Posts Tagged ‘1875’

Celebrating Texan Independence

March 2, 2012

Image from Aimless with a Purpose

Legal Holiday.

By joint resolution of the Thirteenth Legislature, to-day, the anniversary of Texas independence, has been made a legal holiday. The resolution reads:

Section 1. Be it resolved by the Legislature of the State of Texas,  That the 2d day of March, the anniversary of Texas independence, and the 21st day of April, the anniversary of the battle of San Jacinto, be and they are hereby declared Texas holidays, and all the exemptions and requirements usual on legal holidays may be observed on these days.

Sec. 2. That this resolution shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage.

Approved, March 2, 1874.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Mar 2, 1875

Image from The Daily Uptown Country

THE VETERANS’ RE-UNION.

1S56—MARCH 2—1375.

A BAND of patriots tried and true,
Whose locks are turning gray,
Among these old historic scenes,
Gather themselves today.

My fancy steals into their midst,
With step so hushed and low;
I seem to hear their speaking hearts,
Beside the Alamo.

The tide of years sweeps by unfelt,
With all life’s care and pain;
Texas belongs to Mexico
And they are boys again.

The proud desire, the dreams of youth,
Stir all their veins once more,
As memory proudly points her hand
To valiant deeds of yore.

Again they see a mighty host,
From out the distance loom;
‘Tis Santa Anna and his men,
And nearer still they come.

They watch the sun still lower sink,
The field all dyed in blood;
They plant their proud, victorious feet
Where late their foes had stood.

Texas is now a Mother State,
Her sons are statesmen, too;
No fields are half so fair as hers,
No skies are half so blue.”

Yet still I see a softened shade
Upon their features spread,
They lower their voices, for they fell
‘Tis hallowed ground they tread.

They pause above the sleeping dead,
Our heroes lying low;
The men who fought and bled and died,
To save the Alamo.

I do not call one deathless name,
Of all that gallant band;
Each one a hero proudly died,
Fearless in heart and hand.

I feel their proud fire in my veins,
My heart throbs fierce and high!
My pulses thrill like those of men,
Who do not fear to die.

I learn to yearn as they have yearned,
For dreams that could not last;
I almost feel as they have felt,
The glory of the Past.

That was a day worth living for, boys!
‘Twas April—let me see—
Yes, ’twas the glorious twenty-first
That made our country free!

We fought half-fed, we fought half-clad;
But oh! we fought like men!
And, comrades, it was grand
To be a soldier then!

The San Jacinto river told
The story to the sea,
And Europe, listening from afar,
Proclaimed young Texas free.

And over sea and over land,
Her beauty shone afar,
And lords and princes came to view
The young Republic’s star.

And now, it is so long ago!
And after all our stars,
The star we placed upon her brow,
Is one of many stars.

Our boys themselves are bearded men,
The dream all fades away,
And yet but yesterday it seems
We were as young as they.

Texas, my own, my native State,
Would I could see thee now
In all thy pristine beauty bright—
The Lone Star on thy brow!

A band of heroes, on whose brows
Time’s touch has turned to snow—
God bless them all!—are met to-day
Beside the Alamo.

Title: The Poets and Poetry of Texas
Author: Sam Houston Dixon
Publisher:S. H. Dixon & co., 1885
Pages 155-157

The thirty-ninth anniversary of Texan Independence was celebrated for the first time in the Alamo City, under the auspices of the old Texas veterans, and nobly seconded by the various associations of San Antonio, civil and military. A grand procession paraded the streets, which halted at the Alamo Literary Hall, where the Declaration of Texas Independence was read by Captain Edward Miles, one of the veterans. Then a poem by Miss Nettie Power Houston, received here by telegraph from Austin, was recited by Dr. Cupples, and an eloquent address was delivered by Mr. M.G. Anderson; many ladies were present. The procession again formed and proceeded to Alamo plaza, and there dismissed.

San Antonio wears to-day a look of happiness over the glorious news of the International settlement, and all are anxiously awaiting the Governor’s action, not without considerable distrust, as the impression prevails that he will veto it, but that can hardly be possible.

The Mayor of Jefferson telegraphed to the Mayor of San Antonio congratulating him on the passage of the International Compromise bill, stating that Jefferson “was illuminated and generally rejoicing.”

Our worthy Mayor, Mr. French, replied: “San Antonio will rejoice with you when the Governor signs the bill.”

The Governor’s action is most anxiously looked for, and all hope he will not consign San Antonio and Western Texas to general despair and gloom.

The weather is cool, clear and bright. A norther is blowing.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Mar 3, 1875

Intelligencer-Echo (Austin, Texas) Mar 15, 1875

Sleighing Season

December 15, 2011

The Sleighing Season.

The enlivening tinkle of the tiny bells in the streets, keept us in mind that sleighing is an amusement only of the winter, and then it is confined to the uncertain snows, which occasionally enshroud the earth in this fickle climate.

Old and young, the “boys and girls,” — all are in merry glee over the animating scenes of the sleigh ride. Nearly all locomotion, except the walking party, has been on runners this week. We have the rustic sled, the “bob” and the “hickory jumper,” the “two in hand” and the solitary “clipper,” flying through the lively streets, on business or pleasure as the case may be.

But stop and consider!

All the race of that noble servant of man, the horse, are appealing for mercy to their master. Weary and panting and white with perspiration in the cutting frost, they call for our sympathies in contributing to our pleasure and happiness.

Allen County Democrat (Lima, Ohio) Jan 7, 1875

They Are Strangers Now.

A Middleton young lady never tires of relaing an amusing occurrence of the sleighing season last winter. She was enjoying a ride in company with two Hartford gentlemen, and she was driving. One of the gentlemen slily inserted a hand in her muff and lovingly pressed her disengaged hand. She blushed and withdrew it just as the gentleman on the other side slipped his hand into the muff. She knew by the actions of her adorers that the hand pressures were frequent and loving within the silken lining of the muff, for first one face and then the other bobbed forward to catch a look at the sweet face and eyes which prompted, as they supposed, the tender pressure of the hand.

The by-play lasted until the young lady quietly remarked:

“If you gentlemen are through with my muff, I will trouble you for it now, as my hands are getting cold.”

And the gentlemen, who had been comfortably warm up to this time, suddenly felt an arctic chill creeping up there spinal columns, and the mercury of their feelings dropped to 180 degrees below zero. The two gentlemen are strangers now.

Chester Times (Chester, Pennsylvania) Aug 8, 1882

A Solemn Joker.

An Indianapolis society man played a mean trick during the sleighing season, and the young lady hasn’t spoken to him since. They had been old friends for a long time, and it was natural that they should carelessly drive away from the madding crowd on Meridian street and explore the country roads. After they had gotten out about three miles away from anywhere, the gentleman startled his companion by suddenly looking her in the eye and remarking:

“Miss Nellie, we have been friends for a long time, and I know you have perfect confidence in me. But here we are, far away from everybody, where no one could hear you if you should cry out” —

The frightened young woman was  on the verge of springing from the sleigh, but she was even more astounded than frightened, and before she could gather her wits he continued:

“Now, Miss Nellie, I want to beg of you the privilege of one sweet — smoke! May I light a cigar?” And he never even smiled.

— Indianapolis Journal.

Indiana County Gazette (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Apr 13, 1892

End of Icaria – Individualism Outshines Communism

November 18, 2011


NEW ICARIA ENDED

Judge Towner Signs the Decree Which Closes Its History.

END OF ICARIAN SYSTEM

The Adams County Community the Last of the Icarian Settlements — Some Interesting History as to Origin of the Colony.

The most long-lived and undoubtedly the most nearly successful of all the experiments ever made in the western hemisphere with pure communism, came to an end when, late Saturday afternoon, Judge H. M. Towner, in the district court, entered an order discharging the receiver of the New Icarian community, and formally declared the community and its affairs ended.

Etienne Cabet, scholar, historian, sociologist and philanthropist; who two generations ago was stirring all France with his socialistic and communistic writings, and who contributed much toward inciting the revolution of 1818, of which he was afterwards the historian; Etienne Cabet, contemporary and co worker of Proudhon in behalf of the poor and oppressed of France; agitator, essayist, historian, scientist, and finally, exile from his native country — was founder of the community which after an existence of almost half a century came to an end Saturday. In its palmy days, twenty years ago, American students of sociology used to come many of hundreds of miles to study the workings of what was said to be the most successful communistic community in the world.

Cabet tried to found his first experimental colony in France, but the government of Louis Phillipe was bitterly opposed to such experiments and its opposition forced the Icarians, as the adherents of the new communistic doctrines were called, to go to the new world. The movement had become almost a national one in France; Cabet’s Icaria, and Proudhon‘s “Bank of the People,” had set all France by the ears, and the established order of things was in serious danger of being overturned. Driven from the own country for their first experiment in communism, the Icarians went first to Texas, where they were offered as area as large as a good sized French department, for their experiment. Their emissaries after looking over the country decided against it, and went to New Orleans. Here they were joined by others and at last, when the Mormons left their seat at Nauvoo, Ill., the Icarians, who had brought considerable money, bought the old Mormon holdings in Illinois, and secured from the legislature of Illinois a charter granting them certain special privileges and immunities. About 2,000 French enthusiasts joined them here, Cabet at their head. He was practically dictator to the community; for years no question was raised as to his absolute authority in all things relating to the conduct of the community, and so long as he was left in charge all went well. The community grew and prospered and there was peace and plenty.

But the country round about settled up by people who saw no charm in the communistic idea; shrewd Yankees, who, instead of believing that the community ought to own everything, considered themselves called to secure individual control of the largest possible part of the community, pressed about the little settlement of communists. The new generation of Icarians was, brought up constantly confronted by the striking contrasts between their own simple, plain, frugal living and the comparative luxury and independence of the better classes of people around them. Of course they always make the comparison with the more well-to do of their neighbors; human nature could not have been expected to be more discriminating; and their conclusions were too often to the disadvantage of their own style of living. Dissensions arose, Cabet had given up his dictatorial powers, and granted a charter under which the community by ballot chose annually a sort of directorate. After experience with this plan he found it a failure; individualism was everywhere creeping in. He demanded that the elected directorate be abolished, and that he be vested with power to appoint directors. But he was defeated; the rising tide of individualistic ideas beat ever harder and more fiercely upon the little islet of communism; every year the instinct of human selfishness more and more overcame the sentiment of devotion to pure principle that had characterized the patriarchs of Icarianism. At last a schism came; Cabet and his minority of followers withdrew and established another colony at Sheltenham, Mo., a few miles from St. Louis. It lasted only a few years and dissolved.

Two or three years before this schism, Cabet, realizing that his social order could never be maintained in the midst of a great community inspired only by what he considered the selfishness of individualism, had concluded that he must transplant his communistic seed to some new region far beyond the frontiers of civilization; and fondly believing that civilization would not penetrate far beyond the Mississippi for generations to come, he sent agents out to western Iowa to seek a location. They came to Adams county and found the ideal tract of 4,000 acres of rich land, in a county almost utterly uninhabited. Cabet came out, examined the prospect, and ordered the land preempted and purchased. This was in 1853. The first case on the court docket of Adams county is a record of certain matters concerning the Icarian community, made in 1853. The new community grew fast, and prospered; after the division of the Nauvoo community it grew still more rapidly. But the troubles of the Nauvoo society involved the Iowa branch; a mortgage was given on the entire 4,000 acres in Adams county, to William Shepherd of St. Louis. In time this was foreclosed. Shepherd was friendly to the colonists, and suffered them to occupy his lands; and in 1859 an arrangement was made whereby the community bought back 2,000 acres from him. Before doing this, there had been a strong movement in favor of removal to California. The wise old men of the colony viewed with despair the advance of American civilization, with its distracting individualistic notions, and foresaw that the experience of Nauvoo would be repeated. They wanted to move to the heart of the unknown west, as the Mormons had done; but already the younger element was in control. By a majority of one vote in the great council of the colony the proposition to remove to California was rejected. The community enjoyed several years of comparative prosperity and growth after this decision. The people were devoted to agriculture. They introduced the French methods of grape culture, and the wonderful success in grape growing in southwest Iowa to this day is traced in large part to their influence. They lived in true communistic style. Like the Spartans of old, they dined from a common table; the community was charged with the general responsibility for education and raising of children; all property was owned by the community and partitioned in accordance with the requirements of the individuals, the community always reserving a store for the common safety. At this period of its history the colony seemed destined to success; indeed, it may be fairly said that it was a success; if not in a material way, at least in the respect of promoting the happiness of its people, safeguarding them against poverty, assuring the young fair education, and removing much of the temptation to selfishness and injustice. “Do unto others as ye would that others should do unto you.” the golden rule was the fundamental of Etienne Cabet’s theory of life, and it was applied so far as possible in the rule of the community.

But once more the delicate plant that must draw its nourishment from such intangible sources as a belief in the abstraction of human equality,; or a deep seated conviction that one’s neighbor is as good as one’s self; found its roots crowded and starved in the soil of selfishness and ambition and individualism. The younger Icarians looked around them, and saw that while they had but an indefinite and indivisible stake in their community, there were men among their neighbors who, with seemingly less work and toil and effort than they were required to put forth, in a few years came to own lands as extensive as all the estate of Icaria. They longed for the freedom of competition and individual effort and individual merit. Each was jealous of the other, for each felt that he was contributing a larger share of labor than was compensated by the proportion of the whole product which came to him. And so, in 1886, there was another division; the lands were divided and the community partitioned off. After this there was the Old Icarian community and the New Icarian community. The members of the New community had desired to admit all who might apply, to the advantages of membership in the community. Failing to carry their point, they brought action at law to annul the charter which the legislature had granted the community. In this they succeeded; their success led to the schism. The New community did not incorporate, for the experience with charters had not been satisfactory. After a year or two the Old community disbanded and divided its property among its surviving members. The New Icaria flourished a number of years yet, but it could not withstand the disintegrating influences from without. Troubles arose, disagreements that could not be settled. The younger and more capable members withdrew, and at last, on February 16, 1895, application was made for the appointment of a receiver, Eugene F. Bettannier was named, and to him was turned over about 1,000 acres of land and other property aggregating about $36,000 in value. Since that time he has disposed of the property, divided the proceeds in accordance with orders of the court, and finally, a month ago, filed his statement showing the disposition of everything. Mr. Bettannier was himself a member of the community. Still a comparatively young man, he remembers seeing Etienne Cabet and still regards him with a sentiment of reverence and affection. “It was not a failure,” declares Mr. Bettannier; “it is right in principle, and it will one day be recognized as the only right social order.”

Adams County Free Press (Corning, Iowa) Oct 27, 1898

Image from the French Icarian Colony Foundation website

THE LAST OF ICARIA.

On another page will be found a brief historical sketch of the famed Icarian community of Adams county, which, after an existence of almost half a century, had finally had its affairs wound up by the courts. Last Saturday Judge Towner issued an order for the discharge of Receiver Bettannier, and the organization of the communistic society as no more. Probably the Icarian community has attracted more attention in this part of Iowa than any other one thing. Students have come from distant parts of the world to see the communistic idea in practical application. They have reached widely divergent conclusions as to its practicality, but the end seems to justify the conclusion that communism cannot compete with individualism. The experience of the communists proved that individual effort and ambition were diminished under their system; everybody’s business was nobody’s business, and there was too much disposition to rely on the community as a whole for the discharge of responsibilities that under a different order would have been duties of the individual. So long as the communistic society could be isolated from individualistic society it flourished and attained a reasonable measure of success; but surrounded by and in competition with vigorous, aggressive, pushing devotees of individualism, it lacked the element of personal enthusiasm without which success was impossible.

While the lesson seems to teach the impracticality of the communistic tenure of property, yet it must be remembered that a little company of at most a few hundreds souls, devoted to the single occupation of agriculture, without diversity of interests and produced means, and surrounded on every side by the institutions of an older, established, and organized society entirely different in its scheme, could not but make a poor showing. Let us assume that the world was organized on a communistic basis, and that a little company of individualists should make the effort to establish themselves and their peculiar notions in the midst of the older society — would not the result be the same?

Despite all insistence to the contrary, the thought of the world trends today toward communistic things. The trust, by which competing concerns in a given line seek to eliminate competition; the great corporate organization, by which the available capital of the many is gathered into great amounts for the purposes of handling great enterprises; the tendency toward public control of natural monopolies — all these things obviously lead toward the socialistic consummation. glasgow, owning its own water works, gas works, street railways, public baths, public lodging houses, public laundries, public eating establishments and scores of like institutions, conducted for the benefit of the public and not for the profit; is the most striking example of the communistic tendency of the day. In America the movement toward municipal ownership of public utilities; the universally accepted principle of society’s right to control the transportation facilities, fix their rates, and regulate their methods of operation; the public control of the mails, and many other fixed theories of society, are evidences of the same communistic tendency. True, all this is a long way from the communism of Bellamy or Cabet; it may be sneered at and called “anarchy,” or “socialism,” or “nonsense,” by the unthinking; but the fact remains that the ever sharper competition, the ever decreasing share of product which is allotted to the hand and brain that actually earn the living of society — all these things are surely prodding society in the direction of a reversal of the fixed order of things. It may never reach us; but none the less, society is now moving in that direction.

Adams County Free Press (Corning, Iowa) Oct 27, 1898

Lake Park News (Lake Park, Iowa) Jan 31, 1957

MANY UNIQUE IOWA COMMUNITIES

Touches of romance have been given to the history of Iowa by the story of various little groups of idealists who from time to time found asylum within the borders of the State. Especially is this true of the people called the Icarians, who in the early fifties established a colony near Corning in Adams County. These people believed in and practiced communism — all property was held in common — and they were inspired by the ideal of restoring the principles of primitive Christianity. Persecuted in France, under the direction of their leader, Etienne Cabet they crossed the sea and settled in the wilds of Texas. But being an industrial people they found it too difficult to maintain existence so far from civilization, and so they journeyed up the Mississippi and took up the land and quarters at Nauvoo which had recently been deserted by the Mormons. Then about 1853 the colony in Iowas was established, and still later California became the home of the rapidly dwindling numbers of those who still held to the ideals of the founders.

In the April number of “The Iowa Journal of History and Politics” published by the State Historical Society, there is a translation of a history of the Icarian Community, written by Cabet himself about 1855.

The basic principles of the Community, according to the founder were “Brotherhood, Equality, Solidarity, the suppression of poverty and individual property, in a word Communism.”

The Iowa City Citizen (Iowa City, Iowa) May 2, 1917

Janesville Morning Gazette (Janesville, Wisconsin) Mar 17, 1857

Two and a half miles east of Corning, Iowa, is the Icarian community, with A.A. Marchand, an intelligent Frenchman, at its head. In this community are 75 person, living in 20 or 25 houses, and using a common dining hall 24×60 feet. The community own about 2,000 acres of land, with 600 acres under improvement. A fair share is good timberland. A steam grist mill and saw mill are on their lands, together with several barns.

The Perry Chief (Perry, Iowa) Jul 17, 1875

Will Divide the Property.

Corning. Feb 23. — Members of the Icarian Community founded in France before the revolution, coming to this country and living at various points in the south and at Nauvoo, Ill., finally settling here in 1856, have agreed to a division of the property and the dissolution of the society. The interests of the heirs and other legal obstacles have rendered it advisable to appoint a receiver to put the matter in the hands of the court.

The Perry Daily Chief (Perry, Iowa) Feb 24, 1895

DEATH OF A.A. MARCHAND.

Former President of the Icarian Community Passes Away in Georgia.

In Columbus, Ga., May 4, A.A. Marchand, one of the founders of the new extinct Icarian Community, was found dead in his bed, at the home of his daughter Mrs. William Ross, with whom he had lived since leaving Corning three years ago. the supposition is he died of heart disease, as he had not been sick and was apparently in fair health. Mr. Marchand had led an eventful life and died at the ripe age of 81 years. He was born in Rene, Bretagne, France.

In 1818 he became an enthusiastic follower of Etienne Cabet, the communist, who led a colony of some 5000 French to Texas where they purchased a tract in the Red river country. Misfortunes and disease overtook them and one half the colony died of yellow fever. A large number drifted back to France. A smaller number, Mr. Marchand among them, journeyed to Nauvoo, Ill., where they purchased the old mormon town site and farming lands, then being abandoned by the mormons in their exodus to Salt Lake. This colony flourished a few years, then succumbed. More than 100 of the colonists journeyed to Adams county where they purchased 20,000 acres of land about 1854. The colony thrived for many years. Then came dark days and disruption, the formation of a new colony which lived until 1895 when it was dissolved by petition to the court and a receiver appointed. The mother colony had expired several years before. Mr. Marchand was several years president of the colony. He was a man of rare refinement and education, and taught the Icarian children for many years.

Adams County Free Press (Corning, Iowa) May 12, 1898

Fulton’s First Ferry – Pilot Dead

November 18, 2011

Image from the Greater Astoria Historical Society website

Death of the Pilot of Robert Fulton’s First Ferry-Boat.

Peter Coffee, the venerable pilot, who ran the Nassau, the first ferry boat built by Robert Fulton, is dead. He expired at the residence of his son, No. 76 Lafayette avenue, on Wednesday. The old pilot was born in Peekskill, in this State, in the year 1777, and was 98 years of age at the time of his death. His father was murdered by robbers while he was carrying the United States mail.

Peter Coffee came to New York in boyhood, and entered the merchant service as a sailor. He served in the United States war vessels Little Adams and York during the threatened war with France, in the early part of the present century. On May 10, 1814, he was made pilot of the Nassau, the first steamboat at Fulton Ferry, of which a model is now in a niche in the front of the Fulton Ferry house in Brooklyn, with a statue of Robert Fulton.

Image from The Project Gutenberg‘s Stories of Great Inventors

He was employed as a ferry pilot until about thirty-five years ago, after which he had charge of the repair department, and, as he became more decrepit, he was given a position as a watchman. He left the service of the ferry company about nine years ago, and has since been living with his son.

Brooklyn Argus.

The Perry Chief (Perry, Iowa) Jul 17, 1875

Dig for it at Home

September 8, 2011

DIG FOR IT AT HOME.

Would you have the shining metal?
Do not o’er the wide world roam,
Following a fleeting phantom —
Stay and dig for it at home.

Do not heed the luring story,
Treasurers distant hillsides hold,
Ten adventures disappointed,
Stand for every ounce of gold.

Wishing still for something better,
Many fancies you will rear;
Mountains of the yellow mica,
In the distant gold appear.

And the longing is contagious,
Drinking from a leaded cup,
For the means for grander living,
On highways to pick it up.

But dame fortune is too fickle,
In her train afar to roam;
Would you dig her golden treasures,
Stay and dig for them at home.

In the land that lies before you,
Find your wealth by honest toil;
Never votary disappointed,
Rightly sought the generous soil.

Only faint, weak hearts repining,
Cast away the good at hand;
Fortune’s smiles will rarely crown them,
Sought for a distant land.

But success rides on before you!
Grapple it and you will win;
Lo! e’en now, the mists are lifting,
And the tides are rushing in.

Let no foreign expedition,
Lure your restless steps to roam;
Gold is nearer than the mountains,
Stay and dig for it at home.

Allen County Democrat (Lima, Ohio) Jul 6, 1876

IT NEVER PAYS.

It never pays to fret and growl
When fortune seems our foe;
The better bred will push ahead
And strike the braver blow.

For luck is work,
And those who shirk
Should not lament their doom,
And yield the play
And clear the way,
That better men have room.

It never pays to wreck the health
In drudging after gain,
And he is sold who thinks that gold
Is cheapest bought with pain.

An humble lot,
A cosy cot,
Have tempted even Kings,
For station high,
That wealth can buy,
Not oft contentment brings.

It never pays! a blunt refrain
Well worthy of a song,
For age and youth must learn the truth,
That nothing pays that’s wrong.

The good and pure
Alone are sure
To bring prolonged success,
While what is right
In Heaven’s sight,
Is always sure to bless.

Allen County Democrat (Lima, Ohio) Jun 24, 1875

Image from the State Historical Society of North Dakota website

“PLOW DEEP TO FIND THE GOLD.”

(The following song we remember having seen in an English journal some years since, but it is well adapted to this country at the present time. — O. Call.)

Plow deep to find the gold, my boys!
Plow deep to find the gold!
The earth has treasures in her breast
Unmeasured and untold.

Clothe the mountain tops with trees,
The sides with waving grain;
Why bring over stormy seas
What here we may obtain?

Oh, Britain need not bring her bread
From countries new or old,
Would she but give the plowshare speed
And DEPTH to find the gold!

Earth is grateful to her sons
For all their care and toil;
Nothing yields such large returns
As drained and deepened soil.

Science lend thy kindly aid;
Her riches to unfold;
Moved by the plow or moved by spade
Stir deep to find the gold.

Dig deep to find the gold my boys!
Dig deep to find the gold!
The earth hath treasures in her breast,
Unmeasured and untold.

Alton Telegraph and Review (Alton, Illinois) Oct 4, 1850

Webster’s Right, Times Are Tite

October 15, 2010

So  let’s skip the cake and presents, and celebrate Noah Webster’s birthday (Oct .16th) with words from the past:

A Philadelphia paper has ascertained that Noah Webster used to play euchre and steal eggs.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Jan 31, 1874

The ghost of Noah Webster came to a spiritual medium in Alabama not long since, and wrote on a slip of paper: “It is tite times.” Noah is right, but we are sorry to see he has gone back on his dictionary.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Apr 17, 1875

THE HARM THAT WEBSTER HAS DONE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

In the estimation of many, the next book in the world to the Bible is Webster’s unabridged Dictionary! It is found everywhere, and has done much good and we think much evil. It is not generally known that Dr. Webster‘s great work was in its inception a conspiracy against the English language.

The first issue of his system, more than half a century since, was received with hoots and laughter. But the Doctor, having the capital of great learning, industry and obstinacy to back him, kept hammering on the public until his revised and less offensive later editions were received with favor. all this can be abundantly proved. Webster started out with the idea to spell by sound as nearly as possible, as h-a-z for has and w-o-o-d for would, and was only induced to withdraw such radical changes, because he perceived that they never would be received. He then compromised with the difficulty and made all the changes he dared in the orthography and orthoepy of the language.

His dictionaries, even as thus revised called forth immediate and persistent denunciation from the most able scholars in the Union and the jeers of the English people.

But the Doctor subsidized a power which is more powerful than learning orthodoxy and pride of race — he advertised largely in the newspapers, and canvassed the entire Union by well paid and able agents.

He succeeded. By degrees familiarity with the unauthorized liberties he had taken with the language grew into the usages of life and the education of the young, and now we find ourselves face to face with the strange anomaly of professing to speak and write the English language, and chiefly using as a standard a work which is utterly repudiated by the entire English people and the best portion of our own scholars, as subversive of etymology, as revolutionary, as partisan and unauthorized by the masters of the English tongue. Webster’s dictionary was a bold and clever commercial adventure, and a successful one; but that should not blind every lover of the integrity and history of his language to its arrogant mutilation of that which we should most carefully conserve.

Again, we have been depended so long upon the North for our books and our literature that it took all the terrible lessons of “the war” to open our eyes to the criminal supineness, and to inaugurate measures looking to a purer, truer and more local publication of educational works.

And just here we affirm that we are under shackles to Noah Webster and his successes, in so far as we receive the palpable alterations his later editions give in the meaning of important words bearing on politics and governmental relations.

The dictionary as left by Dr. Webster, was bad enough, but since his death it has been deliberately “doctored” by his literary executors until now it stands forth as radicalized, not only in literature, but in politics. This can easily be proved.

Why, then, do we submit to this imposition?

Is it because there is no peer of Webster to be found in our book stores?

By no means. In the official declaration of Harvard University; of the University of Virginia, of Washington and Lee College, and and many other  first-class institutions, Dr. Worcester’s dictionary is preferred, and is stated to be equal in every respect, and superior in its adhesion to English purity, and in its entire freedom from sectarian bias.

With this opinion thousands of our most enlightened and influential scholars coinside, and we hope soon to see the day when we will find a Worcester in the place of the Webster now so common on the editor’s table, the merchant’s desk, by the teacher’s elbow and in the hands of our children.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Mar 30, 1873

Noah Webster made a voyage to England, before the days of steam in ocean navigation, to hear how the best educated men in that country pronounced their own language; but found neither greater uniformity nor perfection on the other side of the water than on this, and so gave up the idea of a pronouncing dictionary. He found it equally hard, though he made the attempt, to introduce uniformity in spelling. The Dictionary which he spent a long life in preparing, gives a list of more than a thousand words,  in the pronunciation of which such high authorities as Perry, Walker, Knowles, Smart, Worcester, Cooley, and Cull differ, in some cases to such a degree as would scarcely enable the hearer to recognize the identity of the same word pronounced by the different standards. In a free country like this, every man is supposed to have the right to spell and pronounce according to his own notions. The principal trouble is to keep the peace between the ambitious young sophmore, when he begins to write for the press, the intelligent printer, the methodical proof reader, and that scapegoat of the whole, the printer’s devil.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Mar 16, 1877

 

Noah Webster

 

Franklin as a Writer.

His pen was as ready as his purse in the service of all human kindness. And what a pen it was! It could discourse metaphysics so clearly and lucidly as to make them seem plain moralizing. It could tear a sophism to pieces by a mere query. It could make a simple tale read like a subtle argument. He could be grave and he could be gay in a breath. He could spend as much wit and humor on a “Craven Street Gazette” — which was meant only to amuse an old landlady, away from home, and probably out of joint before her return from Rochester — as on a State paper designed to fire America and sting England. In another tone, he translates into human language, for the amusement of a court lady, the reflections, in the garden of her house, of a gray-headed ephemera, full seven hours old, on the vanity of all things.

His “Petition of the Left Hand,” might have been composed by Addison. In it, the left hand bewails the partiality which educated the right hand exclusively. Some of Franklin’s fables and tales have been so absorbed into the thought of the world that their source is absolutely forgotten. Only in this way can we account for what was doubtless an unconscious plagiarism by an eminent sanitary authority, last year, of Franklin’s “Economical project for Diminishing the cost of Light.”

The economy consisted simply in rising at six o’clock instead of nine or ten. Ideas such as Franklin’s never become superanuated. Not every one who uses the expression, “to pay dear for one’s whistle,” knows that the dear whistle was a purchase made by Franklin, when seven years old, with a pocketful of pence. Franklin’s store was too abundant for him to mind, though some of his fame went astray. “You know,” he tells his daughter, “everything makes me recollect some story.”

But it was not recollection so much as fancy. His fancy clothed every idea in circumstances. When the illustration had served its turn, he was indifferent what became of it. Franklin did injustice to himself when he fancied he wanted any such mechanical aid. His English had been learned from the “Pilgrim’s Progress,” and the “Spectator.” It had the force of Bunyon without his ruggedness. It had the serene light of Addison with tenfold his raciness and vigor. It sparkled with sarcasms as cutting as Voltaire’s, but all sweetened with humanity. Many of his inventions or adaptions — such as “colonize” — have been stamped, long since, as current English. But he did not covet the fame of an inventor, whether in language, in morals, or in politics. In language, he was even declared a foe to innovation.

Writing to Noah Webster, in 1789, he protests against the new verbs “notice,” “advocate,” and “progress.” He had as little ambition to be classic as to be an innovator in English. He wrote because he had something at the moment to say, with a view to procuring that something should at that moment be done. —Edinburgh Review.

The Daily News (Frederick, Maryland) Nov 20, 1883

The Thorp Springs Christian is a critic. It says:

In a primer, which is common in the schools of our country, is a picture of a sow and six pigs, and under it is this reading: “A big pig and six little pigs.” What language is this? It is not good English, and yet it is in a school book. As well say of a woman and children, a big child and six little children; of a goose and goslings, a big gosling and six little goslings; of a large fish and minnows, a big minnow and six little minnows.

The Christian knows more than Noah Webster. He says: “Pig, the young of swine, a hog.” The former is regarded as the more elegant term. The writer once heard a little boy say “give me some hog,” when he wanted to be helped to roast pig. It did not sound well.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Sep 14, 1887

 

John Clark Ridpath (Image from http://radicalacademy.com)

 

RIDPATH ON FREE COINAGE.

John Clark Ridpath, the historian, in an interview on the financial question says:

“According to my way of thinking our Government has been steadily drifting away from the people and getting into the power of special interests. The circle of government has narrowed and narrowed until it appears to me the height of absurdity to call it any longer a Government of the people, for the people and by the people. I want to see this process completely reversed. I want to see the Government restored to the people. I believe precisely what Webster and Theodore Parker and Lincoln said, viz” ‘That our republic is, or ought to be, a government of the people, for the people and by them.’

RIGHT TO GOVERN THEMSELVES.

“How can there be any harm in such a doctrine? In the name of common sense has it come to pass that patriotic citizens of the United States of American cannot advocate the right of the people to govern themselves? Has it come to that when we have, sure enough, a lot of self-constituted masters who shall tell us what is good for us and how to obtain it? Are we Americans a lot of younglings who are unable to lead ourselves, but must be led rather with a string and fed on porridge as with a spoon?

“Among the methods as it seems to me by which the Government is to be recovered by the people is, first of all, as the matter now stands, the restoration of our currency. We want our currency system put back precisely where it was under the statutes and constitution for the first eighty-one years of our existence as a nation. Our statutory bimetallic system of currency was taken from us [in 1873] by a process which I do not care to characterize in fitting terms. Now we propose to have it back again. The restoration of our silver money to the place it held before is the people’s cause, and the people in this contest are going to triumph.

They are going to triumph in the open light of day in the clear gleam of light and truth.

“The silver dollar was of old the unit of money and account in the United States. That dollar to this hour has never been altered by the fraction of a grain in the quantity of pure metal composing it. Every other coin, whether of gold or silver, has been altered time and time again, but the silver unit never. The silver dollar was the dollar of the law and the contract. It is to this day the dollar of the law and the contract. To the silver unit all the rest, both gold and silver, have been conformed from our first statutes of 1792 to that ill-starred date when the conspiracy against our old constitution order first declared itself. The gold eagle of the original statute, and of all subsequent statutes, was not made to the $10, but to be of the value of $10. The half-eagle was not made to be $5, but of the value of $5. The quarter-eagle was of the value of $2.50, and the double-eagle was of the value of $20. Even the gold dollar of 1849, marvelous to relate, was not $1, but was made to be of the value of $1. The subsidiary coins were all fractions of the dollar and the dollar was of silver.

NEW MEANING FOR “DOLLAR.”

“Not a single dictionary or encyclopedia in the English language before 1878 ever defined dollar in any terms other than of silver. In that year the administrators of the estate of Noah Webster, deceased, cut the plates of our standard lexicon and inserted a new definition that had become necessary in order to throw a penumbra of rationality around the international gold conspiracy.

“The way to obviate the further disastrous effects of this international gold conspiracy is to stop it. We want the system of bimetallism restored in this country. Bimetallism means the option of the debtor to pay in either of two statutory coins, according to the contract. This option freely granted, the commercial parity of the two money metals will be speedily reached, nor can such parity ever be seriously disturbed again as long as the unimpeded option of the debtor to pay in one metal or the other shall be conceded by law and the terms of the contract. The present commercial disparity of the two metals has been produced by the pernicious legislation which began twenty-three years ago and which has not yet satisfied itself with the monstrous results that have flamed therefrom.

“What do we propose to accomplish by free coinage? We propose to do just this thing — viz: to break the corner on gold and reduce the exaggerated purchasing power of that metal to its normal standard. Be assured there will be no further talk of a 50-cent dollar when the commercial parity of the two money metals shall have been reached. Every well-informed person must know that the present disparity of the two money metals is bu the index of the extent to which gold has been bulled in the markets of the world. It is not an index to the extent to which raw silver has declined in its purchasing power as compared with the average of other commodities in any civilized market place of the whole globe. No man shall say the contrary and speak the truth. This question is hot upon us. It can be kept back no longer. It is a tremendous economic question that ought to be decided in court of right, reason and of fact. My judgement is that the American people, in spite of all opposition, are going to reclaim the right of transacting their business, and in particular of paying their debts according to a standard unit worth 100 cents to the dollar, neither more nor less, and that they will not accept the intolerable program which declares in fact if not in words that they shall henceforth transact their business and in particular discharge their debts with a cornered gold dollar worth almost two for one.”

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Aug 8, 1896

Title: The American Spelling Book: containing the rudiments of the English language : for use of schools in the United States
Author: Noah Webster
Edition: 90
Publisher: Johnson & Warner, 1816

A Great Book.

There is in Utica an old man of unusual intelligence who is known to have graduated from no college, and yet whose perfect English, including syntax, orthography and pronunciation, would stamp him as an educated man in any company. One night this old man was seated in the rooms of the Cogburn club, when he consented to be interviewed as follows:

“From whom did you get the foundation of your education?”

“From Webster.”

“Daniel Webster?”

“No, but Noah Webster, through his spelling book. When I was 12, I could spell every word in that book correctly. I had learned all the reading lessons it contains, including that one about the old man who found some rude boys in his fruit trees one day, and who, after trying kind words and grass, finally pelted them with stones, until the young scapegraces were glad to come down and bet the old man’s pardon.”

Webster‘s spelling book must have been wonderfully popular.”

“Yes.” And a genial smile lighted up the ancient face. “There were more copies of it sold than of any other work ever written in America. Twenty-four millions is the number up to 1847, and that had increased to 36,000,000 in 1860, since which time I have seen no account of its sale. Yes, I owe my education to the spelling book.” — Utica Observer.

Lima News (Lima, Ohio) May 27, 1898

*****

*****

*****

This image comes from the Eightface website. He has an interesting video (about 8 minutes long) of how he made this book. It even shows him using an old printing press.

From his website:

Pictorial Webster’s features over four hundred original woodcut and copper engravings from 19th century editions of the Merriam-Webster dictionary. The fine press edition features a letterpress interior, leather binding and a hand-tooled cover. A trade edition of the book is now available from Chronicle Books.

This video offers a behind-the-scenes peek at the making of the book. You get a good sense of what’s involved with production and the amount of effort that goes into it.

*****

NOTE: I provided definition links to a few words in the articles above, and would have used the Merriam-Webster dictionary website as the link source, but their site seems to take forever to load.

The Great Grasshopper Raid

August 24, 2010

A variety of grasshopper plague related news spanning from 1819 through 1948, some of it reporting on the devastation, some explaining the methods used to try to limit the damage, mixed in with quite a bit of grasshopper humor that was published as well.

The Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Sep 1, 1819

GRASSHOPPERS. — In the Southern and Western portions of this State the grasshoppers are doing considerable damage, already, to the crops, and the people are becoming discouraged with the present prospects. A gentleman from the Southwestern part of the State, informs us that the ground is completely covered with them, and still they come, not by the “hundred thousand more,” but by the millions. Emigration of this kind is not desired in Iowa.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) May 29 1868

Grasshoppers in the West.

EDITOR GAZETTE. — The old saying that “pestilence and famine follow war” is likely to be verified in our own country from present appearances on our Western frontier. I refer to the grasshopper plague, which is becoming a sad reality, as many of the farmers of Western Iowa are beginning to realize to their sorrow. — Living as I do in the border of what is known as the “grasshopper district,” (Boone County) and having had opportunities to post myself as to their movements and workings, I wish to say a few words to your readers, all of whom are directly interested in this subject.

During the month of August, 1867, millions of grasshoppers inhabiting the plains and Rocky Mountains took up a line of march across the continent, and by the middle of September reached from a point in Minnesota to the half of Mexico, covering the Western half of Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana, and the entire States of Nebraska, Kansas and Texas, also including Dacotah and Indian Territories and extending into Mexico. Much damage was done to crops last fall and millions of eggs were deposited for this years’ crop; and while in the colder regions the old “hopper cusses” perished with the severe winter, in the Southern climes not only the young crop, is now on hand, but the old ones still live to curse the country with their presence. In Arkansas the woods have been burnt this spring to destroy the plague and thus save the crops, but to little purpose.

The best information I can get from Western Iowa is that crops are being destroyed in many places totally and in other localities only partially as yet. Many pieces of wheat in Boone County, west of the Des Moines River are being plowed up, while others are completely destroyed, so much so that there is not a vestige of wheat left to show that then days since the prospect was good for a fair crop. The corn crop has also been attacked and on many farms entirely destroyed. Some farmers replant but others prefer to save what corn they have, considering it useless to throw it away by planting, as there is as yet no prospect fro a better state of affairs. The grasshoppers at present vary in size, from one-sixteenth of an inch to two inches in length, all of whom are busily engaged in destroying everything green in their reach.

Some idea may be obtained of their number by a little circumstance which occurred on the C.& N.W.R.R., near the Des Moines River a few days since, and lest some of your readers may question the truth of the statement, I will refer them for particulars to the officers of that company in charge of the Western Iowa Division. An engine started out of Moingonn with three empty cars, bound for one of the many coal mines in that valley. A little distance from town the train run into a mass of grasshoppers which so completely soaped the track that it was impossible to proceed. Backing up they started again and was again brought to a halt. This time they could neither go ahead or back and another engine was sent to their relief.

I see nothing to save the crops of that country. Should the hoppers cease work now, Western Iowa may average a half crop, but it is doubtful while the prospect is that they will continue their work for weeks yet, perhaps all summer, in which case, crops must be an entire failure throughout the grasshopper district.

The question has been asked me many times in this city, was to the course the hoppers will take at the close of the season. Of course no one can answer that question, but the supposition is that as they always travel with the wind, of necessity, and as the prevailing winds in the Western States are from the Southwest and West, they will probably continue their course easterly. We would of course much prefer that they take themselves back to the wilds of the rugged mountains, where

Lo, the poor Indian, whose untutored squaw,
Sees bliss in grasshoppers and devours them raw.

Should the farmers of Black Hawk County look up some day to see millions of insects fill the air as high as the sight can penetrate, so that the heavens shall present the appearance of a heavy fall of snow, they may calculate that one of the worst plagues of Egypt is upon them and that it will be more profitable next year to raise chickens than wheat.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Jun 19, 1868

The grasshoppers have invaded Utah, and the consequence is the invention by a Mormon of a “two-horse grasshopper smasher.”

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Jul 15, 1871

EVERYTHING EATEN. — A gentleman who recently passed over the Sioux City & St. Paul road says that the grasshoppers have eaten thousands of the settlers in Minnesota out of house and home, and he saw men with their families at the stations begging to be passed to St. Paul so that they might work and earn something to live upon.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Jun 12, 1874

The Grasshopper.

Letters from one old townsman, Joe Wells, to his friends here, state that the grasshoppers are making a clean sweep in his vicinity in Palo Alto County. Joe has charge of some 400 acres of land the crops upon which were entirely destroyed last year; but with dogged perseverance he determined to “grin and bear it,” and this spring once more seeded the entire area only to see the pests return in such myriads as to sweep the ground clear of the last vestige of vegetation. This is a hard blow and visits upon him the entire loss of two years hard labor and upon A.A. Wells, who owns the land, a cash expenditure of nearly $2,00, without a dime’s return.

If riches don’t “take to themselves wings” in this case, it’s because grasshoppers can’t fly.

Another person writing from the afflicted country, says “it has been ascertained by careful count that this entire prairie was planted with grasshoppers eggs or in average of 1800 to the square foot, and most of the d____d things hatched twins — the rest triplets.” They have appeared in large numbers as far east as the country between Clarion and the Boone River, and our people need not be surprised to receive a visitation from the festive hopper as soon as he has tarried long enough for his wings &c. to grow. — Iowa Falls Sentinel

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Jun 19, 1874

Grasshopper Devastation (Image from http://www.soonerfans.com)

How the farmers of Wright county, Iowa drove away the  grasshoppers is revealed by the local papers The crops in that county were abundant, and the anxious husbandmen were in hopes that these destructive pests would not appear until after the harvest. At once they came, however, in clouds that darkened the sun. By a preconcerted plan, the farmers set fire to piles of dry straw on the borders of wheat fields, and smothered the blaze with green hay. That caused volumes of smoke to roll over the fields. The grasshoppers didn’t relish the procedure at all. They rose with such a multitudinous hum of wings as to deepen into a roar like distant thunder, and fled the country. In that way the Wright county farmers have a fair prospect of saving their crops.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Aug 4, 1874

Image from Wikinews

The Destructive Grass(w)hopper.

The editor of the Bucyrus Forum has been visiting in the west, and thus writes of the grasshopper pest:

Some forty miles west of Omaha we commenced seeing the ravages of the grasshoppers. We are fully warranted in saying that the half has never been told concerning the wide spread destruction of these insects. It cannot be told. When we assure our readers from actual observation  that we have seen hundreds of thousands of acres of corn that have been literally eaten up by them, we still fall short of the facts.

To particularize: These grasshoppers, which are smaller, blacker and more fierce than the varieties usually seen in Ohio, are so numerous that they resemble a dark cloud slowly moving over the prairie. They are migrators and do not remain long in one place, for the best of reasons — they leave no green thing on which to subsist. Corn, buckwheat, fruit, garden vegetables, leaves of trees and bushes, all are stripped. They attack a corn field of two or three hundred acres, in the morning, and before “high noon” not an ear, tassel or blade is left to tell the tale. Often the stocks are eaten down to within fifteen inches of the soil in which they grew. Frequently strings of grasshoppers from twelve to fifteen inches in length, may be seen hanging on the same ear of corn. It is no uncommon sight to see them two inches deep on the ground. In half an hour they eat all the paint from a Buckeye Reaper and Mower. The only exception we found they made on the farms was sorghum or Chinese sugar cane, which probably contained too much saccharine matter for their delicate appetites.

When crossing Railroads they frequently stop the trains, the unctious matter of their bodies when crushed on the rails, causing the wheels of the locomotives to revolve with the rapidity of lightning without making any progress. From the point where we first observed their ravages to Kearney, we did not see a single field that contained an ear of corn. That unfortunate country is as bare and destitute as if it had been swept by one of the historic prairie fires. The effect may be better imagined than described. We saw dozens of families returning in their covered wagons to their friends in the different states. Many are unable to return.

We learned that aid would be given out of the State Treasuries of Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri to alleviate the sufferings, and to prevent the general exodus of emigrants out of these States to their kindred and friends. Thousands of these people are in a most deplorable condition. Comforted a few days ago with the thought of a large and profitable crop with which to make payments on their land and supply themselves with the necessaries of life, they now find themselves destitute, far from “Home” and among strangers equally as unfortunate as themselves. As we saw the settled look of despondency sitting on the brows of the hard-working, callous-handed men of toil, and their wives and children whose eyes were red with weeping, we thought the original characters of Longfellow’s pathetic lines had re-appeared:

“Hungry is the air around them,
Hungry is the sky above them.
And the hungry stars in heaven,
Like the eyes of the wolves glare at them.”

It is generally believed here by those whose experience and judgment pass for authority that the grasshopper scourge will be short lived. We trust so. The weevil, chintz, and Colorado bug have had their day and are now but little feared.

The Ohio Democrat (New Philadelphia, Ohio) Oct 2, 1874

Congressman Orr, of this State, has secured the passage of a bill through the House allowing homestead and pre-emption settlers in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Kansas, whose crops were destroyed or injured by grasshoppers in 1874, to leave and be absent from their lands till May, 1876, without prejudice to their rights. This is eminently just.

Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa) Dec 18, 1874

KANSAS CITY, May 27. Rain has been falling here in torrents for the past twenty-four hours. It is reported to be general throughout the country. Some damage has been done to fences, railroads and crops. Great numbers of grasshoppers have been destroyed by the flood, as the Missouri river opposite the city is black with them, and it is thought the bulk of the insects in this vicinity have been destroyed. The feeling of dread is rapidly giving way to one of rejoicing, and Governor Hardin will doubtless be called on to issue a proclamation of thanksgiving instead of one for fasting and prayer.

Decatur Daily Republican (Decatur, Illinois) May 28, 1875

Mr. Grasshopper.

He laughs best who laughs last, says the proverb. The agile grasshopper of the western plains may find before he gets through this season’s business that he has carried his conquest too far and made himself an article of Western food, to the peril of all future generations of grasshoppers.

Some days ago the telegraph brought news that a grasshopper dinner had been eaten and relished by an adventurous party of gourmands at Warrensburgh, Missouri. Still later comes the report of another similar feast prepared with great care and critically enjoyed by a select company, including not only the leading local epicures, but several scientific gentlemen, among whom was Prof. Riley, the State entomologist. A bushel or more of “hoppers” were scooped up in an adjacent meadow and a talented cook especially engaged for the purpose brought them to the gridiron. They were stewed into soup, broiled crisp and dainty as smelts; they were fried in the omnipresent grease of the frontier, and baked in mass with curry and “champignons,” and in all these forms were pronounced delicious.

John the Baptist, who ate locusts and wild honey in the wilderness, was accused of riotous living. If this sort of thing goes on for a time it will be useless for the grasshopper sufferers of the far West to work up much sympathy in other States, or gather future subscriptions for food. Simply let them corral the insouciant hopper in their fields, bake him, broil him, and serve him up on toast; let them salt him down in barrels for winter use, and bid gaunt-eyed famine defiance. If the locusts insist upon eating up everything, let them be taught that there are two kinds of creatures who can play at that game.

The Ohio Democrat (New Philadelphia, Ohio)Jun 24, 1875

The farmers in Missouri and Kansas are elated at the discovery of a new kind of buffalo grass springing up in sections devastated by the grasshoppers. The crops in both States are represented to be in a promising condition.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Jul 12, 1875

GRASSHOPPERS have been a burden so long that it is a relief to know that a use has been found for them at last. Some French fishermen, who were lately out of sardine bait, discovered that grasshoppers dried and pounded were just the thing; and hundreds of bags filled with the festive ‘hopper are being imported into France for fish bait. Here, in future, may be found an employment for our home-made ‘hoppers. We cannot all eat them, like Prof. Riley and his brother scientists, and the next best use is to make them provide us with something we can eat.

Globe Democrat.

Decatur Daily Republican (Decatur, Illinois) Apr 14, 1876

Grasshopper Trapper

Image from The Plague of 1875 in the Longmont Ledger.

A New Discovery.

An Iowa man had discovered that the very best of machine oil can be made out of grasshoppers, at a cost only from fifty cents to a dollar per barrel. If such machine oil will only stop the squeaking of ‘machine’ politics it will be worth five dollars per barrel at least. And if the grasshopper can be made into oil, why not that oil into butter better than oleomargarine; and if into oleomargarine, why not, by subtle chemical processes, into creamy butter to fatten the white loaves and lard the tender steaks of the provident. Hoppergrass butter is not an impossible extract or compound, if it be proven that oil can be fried or pressed from their bodies; and the song of “When the cows come lowing home” will be superceded by “When the locusts have gone to roost, Phoebe!”

If in the economy of nature even the perturbing flea has utility, surely the grasshopper, whose demoralizing super abundance afflicts the sad farmer of the West with countless agitations may be converted, by schemes of science, into lubricating food, or at least into anointments for the hair and shoes, and for the neater and better appropriation of an insect plague. Of course such discoveries weaken the work of the Grasshopper Commission; but we trust that the Iowa man will continue to rack his brain and the grasshopper until both shall bring “peace to troubled waters,” and oil to the ways up which “”Hope springs eternal” in the human breast.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Apr 21, 1877

Image from The Grasshopper Plague of 1874 on the Kansas State Historical Society website.

Character and Habits of the Grasshopper.

[From the Faribault Republican]

We have received a circular from the publishers of the New York Graphic asking us for information as to the character, habits, movements and depredations of the locusts of the West, to be embodied in an illustrated supplement they are about to issue. We much dislike to disappoint any one who appeals to us in a candid spirit for information, and we therefore, cheerfully contribute from our abundance:

1. As to the character of the grasshopper, it is bad. Like the deadbeat that he is, he eats his landlord out of house and home and then skips. He is a thief, poacher, robber, glutton and an unmitigated nuisance.

2. The grasshopper has three habits which it adheres to faithfully. In fact, if anything is the creature of habit it is the grasshopper. The first is to hatch under any circumstances; this is a point of honor and duty that it faithfully observes. The second is to eat and eat continuously. From the rising of the sun until the going down thereof it crams its abdomen with victuals, and its digestion is equal to its appetite. It always eats at the first table, for it clears it so clean that there is no chance for a second. Its third habit is to lay eggs, and all the time not devoted to eating is improved in this recreation. How many eggs a well-developed, healthy grasshopper will lay has never been accurately stated, but the Government has a lightning calculator now at work upon the problem.

3. With respect to its movements we are enabled to state that it moves frequently and takes all its baggage with it except the aforesaid eggs. It moves hastily, “gets up and gets,” so to speak, on very short notice and the simple provocation of lack of sustenance. No habit of the grasshopper excites so much interest in the farmer as its movement, and the interest is concentrated in the point whether the ‘hopper is moving towards or away from his farm.

4. His depredations: This is a profound mathematical problem, of which the total number of grasshoppers, the amount each will consume on the average per day, their rate of progress and the amount of forage to be found in the counties where they stop, are essential elements in the calculation. We would respectfully refer the Graphic to the Government commission for information upon this branch of its inquiry.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) May 23, 1877

The grasshoppers were at one time pretty thick this year in Richardson county, Nebraska, so the farmers set seven hundred grasshopper machines in motion, and they have succeeded in scooping up 2,800 bushels of lively insects. One set of laborers in Nomah also cleaned up 150 bushels. This shows that the farmers are turning the tables on the ‘hoppers and are gathering them in instead of allowing them to gather the crops. It also shows that the farmers can do much towards saving their crops, it they only try.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 26, 1877

Image from the  Rural Missouri website’s article: Louses & Locusts.

Grasshopper Eggs.

Mr. Cunningham showed a GAZETTE reporter a small box of earth yesterday which was taken from his ranch in Sierra Valley. In it were myriads of grasshopper eggs. There seemed as much eggs as earth, and the roots of several bunches of grass were thickly imbedded with them. The eggs are of a brownish white in appearance, and about a quarter of an inch in length. Mr. Cunningham said the box of earth shown was a fair sample of all the soil in Sierra Valley, every yard of it permeated with millions of the larvae. Unless the insects migrate after hatching, every green thing in the valley is doomed.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Apr 23, 1879

Grasshopper Sparrow

Image from the World News website.

A VALUABLE BIRD.

The great grasshopper raid upon Nebraska and Kansas a few years ago led to the better protection of birds, particularly quail. Previous to that time both sportsmen and professional hunters from all the cities of the Union took a yearly hunt and the slaughter of quails, ducks and turkeys was almost incredible. Tons upon tons were shipped into Chicago and St. Louis and even New York and Philadelphia. The result was, the grasshoppers had their own way and multiplied exceedingly. The quail is particularly fond of both grasshoppers and their eggs, and where they are at all numerous the destruction is enormous.

They are besides a valuable article of food and add not only to the dainty table of the rich, but help to fill the poor man’s pot as well. In addition to these uses the quail is a game bird of the first order and commands the skill of both man and dog in its capture.

We publish a column of letters from the Chicago Field on the migratory quail of southern Europe, which we hope may prove both interesting and profitable under the present circumstances. We very much fear that the Truckee meadows are doomed to be overrun in 1880 to some extent, and in 1881 and 1882, very seriously by the grasshopper.

We do not expect that any addition to the stock of birds in Nevada and eastern California could be made in time to serve in the crisis, but they will get a good hold and be a great help in future years. They will flourish and increase beyond all doubt.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno., Nevada) Jun 2, 1879

In view of the threatened invasion of Kansas by the grasshoppers next year, it is comforting to reflect that the country is swarming with English sparrows, which were imported especially to eat grasshoppers.

Atchison Daily Globe ( Atchison, Kansas) Aug 2, 1885

Grasshoppers Colorado Springs 1899

Image posted by FuzzyTomCAt

A SHOWER OF GRASSHOPPERS.

HELENA, ARK., November 20. — About 4:30 o’clock last evening this place was visited with a shower of grasshoppers that proved an astonishing feature to the oldest inhabitants, as such a thing had never been seen here before. As they fell on the houses it sounded like a heavy shower of rain. All the stores and houses had to be closed to keep the insects out. The negroes were badly frightened, and most of them claim that it is a bad omen. A cold wave struck the town early last evening and brought the grasshoppers with it. It is very fortunate that this incident did not happen earlier in the fall, as it would have proved very destructive to the crops.

Atchison Daily Globe (Atchison, Kansas) Nov 21, 1885

Image from Family Tree Magazine.

Grasshoppers in Indiana.

DECATUR, Ind., May 15. — Grasshoppers have appeared in this (Adams) county in vast numbers. Never in the history of this section have these pests been seen in such great numbers. Recently a farmer brought in a large farm basket filled with grasshoppers, which he shipped to Chicago and for which he received the rate of $8 a bushel.

Conjecture is rife in this city as to what the purchaser intends to do with the hoppers. As they were sent near the Board of Trade building some conclude the pests are to be used to influence the market in cereals. It will  doubtless be a grasshopper year in this section.

The Daily Review (Decatur, Illinois) May 16, 1886

Grasshoppers’ Foe.

Minneapolis, Minn. — A cricket in the field is worth two on the hearth. His once doleful fiddling now is music to the ear of the farmer of the northwest. So doubtless muses M.P. Somers, grasshopper expert for the state department of entomology, after a summer-long investigation in the grasshopper infested districts of Minnesota and the Red river valley. The cricket is declared by Mr. Somers to have an insatiable appetite for grasshopper eggs and is eating them by the millions.

Sheboygan Press (Sheboygan, Wisconsin) Sep 27 1911

GRASSHOPPERS MOVING AT MILE-A-DAY SPEED

WILLOWS, Cal., Jun 29. — (By International News Service.) — Moving forward at the rate of a mile a day, an immense swarm of grasshoppers is now near Artois and moving eastward toward the Orland irrigation project. Farmhouse porches have been covered to a depth of nearly a foot by the insects, which are the small species.

Grasshopper plagues in other sections of northern California have also been reported.

Billings Gazette (Billings, Montana) Jun 30, 1919

Now for something scientific:

WASHINGTON, Dec. 9. (AP) — An elaborate process so intricate that nature alone can guide it to perfection, is credited for the survival of American agriculture.

The tremendous scheme, revealed by Dr. N.A. Cobb, federal chief nematologist, is built around the subtle function of the Mermis subnigrescens, commonly called the hairworm. Years of study and investigation have convinced Dr. Cobb and his associates, whose work has been assisted by approximately 150 of the nation’s foremost zoologists and entemologists, that grasshoppers, in limitless hordes and a thousand species, would devour practically every farm crop but for hairworm parasitization.

An avaricious enemy, the nema enters the grasshopper’s body when it swallows eggs of the hairworm, matures there, and bores its way out. The grasshopper dies from the wound.

Every Detail

Nature has perfectly correlated every detail. The nematizing process is as ruthless and deliberate as premeditated murder. Instinct forces the grasshopper to feed several inches from the ground, on the exposed surface of plant leaves. To make sure the victim is trapped, the female hairworm is so constituted that she cannot lay eggs in a shadow. Emerging from the ground in the spring, she ascends to a position well lighted by the sun, irrevocably the spot on which grasshoppers feed.

An overdose of eggs would cause premature death for the grasshopper. It must live until the nematode has reached an adult stage, and nature makes it her business to see that is does. Twenty eggs may be deposited in one place, but each egg is equipped with polar filaments that become entangled with the “fur” of young leaf hairs. As the leaf grows and the hairs spread apart, the eggs become sufficiently scattered to keep the grasshopper from getting more than two or three eggs during the entire feeding season.

The contents of a grasshopper’s alimentary canal are eliminated approximately once every hour. IN that time the hairworm larvae must work from the egg into cavities of the victim’s body, there to thrive on the food it has digested. Again nature is prepared. The equatorial region of the nema egg is composed of a substance soluable in less than an hour.

Color Scheme

An even more astounding circumstance, leading scientists to believe environment may be responsible for determination of sex, enters nature’s colorful scheme. Female hairworms, growing from half an inch to six inches in length in six weeks, usually are many times larger than male nemas. Whether it is because of limited room to develop in the grasshopper’s body or because of insufficient food supply, the hairworms, regardless of the sex propensity in the larvae, always become male when a large number of eggs are swallowed and as invariably are females when the number is limited.

In every case, Dr. Cobb says, a parasitized grasshopper immediately becomes sterile. Tests have shown that fields attacked by nematized grasshoppers are free of the pests in following years or until uninfested grasshoppers from adjacent territory invade them. That, he says, explains “grasshopper waves” in this country.

The Evening Huronite (Huron, South Dakota) Dec 9, 1927

Watertown Sieged By G’hoppers

Watertown  (AP) –Clouds of grasshoppers invaded Watertown and the surrounding countryside over the weekend and yesterday began attacking corn and vegetable crops.
The invaders rode on the waves of Lake Ontario in the Chaumont area Sunday, swarmed over the beaches, docks and summer cottages, driving vacationers indoors.

Farm Bureau officials here said the insects already are making inroads on crops, but that damage so far in not extensive. It is the worst grasshopper invasion in ten years, officials said.

The base of operations for the grasshoppers’ is not known, but the Farm Bureau said they were larger than recently hatched insects, and therefore probably are not local products.

This belief was strengthened by reports from Chaumont that large patches of the pests were seen floating in from the lake. When they reached shore they swarmed inland.

The city of Watertown was less attacked than rural areas of Jefferson County, but thousands descended upon the city, especially on the golf course.

The Farm Bureau notified farmers that poison bait made of wheat bran, molasses and arsenic is the only safe way to halt the pests. A sufficiently strong concentration of DDT would harm crops also, the bureau.  [said?]

Oneonta Star (Oneonta, New York) Aug 24, 1948

KIYUS Saloon: “Only One Price – One Bit!”

August 24, 2010

Helena, Montana 1870s

Image from the Helena As She Was website, which has tons of historical pictures of Helena, Montana and other information as well. Theodore Shed, the Col. mentioned in this first KIYUS advertisement, is the same man who shot John Hugle and was subsequently tried for murder. See prior post.

Kiyus Saloon.

Those who delight in pure liquors and fine wines at reasonable prices should give the old established “Kiyus”, on Main street a call. Col. Shed, the proprietor, is known throughout the West for the superiority of his brands, and the remarkable fact that none but pure liquors are dispensed at this bar. It will also be seen by reference to his advertisement in another column that he has reduced his price to the hard times standard, of twelve and a half cents a drink. The “Kiyus” is therefore the place to obtain elegant beverages at reasonable rates.

“Kiyus” — Reduction.

HELENA, M.T., May 15, 1876.

To keep pace with the times, we have this day reduced the price of drinks and cigars to 12 1/2 cents. The quality of the goods will remain unchanged.

“KIYUS” SALOON,

One door below St. Louis Hotel

The Helena Independent — 16 May 1876

“Rag Baby” Again.

Speaking of that much-abused “rag baby,” everything goes at the “Kiyus.” We will take one-eighth of a dollar “rag baby” for a drink; or, in other words, one price, one bit! a drink at the celebrated “Kiyus.”

The Helena Independent — 25 May 1876

Hot drinks in cold weather! Cold drinks in hot weather! Fragrant cigars in all weathers, at the “Kiyus.” Only one price — one bit!

The Helena Independent — 03 Jun 1876

Col. Shed, of the famous “Kiyus,” returned yesterday from a visit to Brewer’s Springs, visibly improved in health and appearance.

The Helena Independent — 30 Jul 1876

Gay Christmas at the “Kiyus.” Egg nog, tom and jerry and a nice lunch at 12 o’clock. Oysters throughout the day and evening; also drinks and cigars day and evening.

“Kiyus,” one door below St. Louis Hotel.

The Helena Independent — 24 Dec 1876

Mr. Theodore Shed arrived here yesterday and has again taken charge of the Kiyus. There will be opened next Saturday an oyster department in connection with this establishment.

The Helena Independent — 22 Nov 1877

The Kiyus saloon is undergoing extensive repairs and will soon re-open “enlarged and improved.”

The Helena Independent — 30 Jun 1878

Do not fail to try at the celebrated “Kiyus” some of A. Booth’s oysters, served in all styles. Just flap your lip over one of those fancy roasts — Yum! yum! yum!

The Helena Independent — 24 Dec 1878

Winchester Rifle Lost.

On Thursday morning, March 27th, between Helena and the Half-way House, on the Bozeman road.

“KIYUS,”
61 Main Street, Helena.

The Helena Independent — 03 Apr 1879

NOTE: It must have moved sometime between Apr 1879 and  Aug 1880.

Messrs. Potter & Brett serve all the delicacies of the season, day and night. Call at the Kiyus.
The Kiyus on Wood street is the resort of epicures. Give it a call.

The Helena Independent — 15 Aug 1880

Sol Star – A Picturesque Pioneer

August 7, 2010

Sol Star (Image from Wikepedia)

Sol Star was a friend and business partner of Seth Bullock’s. These two men had a lot in common.  Both were foreign born. Both lived in Montana during the 1870s, and both caught the Black Hills fever and headed for Deadwood. And both men had a hand in civilizing and bringing about the statehood of South Dakota.

The Deadwood S.D. Revealed website has a Sol Star biography written in 1901. NOTE: They give his place of burial as Mt. Moriah Cemetery, Lawrence Co., South Dakota, but he was actually buried in the New Mount Sinai Cemetery in St Louis, Missouri.

The Daily Independent - May 30, 1874

*****

The Daily Independent - Jun 21, 1874

It is fashionable to angle for trout in the Little Blackfoot, and Sol Star, who was out with Gen. Smith and party reports the fish as hungry as Crow Indians — they will bite at anything except a crowbar.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Aug 11, 1874

The Daily Independent - Jan 16, 1875

Personal.

Auditor Sol Star arrived last evening at the Capital of Montana with bag and baggage, also the archives of the Auditor’s office. See his notice in to-day’s INDEPENDENT.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Mar 2, 1875

The Daily Independent - Mar 5, 1875

Receiver’s Office.

The business of the Helena Land Office has been retarded for some time, owing to the resignation of Mr. Sol Star, and the non-appearance of his successor, Mr. Sheridan. But the office runs smoothly again. Commissioner Burdett has modified the acceptance of Mr. Star’s resignation, and Mr. Star, as ordered, will resume the duties of the office until the arrival and qualification of his successor. We understand it will not interfere with his duties as Auditor. The following is the dispatch:

WASHINGTON, March 25, 1875.

To Sol Star, Esq., Helena, M.T.:

“The acceptance of your resignation has been modified so far as to take effect upon the appointment and qualification of your successor. You will, therefore, continue to act as Receiver until that event.”

S.S. BURDETT, Commissioner

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Mar 27, 1875

Short Stops.

Mr. Sol Star has ordered from the East a large stock of queensware, glassware, wire and willoware, lamps and chandeliers, which he expects to open to the trade about the 1st of June.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Apr 4, 1876

Sol Star and Seth Bullock, on their way to Benton, narrowly escaped drowning in the Little Prickly Pear.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jun 24, 1876

Sol Star & Seth Bullock (Image from http://picasaweb.google.com/John.Auw)

THE TERRITORY.

Mr. Sol. Star, who had shipped a large invoice of queensware to Helena and designed opening a store, has taken the Black Hills fever, shipped his goods back from Benton to Bismarck, and designed starting to-day for Deadwood City. Sorry you are going, Sol., but good luck to you.
North-West.

Butte Miner (Butte, Montana) Jul 8, 1876

Personal.

Sol Star has gone East by way of the river.

Seth Bullock left yesterday for Dakota Territory. He will be absent several weeks.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 8, 1876

You can read about Sol and Seth’s arrival at Deadwood (Google book link)  in the 1899  book,  The Black Hills, by Annie D. Tallent.

Lincoln Territory.

Delegates representing all the interests and localities in the Black Hills, assembled in convention at Deadwood on the 21st ult. and adopted a memorial to Congress setting forth the wants and necessities of the people. We notice that our former townsman, Sol Star, was appointed one of the Committee on Organization, and W.H. Claggett, late of Deer Lodge, one of the Committee on Resolution.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) May 8, 1877

Implicated in Star Route Frauds.

WASHINGTON, September 28. — President Arthur to-day directed the removal of Sol Star, postmaster at Deadwood, D.T., for confessed complicity with the Star route contractors in defrauding the Postoffice Department.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Sep 30, 1881

Sol. Star.

Sol. Star denounces through the columns of the Black Hills Pioneer, the statement emanating, as he supposed, from one Pursy, to the effect that he had confessed complicity in the Star route frauds. He says that such statements are unqualifiedly false in every particulas and are malicious slanders and fabrications; that no such confessions were ever made, and that no facts existed on which the alleged confession could be made. Mr. Star was for many years a resident of Helena, and has many friends here who would be glad to learn of his complete vindication.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Oct 11, 1881

Sol Star and the Star Routes.

Mr. Sol Star has been removed from the postmastership at Deadwood on the charge of being complicated in some of the Star Route frauds in Dakota. As Mr. Star is well-known in this territory, being at one time Territorial Auditor, the following, which we clip from the Black Hills Times, concerning his removal, and his letter of explanation, may be fo some interest to our readers. We therefore produce them:

WASHINGTON, Oct. 1. — Star, postmaster at Deadwood, removed yesterday, has confessed that for several years past he has made false certificates of star route service between Sidney and Deadwood. His confession exposes the rascality of the star route ring in the northwest.

WASHINGTON, Oct. 1. — The action of the president in removing Postmaster Star, of Deadwood, was caused by his revelations concerning the star route in the northwest. For some months past one of the most efficient inspectors of the postoffice department has been secretly investigating the management of the Deadwood postoffice, and when he confronted the postmaster with his proofs the latter confessed.

The telegraph lines have been weighted with reports concerning star-route frauds, in which postmaster Sol Star of this city is proclaimed as being implicated, and as having made a confession to that effect. To those who know the facts it is scarcely necessary to state the report is an unmitigated lie from first to last. He has made no confession of fraud for the best of all reasons — there is no fraud to confess on his part. The confession, so called, we here publish. As will be seen, nothing short of entire malice could constitute this report of facts as a confession of crooked dealing. It is about as much of a confession as an almanac is a confession of the state of the weather:

DEADWOOD, D.T. Sept. 1, 1881.

John B. Furay, Special Agent Postoffice Department:

In reply to your verbal request in relation to the arrival of mails on route 34,156, I beg to state that the record of arrivals as reported by my mail bills was based upon the schedule time given by the contractor, and not the actual time of arrival. The report thus made was not made with any expectation or promise to receive a reward from the contractor, but was done and reported, first, because I believed that if the public was satisfied the government would also be with the arrival of the mails; and second, having so reported for two years last past without hearing any complaint from the department I took it for granted that my view of it was correct. I am now informed that such a report was detrimental to the interest of the government, and that the actual time of arrival, and not the schedule time or near the schedule time, is what was wanted. I desire to state that in my belief arrivals of mails will vary from two to four hours later than as reported, as follows: From July, 1879, to September, 1881, for ten months in the time mentioned, the time of actual arrival will vary from two to four hours per day, and for two months in each year named, say for March and April, 1880, and March and April, 1881, the time from that reported will vary from one to three days too early.

Yours truly,

SOL STAR, Postmaster.

The Daily Miner (Butte, Montana) Oct 11, 1881

The elation of the star route people over a verdict of acquittal from Judge Dundy’s court in Omaha will, it is stated, not avail them in other cases. These cases originated in the confession of the postmaster at Deadwood that he had been giving false certificates of the arrival and departure of mails in order to enable the contractors to draw their full pay, though they had not fulfilled their contract. This confession was obtained by Postoffice Inspector Furay, in an investigation set on foot by himself. There were strong local influences of mail contractors in that region. Monroe Saulsbury, one of the largest mail contractors who lives at Deadwood, prevented an indictment of guilty persons once, but it was finally had. On the trial, however, the Deadwood postmaster refused to testify on the ground that he would criminate himself. The confession in these cases was made last summer by Sol Star, a former resident of this Territory, and led to his removal from the position of postmaster of Deadwood.

The Daily Minor (Butte, Montana) Feb 25, 1882

JUSTICE TO AN OLD MONTANIAN.

The Inter Mountain professes to be indignant because the Black Hills Plains says some kind words about Mr. Sol. Star, one of the newly elected aldermen of Deadwood City, and thinks that “such perversity in press and people cannot help the application of Dakota for Statehood.” It is quite likely the thought never entered the head of the Times writer that he was jeopardizing the interests of his Territory when he penned the favorable notice of his townsman, the genial, clever Sol. He may take it all back after seeing the Inter Mountain of the 16th inst., but we don’t believe he will. Now we propose to say a few kind words about Mr. Star even if by so doing we imperil Montana’s prospects of Statehood. But we will state in the outset our firm belief that Mr. Sol. Star is no more a star route thief than the Inter Mountain editor is an angel.

Mr. Star lived many years in Montana and while here he occupied responsible positions both public and private and earned a reputation for intelligence, capability and integrity of character which we are yet to learn he has lost. He served a term as auditor of this Territory and faithfully performed its duties and when he retired from the office he carried with him the confidence and respect of a host of friends. It will be news to those friends and to Mr. Star, himself to learn that he confessed “to the commission of a felony.”

Mr. Star did nothing of the kind. He simply certified as postmaster to the arrival and departure of the mails. Sometimes the mail did not arrive or leave exactly on schedule time, but as is generally usual among nearly all postmasters, where there was not too long a continuance of diversion from schedule time, he made no exceptions in his certification. These, as we understand them, are the simple facts of the case, but the officious, and as the sequel has proved, not over scrupulous Furay preferred charges against him in the interest, it is said, of one of his (Furay) friends. Mr. Star resigned, stood his trial and was acquitted.

If Mr. Star is as guilty as the Inter Mountain would have its readers believe the citizens of Deadwood are certainly a bad lot, for in the face of all this Star route business they have elected him as an Alderman of the city. Our word for it he will make a good one. If he is not the Sol Star of old it is because he has too closely followed the precepts and practices of the Republican party of which, while here, he was an honored and leading member.

The Daily Miner (Butte, Montana) May 18, 1882

If the Inter Mountain has not completely exhausted itself in its endeavor to injure the reputation of an old, well-known and much-esteemed ex-resident of Montana and now a respected citizen of Deadwood, could it not dispose of a portion of its time and space in noticing the Dorseys, Bradys, Howgates and a score of other worthies of the party to which it seems to owe allegiance? It appears to ignore the fact that two of these distinguished Republican luminaries are on trial for swindling the government and that the other is a fugitive from justice. Just for a change from diatribes against Governor Potts, slanderous accusations against Mr. Sol Star and stale editorials from the New York Herald, give us a live article about something else its knows nothing about — for instance the effect which a “dishonest coinage law” and “fraudlent dollars” have upon the business of the country.

The Daily Minor (Butte, Montana) May 19, 1882

DAKOTA CONVENTIONS.

Republicans and Democrats Hold Powwows In Their Respective Burgs.

HUDSON, S.D., August 29. — The republican state convention reassembled at 10 o’clock this morning and heard reports of the committee on credentials and organization. Permanent organization was effected by the election of Sol Star as permanent chairman and E.W. Caldwell as secretary with two assistants. Mr. Star made a brief address, and Judge Moody took the platform amid deafening cheers. On behalf of the delegation of Lawrence county he presented the chairman with a tin gavel made from tin taken from the Etta mine in that county. Judge Moody’s speech was very eloquent and was frequently applauded. The convention then adjourned till 2 o’clock this afternoon.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Aug 30, 1889

The Convention Meets.

MITCHELL, Aug. 27. — Convention called to order by C.T. McCoy, chairman, at 2:15….

Sage of Faulk nominated Sol. Star of Deadwood for temporary chairman. He was unanimously elected.

Mr. Star was introduced by the committee and addressed the convention as follows:

Gentlemen of the Convention: On behalf of the Black Hills country, and particularly those residents of Deadwood here, I can but return to you my thanks personally for your grateful acknowledgment of services I have rendered you at a convention of a similar nature and character at the city of Huron a year ago, and to the pledges I have made and services I have rendered. I can only add in addition, that I will endeavor to discharge these duties which devolve upon me as temporary chairman of this orginization without fear or favor…

Daily Huronite (Huron, South Dakota) Aug 28, 1890

A bill has been introduced at Pierre by Sol Star of the Black Hills, providing for the resubmission of the question of prohibition. It is safe to say it will not pass.

Mitchell Daily Republican (Mitchell, South Dakota) Jan 17, 1890

Mitchell Daily Republican - Jan 28, 1890

The Black Hills Journal website has some interesting tidbits in regards to the history of prohibition in South Dakota,  and mentions Deadwood, specifically.

THE NEWS.
Miscellaneous.

Sol Star is elected mayor of Deadwood for the eight time.

Daily Huronite (Huron, South Dakota) May 6, 1891

Gossip among the Republican delegates in town this afternoon en route to the Aberdeen convention was to the effect that Sol Star of Deadwood was to be pushed to the front on the anti-prohibition issue, and that Judge Moody would be at the head of the Lawrence county delegation. Minnehaha county was claimed for Star, while French of Yankton was thought to be the second choice of the Star men.

Mitchell Daily Republican (Mitchell, South Dakota) Sep 28, 1891

The Hills on Jolley.

Sol Star in the Sioux City Journal: We saw that there was no show, ans so we went for the best man, and that man is Col. Jolley, of Vermillion. He is the very best man that the party could have nominated. He is a worker, thoroughly posted in the needs of the state, an able man and one who will do the state credit at Washington. I think, too, that he will be broad enough to look out for our interests as well as those of his own part of the state. We are satisfied with the nomination and Jolley will get the support of the Hills Republicans.

Mitchell Daily Republican ( Mitchell, South Dakota) Oct 4, 1891

Sol Star was re-elected for the ninth time mayor of Deadwood, by 37 majority. Another republican victory.

Daily Huronite (Huron, South Dakota) May 9, 1892

Dec 16, 1892

*****

Mar 6, 1896

*****

Gravestone image posted by afraydknot,  on Find-A-Grave, along with a biography.

PICTURESQUE PIONEER WHO FOUGHT INDIANS ON BISMARCK — BLACK HILLS TRAIL IN ’76 DIES AT DEADWOOD

Deadwood, S.D., Oct. 19 — Sol Star, picturesque pioneer of the Black Hills, and who, with his partner, Seth Bullock, was among the first to take the Old Black Hills trail from Bismarck to Deadwood, has left on his last, lone, prospecting tour. “If the streets up there are paved with gold, Sol will be right at home,” said one of his old pals.

Sol Star, several times mayor of Deadwood, and one of the best liked of all the old timers, was born in Bavaria in 1840, coming to America at the age of 10, and to Helena, Mont., in 1865. He remained at Helena and Virginia City until 1876, serving as register of the United States land office from 1872 to 1874, and for one year as territorial auditor of Montana. He arrived in Deadwood on Aug. 1, 1876, with Capt. Seth Bullock, who years ago gained fame as a personal friend of Theodore Roosevelt. The Partners picked Deadwood as a good camp. They had a large consignment of goods en route to Helena for them, and upon Bullock’s suggestion this shipment was headed off at Bismarck and brought to Deadwood over the old Black Hills trail.

The trail from Bismarck to the Black Hills was beset with hostile Sioux, angry with the whites because of ignored treaties, and when Bullock and Star reached old Crook City they were compelled to fight a pitched battle with the redskins. Again they encountered the enemy on Big Bottom, but they finally reached Deadwood with their skins and their goods intact. Upon their arrival here they opened a general store, and their partnership in this business continued until 1894. Star was mayor of Deadwood from 1884 to 1893 and from 1895 to 1899. For 19 years he served as clerk of court, and in 1889 he attended the first state convention at Huron, where the enabling act was ratified, and he nominated the first set of officers for the new state of South Dakota. Later he served in both branches of the state legislature.

The Bismarck Tribune (Bismarck, North Dakota) Oct 19, 1917

Seth Bullock – Before Deadwood

August 4, 2010

Main St. - Helena, MT - 1872 (Image from http://www.cardcow.com)

While I was researching Robert V. Carr, the official poet of Seth Bullock’s Cowboy Brigade, I decided to search “Seth Bullock” to see if  I could find any Carr references. That didn’t turn out to be fruitful in regards to Carr, but I did run across quite a bit more on Seth Bullock. Since I found so many news articles, I typed them up, and  have decided to break them up into at least two separate posts. This first one covers Seth’s time in Montana – before he went to Deadwood. (Updated: 8/11/10)

Attempt to Break Jail.

A well conceived attempt to break jail was frustrated yesterday morning by the vigilance of Sheriff Bullock. It has been known to the Sheriff and his deputy that for several days past the prisoners were preparing to escape, but the keen eye of Bullock had watched their maneuvres, and he and the Under Sheriff have been standing guard, armed with double-barreled shot guns to prevent their escape. The prisoners had succeeded in cutting the iron of the inner door — not quite through, but leaving just sufficient uncut for the door to swing without falling down — and knowing that the outer door is not closed until about 9 o’clock at night, it was their intention to wrench the inner door from its hinges between the hours of 7 and 9 p.m. and effect their escape. Their plans were well laid and their failure is due to the strict guard kept over them.

The master spirit in the attempt was Samuel O. Duster. N.B. Larabee and Wm. Brooks (colored), also inmates, are not supposed to have been very active in the work. It was one of these latter names that informed the Sheriff of what was going on. The Sheriff has decorated the prisoners with his strongest and most approved style of jewelry; and now his slumbers are peaceful. We understand that it is the intention of District Attorney Toole to try this case mutilating or injuring county property to test the validity of the law inflicting punishment in such cases.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Apr 15, 1874

1870 Census - Helena - Seth Bullock

A SURE THING.

Saturday, May 30, at 10 o’clock.

You will find at the auction sale of Jno. E. McDonald, on Spruce and Dearborn streets, household goods, consisting of parlor, dining-room and kitchen furniture, a handsome marble top bed-room set, with English Brussels and three-ply carpets, cooking and heating stoves, a spring mattrass, a magnificent French clock, a perfect time-keeper, strikes the hours and half-hours, a water-fall, a gold finch taking his regular drinks, and music attached that will soothe a cross baby to sleep; books, magazines, chromos, etc., a Grover & Baker sewing machine, also a top buggy, with a set of gold mounted harness. Sale positive.

SETH BULLOCK.
dtd-my26     Auctioneer.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) May 26, 1874

1874

Helena Engine Company No. 1.

A special meeting of the above Company will be held in the Engine House on Saturday evening at 8 o’clock to make arrangements for an appropriate celebration of the 4th of July. A full attendance is requested.

By order     SETH BULLOCK,

W.J. AUERBACH, Secy.     Foreman.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) May 29, 1974

Sheriff Bullock started yesterday for Deer Lodge with three prisoners for the penitentiary — Lackland Frazier, Harry Clifford, and Samuel O. Duston, sentenced for one year each.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Jun 7, 1874

BOLD ROBBERY.

Sheriff Bullock, yesterday afternoon, sent a prisoner by the name of Jimmy Phillips, now confined in jail on the charge of petit larceny, after a bucket of water. Noticing that he was gone longer than was necessary, he stepped out of the jail to see what had become of the prisoner. He, however, made his appearance in a moment or two.

Jesse Armitage’s store was near by, and he soon missed some money out of the drawer. He communicated the fact to Sheriff Bullock, who proceeded to search the prisoner, and found it upon him. This may be considered one of the sharpest tricks ever played by a prisoner in this country. While the bucket was being filled he had stepped into the store and robbed the drawer of its contents so quietly and quickly that he was not detected in the act. He then got his bucket of water and returned to the jail. Young Phillips is evidently a hard case, and nothing but iron bars will ever be able to restrain him from taking other people’s property.

The Daily Independent ( Helena, Montana) Jul 3, 1874

Helena Library - not the original (Image from http://www.cardcow.com)

Here is a link with the history of the Lewis & Clark Library.

Library Festival.

The Helena Library Association will have a festival this evening in the Herald building on Broadway. No pains have been spared by the Committees to make it a pleasant affair. A noble object we trust that it will be well attended.

Committee on Arrangements —
Mrs. W.C. Child, Mrs. J.R. Gilbert, Mrs. E.W. Knight, Mrs. ?.W. Cannon, Mrs. D.A.G. Flowe??ee, Mrs. Dr. L.W. Frary, Mrs. Sam I. Neel, Mrs. Wm Sims, Mrs. A.J. Davidson, Mrs. Jon. McCormick, Mrs. A.J. Smith, Mrs. R.L. McCulloch, Mrs. T.O. Groshon, Mrs. Nick Kessler, Miss Clara Guthrie, Mr. Benj. Stickney, Wm. Nowlan, W.?. Chessman, A.H. Beattie and S.C. Ashby.

Ice Cream Committee —
Miss Lou Gutherie, Miss Mary Pope, Miss Mather, Miss Bailey, Miss Hattie Rumley, Miss Jennie Totten, Miss D. Anchel, Miss Marabel, Julia Coates, Mrs. Mae Bromley, Mr. C.G. Reynolds, Jno. Heldt, Aaron Hershfield, H. Wyttenbach, and Seth Bullock.

NOTE: I am trying to picture Seth Bullock serving ice cream!

I didn’t type all the names listed for the following committees:

Committee on Strawberries — …
Committee on Tables — …
Lemonade Committee — …
Reception Committee — …
Floor Managers — …

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 8, 1874

Helena - Main St. Looking South (Image from http://www.cardcow.com)

Mardi Gras Hop.

For the benefit of the Helena Library Association, will begin at International Hall, on Broadway, on Tuesday evening, February 9th, 1875.

General Managing Committee —
C. Hedges, D.S. Wade, W.F. Sanders, S. Koenigsberger, Wm Roe, John Kinna, S.H. Crounse, D.C. Corbin, W.C. Child.

Committee on Reception —
A. Sands, T.H. Kleinschmidt, A.M. Holter, R.E. Fisk, Seth Bullock, H.M. Parchen, C.A. Broadwater, W.F. Chadwick, A.J. Simmons.

Committee on Invitation — …
Committee on Music — …
Committee on Supper — …
Committee on Tickets — …
Floor Managers — …

Music will be furnished by Prof. Hewin’s band, and no pains will be spared by the Professor to make the music lively.

The hall will be kept comfortable by a stove at each end.

Tickets will be sold at the door at $2.50 each.

Supper will be served at the St. Louis Hotel, and will be separate and apart from the tickets for the hop.

The Committee on Invitations hereby extend a general invitation to all.

Dancing will commence precisely at 8 1/2 o’clock. Supper will be announced at 11 1/2 o’clock.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Feb 5, 1875

Helena Volunteer Firemen - Seth Bullock (3rd from left)

Image from Deadwood S.D. Revealed

FIREMAN’S BALL.

Washington’s Birthday, February 22d, 1875.

For the Benefit of the Fire Department.

Committee of Arrangements —
Seth Bullock, M.M. Chase, Wm. Sims, Henry Klein, A.R. Wright, Ted Sweeney, Joseph Davis, J.P. Woolman.

Committee on Supper and Soliciting — …
Committee on Music — …
Committee on Decoration — …
Committee of Reception — …
Floor Managers — …
Committee on Selling Tickets — …

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Feb 20, 1875

1875

Sheriff Bullock, whose absence from town has been observed more than a week, has been heard from at San Francisco. It is surmised that his visit has some connection with a gentleman who operated here a few years ago as “our wealthy banker,” but whose last days in Helena were passed in the company of a deputy sheriff. It is rumored that the sum of $7,000 has been offered to compromise the case in suit.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Mar 18, 1875

Fred. Shaffer Captured.

Below will be found the dispatches received by Sheriff Bullock yesterday relative to the capture of Shaffer and his companions at Bismarck. These dispatches were sent by mail from Corinne, hence the delay in receiving them. We learn that a requisition will be at once issued, and an officer promptly dispatched to bring the prisoner back, and he will probably be placed upon his trial at the present term of our District Court:

BISMARCK, May 24, 1875. — To Sheriff Bullock: Fred. Shaffer and company were captured here, for the murder of Franz Warl, and lodged, by the Police Court, in the County Jail, as suspicious persons. Send instructions and requisition. Answer at once.

P.M. DAVIS, Police Justice.

BISMARCK, May 25, 1875. — To Sheriff Bullock: Fred. Shaffer is in jail here. Send requisition immediately.

WM. PIERCE.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Jun 3, 1875

A Visit to the County Jail.

Yesterday afternoon the reporter availed himself of the invitation of Sheriff Bullock to take an inside look at the county jail, and found six prisoners incarcerated there, viz: Jeff. Perkins, of Benton, convicted for assault with intent to murder, and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary; Wm. Flynn and John Stout, both for grand larceny, and sentenced to two years each in the penitentiary; an insane Chinaman, awaiting the order from the Governor for admission to the Asylum. The chief object in view  was to see W.W. Wheatley and W.H. Sterres, convicted of the murder of Franz Warl, and awaiting sentence. They are kept closely locked in their cells and are very comfortable. Wheatley still protests his innocence of the blood of Warl. He claims that Sterres’ testimony, which was so damaging to him, was made in execution of the threat that both Shaffer and Sterres had made to him in case he did not leave town and should inform on them. Wheatley is certainly a weak-minded youth, and entirely devoid of principle. The reporter failed to discover the least redeeming trait in his character. It is said that the divine spark is never extinguished in man, but in his case it is very difficult to imagine it in him. He asked for the news, and as to the popular feeling regarding him, evidently indulging the hope that some degree of evidence might be given to his statement of innocence, strengthened, doubtless, by the recommendation to mercy, attached to the verdict of the jury, who found him guilty of willful and premeditated murder. He is not afraid to die; is only 25 years old; the world has many claims for him. He has a brother in Bismarck. Rev. Mr. Shippen has called twice to see him. He clings tenaciously to the hope that the sentence of death may not be executed upon him; but if he must die he has the consolation of knowing and feeling that he is guiltless of the terrible crime of murder.

William H. Sterres is entirely penitent, and has no hope that he will not be sentenced, and that it may not be carried into execution. He expects to die, and is anxious that his execution may not be long delayed. Shortly after his arrest he sent for Rev. Father Palladino, who visits him almost every day, and has supplied him with religious works to prepare him for baptism, which is to be conferred on him next Monday. Sterres has a wife and child in Sioux City. Conscious of the enormity of the crime for which he is to suffer, he is resigned to offer on the altar of justice the sacrifice of his life as the penalty of the law. The reporter left the jail a sadder man than when he entered it, impressed with the feeling that the sufferings of ta conscience burdened with such a terrible crime must be more acute than a thousand deaths.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Jun 20, 1875

Prickly Pear Creek - Photo by mmerrick

Larger photo and a map can be found on Panoramio.

On the afternoon of the 21st, while Sol Star and Seth Bullock were en route for Benton by private conveyance, and while attempting to ford the Prickly Pear, they met with an accident which nearly resulted in the loss of their lives.

It appears that when their team had reached the middle of the stream, the horses became frightened at some floating brush, and bolted down stream. Below the ford the water was deep and the current swift.

After strenuous efforts they succeeded in getting the horses and buggy out all right, but on the same side of the stream they started in from. The parties and their effects were thoroughly drenched, they retraced their way to Firgus’ ranch for repairs, and proposed to make another attempt next day.

–Herald.

Butte Miner (Butte, Montana) Jun 27, 1876

FOURTH OF JULY, 1876.

The One Hundredth National Anniversary.

Names of Officers and Order of Procession.

Officials.
William F. Wheeler, Chief Marshal of the Day in charge of the procession; Henry Wyttenbach and Charles J.D. Curtis, aids and assistants; Seth Bullock, James M. Ryan, E. Frank, L.P. Sterling, Ben R. Dittes, John O’Meara and E.T. Johnson, Assistant Marshals.

Order of Procession.

1ST DIVISION.
In charge of Henry Wyttenbach, Assistant Marshal:
Helena Silver Cornet Band.
Minute Men of 1776.

2D DIVISION.
In charge of Seth Bullock, Assistant Marshal, and the several officers of the Helena fire Department:
The several Fire Engine, Hose and Hook and Ladder companies.
Car of State, in charge of C.M. Travis and is two assistants.

3D DIVISION.
In charge of L.P. Sterling, Assistant Marshal:
Carriages for President of the Day, Chaplain, Orator, Historian, invited guests from abroad; also for Governor and other United States, Territorial and county officials.

4TH DIVISION.
In charge of James M. Ryan, Assistant Marshal:
Catholic Benevolent and Total Abstinence Society, and other societies of Irish citizens, under their society officers.

5TH DIVISION.
In charge of Dr. E. Frank, Assistant Marshal:
Helena Gesang Verein Harmonia and German citizens,
Montana Lodge No. 1 I.O.O.F., in charge of its officers.

6TH DIVISION.
In charge of Capt. John O’Meara, Assistant Marshal:
Base Ball clubs according to seniority of organization, under their respective Captains.
Boys from the schools, under charge of teachers or men appointed by the Principal of the Schools.
Mining delegations and citizens from abroad.
Citizens on foot, in carriages and on horseback.

7TH DIVISION.
In charge of E.T. Johnson, Assistant Marshal:
Colored citizens of Montana.

8TH DIVISION.
In charge of Ben R. Dittes, Assistant Marshal:
Ancient and Honorable Artillery.
Helena Commandery of Knights Templar, commanded by the Eminent Commander, T.H. Kleinschmidt.

All organizations desiring to join the procession are requested to meet at their several halls or places of rendezvous at 9 o’clock a.m., and to be on the most convenient side street, near the head of main, at precisely half past nine, ready to take their proper place in the procession as the head commences to move down Main street.

All who are not so ready will fall into the rear of the procession as it passes them.

Assistant Marshals will each be held responsible for bringing their respective divisions promptly into line.

The line of march and subsequent proceedings will take place in the published programme. The whole procession will move at 10 o’clock precisely.

W.F. WHEELER,
Chief Marshal.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 2, 1876

CENTENTIAL FOURTH.

The Celebration in Helena.

The Centennial Fourth was ushered in amid the roar of artillery and the merry ringing of bells. The entire population seems to have arisen at an earlier hour than usual, in order to partake to the fullest extent in the ceremonies and rejoicings of the day.

The long procession in its march through the streets was received everywhere with waving flags and encouraging smiles.

The Helena Fire Department was very fully represented and made a very creditable appearance. The two very handsome banners which they used on this occasion for the first time, was the gift of Mrs. L.B. Wells, and the fireman may well be proud of them.

The Car of State was very handsomely decorated.

The Little Continentals attracted general admiration.

The Knights Templar formed one of the most attractive features of the procession.

The members of the Catholic Benevolent and Total Abstinence Society presented a very fine appearance in the parade.

The Continentals were greatly admired and were one of the finest features of the procession.

The colored citizens under the Marshalship of Col. E.T. Johnson, were a prominent feature.

The Gesang Verein Society was a noticeable feature, the members all wearing “chips.”

The Irish citizens turned out in large numbers and the green flag of Erin was universally complimented.

About 12 o’clock the procession reached the Court House where the reading of the Declaration of Independence, the delivery of the Oration and the reading of an address by the Historian of the Day and singing by the Gesang Verein took place.

After dark a torch-light procession moved through all the principal streets and fire-works enlivened Tower Hill.

The celebration was a perfect success and reflected credit on the Committee of Arrangements and the citizens who so generously seconded their efforts to make memorable the celebration of the Centennial birthday of the Great American Republic.

Marshal Wheeler and his efficient aids deserve great credit for the successful manner in which the parade was conducted. Many persons made the remark that Col. Charles J.D. Curtis excelled himself in his splendid horsemanship and graceful carriage.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 6, 1876

Attention, Firemen.

All members of the Fire Department are requested to be at the Clore street Engine House at 2:30 p.m. to-day to attend the funeral of Thos. Ewing.

SETH BULLOCK, Chief Engineer.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 6, 1876

These last two are later articles, but they refer to Seth’s time in Montana:

A Boom Town in Montana.

Helena Journal.

I call to mind the time when there was a big boom in Billings, and everybody thought they had struck the spot for a second Chicago. Before the railroad reached Billings men came from the Black Hills, where all you could hear was the great boom Billings was having, and what a lively place it was. Seth Bullock, a merchant of the Hills, sent a stock of good to Billings. In a month or two he thought he would ride over and see how his store at Billings was progressing. It was between 300 and 400 miles, and Seth went on horseback. He rode along and was pretty well tired out when he got into the Yellowstone Valley, and about 9 o’clock one night, when he thought he must have gone far enough, he met a man.

“Can you tell me where Billings is?” asked Seth.

“You’re in Billings now,” replied the stranger.

“Am, eh?” said Seth, rather puzzled.

“Well, if that’s the case can you tell me where I can find Seth Bullock’s store.”

“It’s on this street about fifteen miles from here; just keep right straight ahead.”

Seth was about the worst surprised man you ever saw, but he found it pretty near as the stranger had said.

Fort Worth Daily Gazette (Fort Worth, Texas) Jun 12, 1890

GLAD HER HUSBAND WAS HANGED.

Experience of a Montana Sheriff with the Widow.

Ex-Sheriff Seth Bullock of Lawrence county, South Dakota, one of the early Indian fighters of Montana and the Dakotas, was in a reminiscent mood and among other things he told how he was thanked for hanging a man, says the New York Sun. A murder was committed just after he had been elected sheriff, and, as no murderer had even been brought to justice up to that time in the territory Bullock became famous for having captured the first two men charged with such a crime. Said Mr. Bullock:

“I rounded up a white man and a negro who had red hair and a bad reputation. The negro was a barber from Sioux City, and he came to Montana hunting trouble.

“I had the country so well organized at that time that the courts had a chance to try these men. They were convicted and sentenced to be hanged. Taking life by order of the court was a novelty in Helena, and the people gathered by thousands to see see the hanging.

“Shortly before the hour set for the execution the marshal brought me an order from the court granting a stay of execution for thirty days in the case of the negro. I saw that the crowd would probably be disappointed, and might take exceptions to the order of the court, and I swore in a lot of deputies to stand off the trouble I expected. One of my deputies on that occasion was Sam Hauser, who was afterward elected governor of Montana.

“The white man was duly hanged, and when the crowd saw that a man hanged on a scaffold was just as dead as one lynched on a tree they demanded the negro. I had erected a high board fence around the jail and placed my deputies on the inside, and when the crowd began to scale the fence they were met by the deputies with clubs.

“There was a hot time for several minutes, but when the leaders had been clubbed into docility they concluded to let me hang the negro in my own way. There was not a shot fired, and thirty days later the negro followed his white companion on the gallows.

“Some time later I had business in Minneapolis. A good-looking, well-dressed colored woman called on me at the hotel.

“‘Be you Seth Bullock?’ she inquired. I told her I was. ‘You hanged my husband last year, and I want to thank you.’ She had been married to the man in Sioux City and he had treated her brutally.”

Omaha Daily Bee (Omaha, Nebraska) Apr 20, 1898