigade, I decided to search “Seth Bullock” to see if  I could find any Carr references. That didn’t turn out to be fruitful in regards to Carr, but I did run across quite a bit more on Seth Bullock. Since I found so many news articles, I typed them up, and  have decided to break them up into at least two separate posts. This first one covers Seth’s time in Montana – before he went to Deadwood. (Updated: 8/11/10)

Attempt to Break Jail.

A well conceived attempt to break jail was frustrated yesterday morning by the vigilance of Sheriff Bullock. It has been known to the Sheriff and his deputy that for several days past the prisoners were preparing to escape, but the keen eye of Bullock had watched their maneuvres, and he and the Under Sheriff have been standing guard, armed with double-barreled shot guns to prevent their escape. The prisoners had succeeded in cutting the iron of the inner door — not quite through, but leaving just sufficient uncut for the door to swing without falling down — and knowing that the outer door is not closed until about 9 o’clock at night, it was their intention to wrench the inner door from its hinges between the hours of 7 and 9 p.m. and effect their escape. Their plans were well laid and their failure is due to the strict guard kept over them.

The master spirit in the attempt was Samuel O. Duster. N.B. Larabee and Wm. Brooks (colored), also inmates, are not supposed to have been very active in the work. It was one of these latter names that informed the Sheriff of what was going on. The Sheriff has decorated the prisoners with his strongest and most approved style of jewelry; and now his slumbers are peaceful. We understand that it is the intention of District Attorney Toole to try this case mutilating or injuring county property to test the validity of the law inflicting punishment in such cases.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Apr 15, 1874

1870 Census - Helena - Seth Bullock

A SURE THING.

Saturday, May 30, at 10 o’clock.

You will find at the auction sale of Jno. E. McDonald, on Spruce and Dearborn streets, household goods, consisting of parlor, dining-room and kitchen furniture, a handsome marble top bed-room set, with English Brussels and three-ply carpets, cooking and heating stoves, a spring mattrass, a magnificent French clock, a perfect time-keeper, strikes the hours and half-hours, a water-fall, a gold finch taking his regular drinks, and music attached that will soothe a cross baby to sleep; books, magazines, chromos, etc., a Grover & Baker sewing machine, also a top buggy, with a set of gold mounted harness. Sale positive.

SETH BULLOCK.
dtd-my26     Auctioneer.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) May 26, 1874

1874

Helena Engine Company No. 1.

A special meeting of the above Company will be held in the Engine House on Saturday evening at 8 o’clock to make arrangements for an appropriate celebration of the 4th of July. A full attendance is requested.

By order     SETH BULLOCK,

W.J. AUERBACH, Secy.     Foreman.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) May 29, 1974

Sheriff Bullock started yesterday for Deer Lodge with three prisoners for the penitentiary — Lackland Frazier, Harry Clifford, and Samuel O. Duston, sentenced for one year each.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Jun 7, 1874

BOLD ROBBERY.

Sheriff Bullock, yesterday afternoon, sent a prisoner by the name of Jimmy Phillips, now confined in jail on the charge of petit larceny, after a bucket of water. Noticing that he was gone longer than was necessary, he stepped out of the jail to see what had become of the prisoner. He, however, made his appearance in a moment or two.

Jesse Armitage’s store was near by, and he soon missed some money out of the drawer. He communicated the fact to Sheriff Bullock, who proceeded to search the prisoner, and found it upon him. This may be considered one of the sharpest tricks ever played by a prisoner in this country. While the bucket was being filled he had stepped into the store and robbed the drawer of its contents so quietly and quickly that he was not detected in the act. He then got his bucket of water and returned to the jail. Young Phillips is evidently a hard case, and nothing but iron bars will ever be able to restrain him from taking other people’s property.

The Daily Independent ( Helena, Montana) Jul 3, 1874

Helena Library - not the original (Image from http://www.cardcow.com)

Here is a link with the history of the Lewis & Clark Library.

Library Festival.

The Helena Library Association will have a festival this evening in the Herald building on Broadway. No pains have been spared by the Committees to make it a pleasant affair. A noble object we trust that it will be well attended.

Committee on Arrangements —
Mrs. W.C. Child, Mrs. J.R. Gilbert, Mrs. E.W. Knight, Mrs. ?.W. Cannon, Mrs. D.A.G. Flowe??ee, Mrs. Dr. L.W. Frary, Mrs. Sam I. Neel, Mrs. Wm Sims, Mrs. A.J. Davidson, Mrs. Jon. McCormick, Mrs. A.J. Smith, Mrs. R.L. McCulloch, Mrs. T.O. Groshon, Mrs. Nick Kessler, Miss Clara Guthrie, Mr. Benj. Stickney, Wm. Nowlan, W.?. Chessman, A.H. Beattie and S.C. Ashby.

Ice Cream Committee —
Miss Lou Gutherie, Miss Mary Pope, Miss Mather, Miss Bailey, Miss Hattie Rumley, Miss Jennie Totten, Miss D. Anchel, Miss Marabel, Julia Coates, Mrs. Mae Bromley, Mr. C.G. Reynolds, Jno. Heldt, Aaron Hershfield, H. Wyttenbach, and Seth Bullock.

NOTE: I am trying to picture Seth Bullock serving ice cream!

I didn’t type all the names listed for the following committees:

Committee on Strawberries — …
Committee on Tables — …
Lemonade Committee — …
Reception Committee — …
Floor Managers — …

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 8, 1874

Helena - Main St. Looking South (Image from http://www.cardcow.com)

Mardi Gras Hop.

For the benefit of the Helena Library Association, will begin at International Hall, on Broadway, on Tuesday evening, February 9th, 1875.

General Managing Committee —
C. Hedges, D.S. Wade, W.F. Sanders, S. Koenigsberger, Wm Roe, John Kinna, S.H. Crounse, D.C. Corbin, W.C. Child.

Committee on Reception —
A. Sands, T.H. Kleinschmidt, A.M. Holter, R.E. Fisk, Seth Bullock, H.M. Parchen, C.A. Broadwater, W.F. Chadwick, A.J. Simmons.

Committee on Invitation — …
Committee on Music — …
Committee on Supper — …
Committee on Tickets — …
Floor Managers — …

Music will be furnished by Prof. Hewin’s band, and no pains will be spared by the Professor to make the music lively.

The hall will be kept comfortable by a stove at each end.

Tickets will be sold at the door at $2.50 each.

Supper will be served at the St. Louis Hotel, and will be separate and apart from the tickets for the hop.

The Committee on Invitations hereby extend a general invitation to all.

Dancing will commence precisely at 8 1/2 o’clock. Supper will be announced at 11 1/2 o’clock.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Feb 5, 1875

Helena Volunteer Firemen - Seth Bullock (3rd from left)

Image from Deadwood S.D. Revealed

FIREMAN’S BALL.

Washington’s Birthday, February 22d, 1875.

For the Benefit of the Fire Department.

Committee of Arrangements —
Seth Bullock, M.M. Chase, Wm. Sims, Henry Klein, A.R. Wright, Ted Sweeney, Joseph Davis, J.P. Woolman.

Committee on Supper and Soliciting — …
Committee on Music — …
Committee on Decoration — …
Committee of Reception — …
Floor Managers — …
Committee on Selling Tickets — …

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Feb 20, 1875

1875

Sheriff Bullock, whose absence from town has been observed more than a week, has been heard from at San Francisco. It is surmised that his visit has some connection with a gentleman who operated here a few years ago as “our wealthy banker,” but whose last days in Helena were passed in the company of a deputy sheriff. It is rumored that the sum of $7,000 has been offered to compromise the case in suit.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Mar 18, 1875

Fred. Shaffer Captured.

Below will be found the dispatches received by Sheriff Bullock yesterday relative to the capture of Shaffer and his companions at Bismarck. These dispatches were sent by mail from Corinne, hence the delay in receiving them. We learn that a requisition will be at once issued, and an officer promptly dispatched to bring the prisoner back, and he will probably be placed upon his trial at the present term of our District Court:

BISMARCK, May 24, 1875. — To Sheriff Bullock: Fred. Shaffer and company were captured here, for the murder of Franz Warl, and lodged, by the Police Court, in the County Jail, as suspicious persons. Send instructions and requisition. Answer at once.

P.M. DAVIS, Police Justice.

BISMARCK, May 25, 1875. — To Sheriff Bullock: Fred. Shaffer is in jail here. Send requisition immediately.

WM. PIERCE.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Jun 3, 1875

A Visit to the County Jail.

Yesterday afternoon the reporter availed himself of the invitation of Sheriff Bullock to take an inside look at the county jail, and found six prisoners incarcerated there, viz: Jeff. Perkins, of Benton, convicted for assault with intent to murder, and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary; Wm. Flynn and John Stout, both for grand larceny, and sentenced to two years each in the penitentiary; an insane Chinaman, awaiting the order from the Governor for admission to the Asylum. The chief object in view  was to see W.W. Wheatley and W.H. Sterres, convicted of the murder of Franz Warl, and awaiting sentence. They are kept closely locked in their cells and are very comfortable. Wheatley still protests his innocence of the blood of Warl. He claims that Sterres’ testimony, which was so damaging to him, was made in execution of the threat that both Shaffer and Sterres had made to him in case he did not leave town and should inform on them. Wheatley is certainly a weak-minded youth, and entirely devoid of principle. The reporter failed to discover the least redeeming trait in his character. It is said that the divine spark is never extinguished in man, but in his case it is very difficult to imagine it in him. He asked for the news, and as to the popular feeling regarding him, evidently indulging the hope that some degree of evidence might be given to his statement of innocence, strengthened, doubtless, by the recommendation to mercy, attached to the verdict of the jury, who found him guilty of willful and premeditated murder. He is not afraid to die; is only 25 years old; the world has many claims for him. He has a brother in Bismarck. Rev. Mr. Shippen has called twice to see him. He clings tenaciously to the hope that the sentence of death may not be executed upon him; but if he must die he has the consolation of knowing and feeling that he is guiltless of the terrible crime of murder.

William H. Sterres is entirely penitent, and has no hope that he will not be sentenced, and that it may not be carried into execution. He expects to die, and is anxious that his execution may not be long delayed. Shortly after his arrest he sent for Rev. Father Palladino, who visits him almost every day, and has supplied him with religious works to prepare him for baptism, which is to be conferred on him next Monday. Sterres has a wife and child in Sioux City. Conscious of the enormity of the crime for which he is to suffer, he is resigned to offer on the altar of justice the sacrifice of his life as the penalty of the law. The reporter left the jail a sadder man than when he entered it, impressed with the feeling that the sufferings of ta conscience burdened with such a terrible crime must be more acute than a thousand deaths.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Jun 20, 1875

Prickly Pear Creek - Photo by mmerrick

Larger photo and a map can be found on Panoramio.

On the afternoon of the 21st, while Sol Star and Seth Bullock were en route for Benton by private conveyance, and while attempting to ford the Prickly Pear, they met with an accident which nearly resulted in the loss of their lives.

It appears that when their team had reached the middle of the stream, the horses became frightened at some floating brush, and bolted down stream. Below the ford the water was deep and the current swift.

After strenuous efforts they succeeded in getting the horses and buggy out all right, but on the same side of the stream they started in from. The parties and their effects were thoroughly drenched, they retraced their way to Firgus’ ranch for repairs, and proposed to make another attempt next day.

–Herald.

Butte Miner (Butte, Montana) Jun 27, 1876

FOURTH OF JULY, 1876.

The One Hundredth National Anniversary.

Names of Officers and Order of Procession.

Officials.
William F. Wheeler, Chief Marshal of the Day in charge of the procession; Henry Wyttenbach and Charles J.D. Curtis, aids and assistants; Seth Bullock, James M. Ryan, E. Frank, L.P. Sterling, Ben R. Dittes, John O’Meara and E.T. Johnson, Assistant Marshals.

Order of Procession.

1ST DIVISION.
In charge of Henry Wyttenbach, Assistant Marshal:
Helena Silver Cornet Band.
Minute Men of 1776.

2D DIVISION.
In charge of Seth Bullock, Assistant Marshal, and the several officers of the Helena fire Department:
The several Fire Engine, Hose and Hook and Ladder companies.
Car of State, in charge of C.M. Travis and is two assistants.

3D DIVISION.
In charge of L.P. Sterling, Assistant Marshal:
Carriages for President of the Day, Chaplain, Orator, Historian, invited guests from abroad; also for Governor and other United States, Territorial and county officials.

4TH DIVISION.
In charge of James M. Ryan, Assistant Marshal:
Catholic Benevolent and Total Abstinence Society, and other societies of Irish citizens, under their society officers.

5TH DIVISION.
In charge of Dr. E. Frank, Assistant Marshal:
Helena Gesang Verein Harmonia and German citizens,
Montana Lodge No. 1 I.O.O.F., in charge of its officers.

6TH DIVISION.
In charge of Capt. John O’Meara, Assistant Marshal:
Base Ball clubs according to seniority of organization, under their respective Captains.
Boys from the schools, under charge of teachers or men appointed by the Principal of the Schools.
Mining delegations and citizens from abroad.
Citizens on foot, in carriages and on horseback.

7TH DIVISION.
In charge of E.T. Johnson, Assistant Marshal:
Colored citizens of Montana.

8TH DIVISION.
In charge of Ben R. Dittes, Assistant Marshal:
Ancient and Honorable Artillery.
Helena Commandery of Knights Templar, commanded by the Eminent Commander, T.H. Kleinschmidt.

All organizations desiring to join the procession are requested to meet at their several halls or places of rendezvous at 9 o’clock a.m., and to be on the most convenient side street, near the head of main, at precisely half past nine, ready to take their proper place in the procession as the head commences to move down Main street.

All who are not so ready will fall into the rear of the procession as it passes them.

Assistant Marshals will each be held responsible for bringing their respective divisions promptly into line.

The line of march and subsequent proceedings will take place in the published programme. The whole procession will move at 10 o’clock precisely.

W.F. WHEELER,
Chief Marshal.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 2, 1876

CENTENTIAL FOURTH.

The Celebration in Helena.

The Centennial Fourth was ushered in amid the roar of artillery and the merry ringing of bells. The entire population seems to have arisen at an earlier hour than usual, in order to partake to the fullest extent in the ceremonies and rejoicings of the day.

The long procession in its march through the streets was received everywhere with waving flags and encouraging smiles.

The Helena Fire Department was very fully represented and made a very creditable appearance. The two very handsome banners which they used on this occasion for the first time, was the gift of Mrs. L.B. Wells, and the fireman may well be proud of them.

The Car of State was very handsomely decorated.

The Little Continentals attracted general admiration.

The Knights Templar formed one of the most attractive features of the procession.

The members of the Catholic Benevolent and Total Abstinence Society presented a very fine appearance in the parade.

The Continentals were greatly admired and were one of the finest features of the procession.

The colored citizens under the Marshalship of Col. E.T. Johnson, were a prominent feature.

The Gesang Verein Society was a noticeable feature, the members all wearing “chips.”

The Irish citizens turned out in large numbers and the green flag of Erin was universally complimented.

About 12 o’clock the procession reached the Court House where the reading of the Declaration of Independence, the delivery of the Oration and the reading of an address by the Historian of the Day and singing by the Gesang Verein took place.

After dark a torch-light procession moved through all the principal streets and fire-works enlivened Tower Hill.

The celebration was a perfect success and reflected credit on the Committee of Arrangements and the citizens who so generously seconded their efforts to make memorable the celebration of the Centennial birthday of the Great American Republic.

Marshal Wheeler and his efficient aids deserve great credit for the successful manner in which the parade was conducted. Many persons made the remark that Col. Charles J.D. Curtis excelled himself in his splendid horsemanship and graceful carriage.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 6, 1876

Attention, Firemen.

All members of the Fire Department are requested to be at the Clore street Engine House at 2:30 p.m. to-day to attend the funeral of Thos. Ewing.

SETH BULLOCK, Chief Engineer.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 6, 1876

These last two are later articles, but they refer to Seth’s time in Montana:

A Boom Town in Montana.

Helena Journal.

I call to mind the time when there was a big boom in Billings, and everybody thought they had struck the spot for a second Chicago. Before the railroad reached Billings men came from the Black Hills, where all you could hear was the great boom Billings was having, and what a lively place it was. Seth Bullock, a merchant of the Hills, sent a stock of good to Billings. In a month or two he thought he would ride over and see how his store at Billings was progressing. It was between 300 and 400 miles, and Seth went on horseback. He rode along and was pretty well tired out when he got into the Yellowstone Valley, and about 9 o’clock one night, when he thought he must have gone far enough, he met a man.

“Can you tell me where Billings is?” asked Seth.

“You’re in Billings now,” replied the stranger.

“Am, eh?” said Seth, rather puzzled.

“Well, if that’s the case can you tell me where I can find Seth Bullock’s store.”

“It’s on this street about fifteen miles from here; just keep right straight ahead.”

Seth was about the worst surprised man you ever saw, but he found it pretty near as the stranger had said.

Fort Worth Daily Gazette (Fort Worth, Texas) Jun 12, 1890

GLAD HER HUSBAND WAS HANGED.

Experience of a Montana Sheriff with the Widow.

Ex-Sheriff Seth Bullock of Lawrence county, South Dakota, one of the early Indian fighters of Montana and the Dakotas, was in a reminiscent mood and among other things he told how he was thanked for hanging a man, says the New York Sun. A murder was committed just after he had been elected sheriff, and, as no murderer had even been brought to justice up to that time in the territory Bullock became famous for having captured the first two men charged with such a crime. Said Mr. Bullock:

“I rounded up a white man and a negro who had red hair and a bad reputation. The negro was a barber from Sioux City, and he came to Montana hunting trouble.

“I had the country so well organized at that time that the courts had a chance to try these men. They were convicted and sentenced to be hanged. Taking life by order of the court was a novelty in Helena, and the people gathered by thousands to see see the hanging.

“Shortly before the hour set for the execution the marshal brought me an order from the court granting a stay of execution for thirty days in the case of the negro. I saw that the crowd would probably be disappointed, and might take exceptions to the order of the court, and I swore in a lot of deputies to stand off the trouble I expected. One of my deputies on that occasion was Sam Hauser, who was afterward elected governor of Montana.

“The white man was duly hanged, and when the crowd saw that a man hanged on a scaffold was just as dead as one lynched on a tree they demanded the negro. I had erected a high board fence around the jail and placed my deputies on the inside, and when the crowd began to scale the fence they were met by the deputies with clubs.

“There was a hot time for several minutes, but when the leaders had been clubbed into docility they concluded to let me hang the negro in my own way. There was not a shot fired, and thirty days later the negro followed his white companion on the gallows.

“Some time later I had business in Minneapolis. A good-looking, well-dressed colored woman called on me at the hotel.

“‘Be you Seth Bullock?’ she inquired. I told her I was. ‘You hanged my husband last year, and I want to thank you.’ She had been married to the man in Sioux City and he had treated her brutally.”

Omaha Daily Bee (Omaha, Nebraska) Apr 20, 1898

Spelling is the Pitts!

June 23, 2010

Pittsburgh -- Pittsburg

A Question in Etymology.

An old dispute has been revived in the city of Pittsburg, or Pittsburgh, as the case may be. In old times they used to spell it with an “h,” after the English fashion of putting that letter where it is least needed. The dictionaries incline that way in this case. Worcester, who is called Wooster at the North, has “burgh — a corporate town or borough,” and Webster gives the choice of burg, burgh, burough and burh without the “g.” This ought to be enough to satisfy all parties; but it only widens the breach, and obliging people, who wish to satisfy all parties, have their hands full.

1870

*****

1902

*****

1819

Half of the papers have “Pittsburg” in their head-lines; the other half have nailed “Pittsburgh.”

These images are from the same map. For the railway, they used the Pittsburg spelling, but for the city, they used Pittsburgh.

The railroads, to secure traffic, have to paint their cars on one side “Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago,” and on the other “Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago;” on the locomotives they put “P., F. W. and C.,” and allow each man to spell it with an “h” or not, as he pleases. Harper’s Gazetteer drops the “h.”

In the meantime there is a lull in the question whether the first syllable in the name of the city should have one or two “t’s.”

The site used to be called Fort Pitt, in honor of the great English statesman; but people now generally think it is named after the coal pits which abound in the neighborhood.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Jun 16, 1874

*****

More newspaper examples:

An 1867 paper

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1833 Paper - "Pittsburgh"

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Now, just for fun, two that use BOTH spellings!

1854 -- Gold Rush Era - California Paper

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1845 - Norwalk, Ohio Paper

See What You Started, Mr. Dickens?

December 20, 2009

Christmas Presents.

Mr. Dickens labored hard to convince the world that at this time of year there is only one unfailing test of a man’s character. If he is a good man, he will give away a large quantity of presents. If he is a bad one, he will despise all the amenities of the season, and avenging ghosts will scare him out of his wits on Christmas Eve. This method of trying the depths of one’s moral depravity is scarcely more conclusive than the natives have in some parts of India of detecting a thief.

They bring up all the suspected persons in a row, and give to each a handful of rice to chew. If the rice comes out of the mouth wet, the accused is pronounced innocent. If it should be dry, the unlucky chewer is condemned without further ceremony.

Mr. Dickens’ device for analyzing character is fallacious, for there are some people still alive who have no money and no friends, and under those circumstances it is extremely hard to come up to the proper standard. It is an established principle that everybody shall be free-handed and “merry” at Christmas, although a certain proportion of the human species is absolutely incapacitated from complying with either condition. And even when a man is willing and ready to distribute good gifts among friends, who never appreciate him so well as at that moment of generosity, it is not easy to choose the right thing for the right person. The newspapers very kindly make themselves into so many hand books on the subject, but the lavishness of their suggestions, and that superb indifference to expense which is a glorious attribute of the modern journalist, are sometimes apt to render their guidance somewhat embarrassing to all but millionaires.

Like everything else, the art of choosing presents cannot be acquired without time or trouble. Some people will, of course, take anything they can get, and be thankful, but the truly appreciative person is not to be “pleased with a rattle” or “tickled with a straw.” We all know men and women who will go and buy for a trifling sum an article which is sure to be prized by the recipient far beyond more costly gifts. The reason simply is that it has been selected with some attention to the tastes of the person for whom it was destined. The ideas of most people run in conventional channels on the subject.

A popular young lady, for instance, would tell us that the larger part of the presents made to her are very much of the same kind. Her admirers all go in a beaten track. No doubt it is one of the hardest things in the world to give anything to a spoiled child of fortune which somebody else has not given her before. But there is no absolute necessity to make a run on scent bottles, albums, writing desks and boxes of candies.

The other sex suffer in a similar degree from the poverty of invention among present givers. A man who is lucky enough to be a favorite gets as many smoking caps as if he were an idol with a hundred heads, and slippers enough to open a shoe shop with. They are among the articles which no really sagacious person would ever dream of giving away; for, in the first place, an embroidered smoking cap makes most men look extremely miserable and ridiculous, and home-made slippers are generally very uncomfortable.

A very little trouble would enable any one, male or female, to choose a gift which would be neither hackneyed nor common place — and in default of everything else, a good book is seldom thrown away, and it is likely to be preserved when most other objects are out of date or forgotten.

To children Christmas is really what it has ceased to be to most of their seniors, and for their sakes alone it would be well worth while to keep up the innocent delusion that the whole world is full of rejoicing at this particular season. But even in deciding upon a gift for a child, there is room for a wise discrimination. Some people go upon the simple theory that the more noise a toy makes the more pleasure it will afford. They would turn every house into a sort of beer garden.

Children now-a-days are not quite so young as children were in old-fashioned times, and their toys are made to match. A harmless bag of sawdust or bran used to do duty for the inside of a doll, but now there is an elaborate machinery for making the plaything utter unearthly noises or cry when it is laid down, or squeak something which is intended for “mama” and “papa.” Moreover, the doll must be dressed up like a lady, and its owner puts it to bed in full panoply, or is too knowing to put it to bed at all. Then there animals given to children must all make noises after their kind. The hideous uproar that goes on in some houses in consequence, passes all belief. Formerly, children were very glad to have wooden animals which open not their mouths. Now the sheep must bleat and the donkey bray loud enough to rouse a village. The old Noah’s Ark, or the menagerie, or the wonderful box of games gave quite as much pleasure in their day, but the world is not so foolish now, and naturally they toy-makers have tried to keep progress with the rest of us.

The reality of Santa Claus, however, is one touch of romance still left to the children, and it is productive of more delight to them than any of our modern inventions. Every child values a toy more when she has written to Santa Claus for it, and put the letter up the chimney, and received the answer in due time through the same convenient post-office. All our “Pneumatic dispatches” and underground railroads cannot equal the chimney as a mode of communication between Santa Claus and his young friends. It is to be hoped that this remnant of old-world fables will be allowed to linger for some time yet, for it forms one of the household traditions which soften the memory of childhood in the year when all seasons become pretty much alike, and when great pleasures are chiefly matters of recollection. The charming custom of children giving presents, no matter how trifling, to their parents, is another of our possessions which we should be sorry to see laughed out of existence by practiced philosophers.

Titusville Morning Herald (Titusville, Pennsylvania) Dec 23, 1870