Posts Tagged ‘1881’

Sarah Winnemucca: An Indian Princess

April 2, 2012

MISS SARAH WINNEMUCCA.

Miss Sarah Winnemucca recently passed through Carson, Nevada, on her way to Virginia City. This notable woman is commonly reputed to be the daughter of the old war chief of the Piutes, but this statement is denied, and it is represented that she was born of Digger parents somewhere in the foothills of the Sacramento Valley, and was educated by “The Sisters” at their Catholic academy in Marysville. Still the fact remains that she is enough versed in the Piute tongue to be able to talk fluently with the people of the tribe, for whom she had frequently acted as an interpreter. She is popularly regarded as the virgin queen of the Piutes; is a plain little woman, pretty dark; dresses like an American female, of rustic habits and modest pretensions; and talks English without any perceptible accent. She is a capable person, and reads our language and expresses herself in writing quite correctly, and with considerable force of expression. We have also heard of her writing poetry. As a reputed princess of the Piute blood royal she is a famous character. — [Carson, Nevada, Appeal.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Aug 2, 1873

THE PIUTE QUEEN.

A Letter From Her Highness to Chief Naches.

[Winnemucca Silver State.]

Naches, Chief of the Piutes, has received a letter from Sarah Winnemucca, the Piute Queen, now at Fort Simcoe, Washington Territory. She says she is well and doing well, and is now teaching a school among her people, which sixty of them, and sometimes more, attend. They have cleared about 70 acres of land and put in quite a crop of corn and potatoes. Lee Winnemucca is working for the agent at Simcoe Reservation, and Mattie, her niece, who accompanied her through the war last Summer, is dead. Twenty-one of the Piutes, who were taken to Simcoe last Winter have died, and there are quite a number of others on the sick list, many of whom are not expected to live. Those of the tribe who were taken to Vancouver as prisoners of war, she has not heard from, and she does not know what is going to be done with them. Princess Sally hankers for pine nuts, and wants Naches to send her as many of them as he can. She cannot tell when, if ever, she and her people are coming back, as they cannot leave without orders from Washington to that effect.

Daily Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Jul 17, 1879

Sarah’s Challenge.

The following is said to be a literal copy of Sarah Winnemucca’s challenge to the editor of the Silver State:

Your statement that I am a drunkard is an infernal lie, and you knew it was false when you wrote it. If you are anything of a man you will meet me and give me satisfaction. I will cram the lie down your throat at the point of a bowie knife. An early answer will oblige.

SARAH WINNEMUCCA.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Feb 24, 1880

Image from dragonflydesigns – Ancient Voices

Married a California Princess.

SAN FRANCISCO, December 8. — The princess of the Piute Indians of Nevada, commonly called Sarah Winnemucca, was married last night at the Russ house, in this city, to L.H. Hopkins, an ex-soldier of the United States army, who arrived here from Arizona on November 3. The bridegroom informed a reporter that as far back as 1879, during the Bannock campaign, he first met the princess, and was smitten with her charms. Since then mutual feeling has inspired them and, an opportunity presenting itself, they resolved never to be separated again. Dr. Beers was the officiating minister. Princess Winnemucca Hopkins and Mr. Hopkins will take their departure for the east at an early date. The princess is well known on this coast. She has lived mainly in Carson, Nev., with her father, the old Chief Winnemucca, who died a few months ago. She is a bright girl, has a good English education, and looks more like a Mexican girl than Indian. She has regular features and dresses fairly. She is a great advocate of education and has lectured in this and other cities on the wrongs of her tribe.

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Dec 9, 1881

Image from Fort Tours

PLEADING FOR HER RACE.

The Princess Winnemucca Before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

WASHINGTON, April 22. — The Princess Sarah Winnemucca, of the Piute tribe of Indians, was before the senate committee on Indian affairs to-day, pleading for a setting apart of a reservation for her tribe. She was accompanied by a delegation of ladies and gentlemen from Baltimore. The Indian woman spoke in good English, emphasizing her remarks with graceful gestures. As she depicted the griefs of her people, she was frequently moved to tears. She said her tribe was scattered, that they had been driven from place to place, “Two winters ago,” she continued, “while being driven from one point old men and children were frozen to death. She also said that the Indian agents had deprived the tribe of the stores provided for them by the government. The Piutes are located in Nevada. The princess asked that camp McDermott be set apart for them.

The Atlanta Constitution ( Atlanta, Georgia) Apr 23, 1884

Google Book link – Read Online

An Indian Tale.

Life Among the Piutes,” is the title of a new book just published in the East, the authorship of which is accredited to Sarah Winnemucca, the Piute princess. In the introductory chapter the reputed authoress informs the reader that “I was born sometime about the year 1844. My grandfather, Winnemucca, was then camped at Humboldt Lake with others of his tribe. It was about that time that a party of white men returning from California, was seen approaching our camp,” etc., etc.

The book is said to be full of thrilling incidents in the life of the dusky heroine, (which of course never happened.) It tells all about the capture of Sallie and her brother by the whites and how they were taken to California and educated; how they rejoined the tribe as soon as liberated; how in after years they labored to keep peace between the whites and Indians; how the heroine wrestled with her people to make christians out of them, and to prevent them from becoming victims to King alcohol and other besetting sins forever thrown in their way by conscienceless white men, and all that sort of thing. One or two heart rending love stories, in which the authoress plays a conspicuous part, are also woven in to give spice to the narrative. All of which, no doubt, will be entertaining to people in the East who know the Indian and his mode of life simply through pictures drawn in fancy by Cooper and other blood and thunder novelists, but to those who have lived in Nevada a quarter of a century and are somewhat familiar with the Piute tribe and the career of this dusky heroine, whatever interest the book may contain will be from another and very different standpoint.

Weekly Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) May 3, 1884

Daily Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Sep 7, 1884

THE NORTHERN INDIANN.

They do Not Want to Go to Pyramid Reservation, and No Room For Them There if They Did.

The Silver State says:

Leggins’ band of Piutes, who remained peaceable during the Bannock war, were treated upon the cessation of hostilities exactly the same as the captured hostiles. By order of the Indian Bureau, they were taken under military escort from Fort McDermit, by way of Camp Harney, where they were joined by the hostiles, to Yakima, Washington Territory. Naches and Sarah Winnemucca went from here to Washington to intercede for Leggins’ band, and upon the representation of General Howard and other military officers, who were in the campaign against the Bannocks, and who knew that Leggins’ band was not on the warpath, the Secretary of the Interior promised Naches that the exiled Piutes should be permitted to return to their own country, and that they should be furnished a military escort through Oregon. Owing to opposition of the Indian Bureau and a change in the Cabinet, this promise was not fulfilled, although the Indians expected it would be; and after patiently waiting nearly three years, they made their escape from Yakima, crossed the Columbia river, and evading as far as possible the settlements in Oregon, finally reached their native hunting grounds, near Fort McDermit, almost naked and starving. During the intensely cold weather tow years ago, they suffered from hunger, as they had been on the road from Yakima all Summer, and had it not been for the military and settlers, many of them would have starved to death. The Legislature of 1883 asked Congress to provide for their immediate wants, and Congressman Cassidy succeeded in getting $5,000 appropriated to purchase food and clothing for them. About $1,000 of that amount was expended under the direction of the military at McDermit for their benefit, and possible the Indian Bureau may be able to account for the balance of it, though the Indians derived no benefit from it. Subsequently an appropriation was made to be expended in removing Leggins and his band to some reservation. A week ago, E.C. Ellet, a special Indian Commissioner, arrived from the East at McDermit to arrange for removing the Indians. He held a council with the head men of Leggins’ band, and they protested against being taken away from the land of their birth, stating that as their young men could work for the settlers herding cattle, etc., and hunt deer and other game, they preferred to remain, but expressed the hope that the Government would provide, during the Winter months at least, for the old and decrepid of the band, through the military, who always befriended friendly Indians. Commissioner Ellet, accompanied by Lieutenant Colville P. Terrett, then went to the Pyramid Reservation to see what provision, if any, had been made for the northern Indians, and if there was sufficient arable land there to accommodate them. We learn that they found that the lands which the northern Indians would have to occupy on the reservation are not susceptible of cultivation; that the best lands along the Truckee for eight or nine miles below Wadsworth are occupied by white squatters, who have good fences, and comfortable houses; and that Winnemucca Lake, which the Indians claim was originally included in the reservation, is now a resort for Chinese fishermen. They also ascertained that the supplies furnished the reservation were not sufficient for the want of the Indians now there, and that Leggins’ band would have to support themselves or starve if removed there. Commissioner Ellet, after due consultation with Agent Gibson at the reservation, did not hesitate to say that he would recommend the removal of the squatters from the Reservation, but even if that is accomplished there will not be room there for Leggins’ band, the old and feeble of whom, in his opinion, should be provided for where they are.

Daily Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Dec 11, 1884

SARAH’S LIES ABOUT THE PIUTES STARVING ON THEIR RESERVATION.

Her Story of the Wrongs of Her People and False Charges of Dishonesty Against Indian Agent Gibson.

Sarah Winnemucca is the champion light-weight of the season, as will appear from a perusal of the following interview taken from the San Francisco Call of the 22d:

When old Winnemucca, the chief of the Piute Indians, died, he committed the interests of his people to his daughter Sarah. It was one of the most sagacious actions in the old man’s life. From that day to this Sarah Winnemucca has been the tireless friend of her people. She has brought to her work a fine mind, a generous nature, a fair education and indomitable energy. The first book written in the English language by an Indian is her vivid narrative of the wrongs of the Piutes and her eloquent appeal for justice for her people. In the history of the Indians she and Pocahontas will be the principal female characters, and her singular devotion to her race will no doubt be chronicled as an illustration of the better traits of the Indian character.

Sarah Winnemucca first spoke to a white audience several years ago in this city. The years that have intervened have been spent by her in addressing audiences in the East, relating to them the sad history of her tribe, and appealing to them to aid her people in their destitution. She has returned to San Francisco again. A Call reporter called upon her yesterday to inquire what the condition of her tribe was and what she proposed to do for them.

THE PIUTES STARVING.

“My people are famishing in the snow about Pyramid Lake, in Nevada,” she said sadly. “They are utterly destitute. My brother Natchez, the chief of the Piutes since the death of Winnemucca, my father, has only pine nuts to eat, and the speckled trout he catches in the lake. If he had not foreseen the need of the Winter last Summer, when he went into the mountains for the nuts, he would have had nothing. The Piutes are on the verge of starvation. They are growing weaker and weaker every day for want of food. They have been driven like wild beasts from place to place, and forced back from the meadows and the banks of rivers and streams into the mountains that are barren and wholly destitute of game.”

As Sarah Winnemucca, in these brief words, painted the destitute condition of her tribe, she expressed in her intelligent face the sorrow and indignation she felt. She is a woman slightly apast 40, with a heavy, yet shapely figure. Her face is exceedingly intelligent. She has strong jaws, with a delicate mouth, and cheek bones that are not so prominent as is usual in Indian faces. Her forehead is rather low, but broad, and her eyes are large and expressive. Her glossy black hair was gathered in a Grecian coil at the back, which showed the outline of her shapely head. She has easy command of colloquial English, and frequently expresses herself forcibly and eloquently.

“The Piutes are now on the reservation about Pyramid Lake,” she continued. “They number about 7,000 in all. It has been falsely said that the Pyramid Lake Reservation is rich in game and good lands. That was the representation made to the authorities at Washington when we were driven from the Malhuer Reservation. General Sheridan asked me, a short time ago, if our reservation did not afford us a good living. I told him that high bleak hills that only a goat could safely climb rose out of the water all around the lake; that the only arable lands were four acres on the river. He seemed astonished at the revelation, for he feels very kindly toward my people.”

FREEZING IN THE SNOW.

“How do your people live?” asked the reporter.

“Ah, that is a sad story, It is a wonder that they do live at all. They would all surely have perished long ago if their life-long experience with hardship had not inured them to scant food and exposure to cold. It is snowing now, doubtless, on their reservation, the lake and river are full of ice, yet they have no shelter except the wigwams, made of reeds and tule, no clothing save the bit of calico or blanket that they have picked up. Some of the young men herd cattle in Summer or work on farms near the reservation, and in that way they get a little money to buy blankets for the Winter; but they are the fortunate few. The rest have little to protect them from the cold.”

“What have they for food now?” inquired the reporter.

“Pine nuts, fish and rabbits. The latter is the only game on the whole reservation, and you may imagine how quickly they will disappear when hunted by 7,000 starving Indians.”

“Has no appropriation been made by the Government for the support of the Piutes?”

“My people do not belong to that class of Indians who are regularly provided for by the Government. At the last session of Congress Senator Dawes, of Massachusetts, secured an appropriation of $17,000 for the support of the Winnemucca tribe and Leggin’s band during this Winter, but not a cent of it has yet been spent for us, and I am afraid that it will never get farther than the hands of the rascally agents, who steal all they can get. My people are suffering for it now.”

THE INDIAN AGENT.

“Who is the Indian agent at your reservation?” asked the reporter.

“One Bill Gibson,” she replied with scorn. “He has employed all his relations in positions provided for by the Government, such as teachers, carpenters, blacksmiths and farmers. But they never do anything for the Indians. They live in idleness and draw their salaries regularly. The carpenter has not driven a nail for months; the teachers have never given a lesson; the blacksmith rarely lights a fire in his forge, and the farmer plows only for the white people. If a conspiracy were formed by the most cunning men to desert and neglect the Indians on our reservation, it could not succeed better than the selfish policy of Bill Gibson, the agent, and his hungry relations. Not a cent of the $17,000 which was appropriated for the support of the Piutes has been spent for us. Where it has been side-tracked on its journey from Washington I do not know.”

“Don’t the Indians sell fish and get money that way?”

“Yes; but they are robbed of that too. They are allowed to trade only with the settlers of the reservation. They but their fish at 5 or 6 cents a pound and sell it for 15 to 18 cents. My people don’t understand weighing either. They bring in a load of fish and the settler goes through the form of putting them on the scales and then tosses the Indian a silver dollar or two and goes off satisfied. Everyone connected with the agency is wholly devoid of conscience. They are there to get rich. There are people there who steal everything that the Government sends to us. They steal everything that the Indians own, and they run their cattle on our reservation, driving ours and the game off. It is a wretched state of affairs.”

“Are your people willing to become farmers?” asked the reporter.

“Yes, indeed, if they had but a chance. They are not a roaming, shiftless, lazy people. They want to work in the Summer they take it eagerly. If we could only get a start in agriculture, if we could only get arable land, we could take care of ourselves, but we have been driven from good land to worse, till now we are on about as bleak and barren a spot as there is in the whole state of Nevada.”

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Jan 25, 1885

Image from the National Park Service

Wants Protection.

Sarah Winnemucca writes the Silver State from Lovelock, complaining about the destruction of the Indians’ crops by the cattle and hogs belonging to white people, and asks if there is no law for the protection of the Piutes’ crops.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Dec 4, 1886

Image from A Landing A Day

An Indian Industrial School.

A Lovelock correspondent, under date of the 1st instant, writes to the [Silver State] as follows: “Princess Sarah Winnemucca goes East to agitate the matter of getting aid for building an industrial school on Chief Naches farm at Lovelock. Naches offers to donate a 40-acre tract for that purpose. The Princess will canvass among her eastern friends for their support and influence in trying to get Government aid towards the building of such an institution. There are some 400 Indian children within the country to be educated, and Sarah believes in educating them at home. She says it is all nonsense about the Indian children’s features changing when taken from home to be educated, as some papers go so far as to say, and that their features always remain as God made them. They learn rapidly at almost any school under proper treatment, but the right place to teach them is at home in their own State amid the surroundings of their childhood, with their parents, not among strangers in some distant land. Experience has taught her what her young people need, and the Government should make an appropriation and place her at the head of an Indian industrial school. So far she has conducted her school here without Government aid, having received assistance from her eastern friends, among them that grand old lady — Miss Peabody.”

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Jun 4, 1887

Superintendent W.I. Davis, of the Grand Junction School, with several Indian pupils, will leave here to-morrow morning for home. He expected to take with him at least forty recruits for his excellent school. He would have done so had not Piute Natchez, and his lovely relative the far-famed Princess Sarah Winnemucca, interposed a veto. This latter idolized friend of Mrs. Horace Mann and Miss Peabody can shed crocodile tears over the misfortunes and lamentable ignorance of “my people,” but now that the opportunity offers this “patron of learning” shows her hand. She is soon to go East to collect money to educate “my people,” but she protests against the Government educating them. She dislikes the Government and the dislike is mutual. Her dislike to the Government is her objection to “my people” being educated at the Government’s expense. If Sarah could handle the Government’s money as she does that of the misguided religious enthusiast there would never be a whisper by her against the Government educating the Piute people to which, unfortunately for them, she is a member.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Jun 7, 1887

PDF Link  Newspaper article:  Johnson Sides == “United States Peacemaker”

Combatting Superstition.

Princess Sarah Winnemucca came in from Humboldt last evening and had a long talk with Johnson Sides and other Piutes relative to the fraudulent prophet of Walker River, who is telling the Indians of that locality that the braves of former ages are soon to reappear on the earth to destroy all Indians who have adopted the habits of white people. Sarah and all the better informed of her tribe do not believe in any such foolishness.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Mar 25, 1889

Sarah Winnemucca, the Indian princess who attended Wellesley college, and under the nom de plume of “Bright Eyes” has written several frontier stories, is now teaching an Indian school of her own. She reports that she has fifteen or sixteen pupils, and is getting along nicely.

Daily Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Apr 16, 1889

UNRELENTING BRAVES.

They Want Tuscarora Jake to Stretch Hemp.

A council of Shoshone Indian braves was held at Elko last week. Tuscarora Jake, the Indian thug, is in jail for the murder of two members of his tribe. The relatives and friends of Jake offered to give the relatives of the murdered men a certain number of ponies, blankets and money if they would consent to have him set at liberty, and to put up a number of ponies as indemnity for the future good behavior of Jake.

The relatives of the murdered men refused the offer, and said that Jake ought to be hanged, as he not only killed members of his own tribe, but a Chinaman also, for which another and an innocent Indian was sent to State Prison. The head men of the tribe concluded that Jake should be punished as an example and a warning to Indians who are disposed, while drunk, to murder members of their own tribe or others who happen in their way. They think Jake is guilty of a cold-blooded murder and ought to be publicly hanged, so that Indians and whites could see him die. Sarah Winnemucca and Nachez attended the council.

Weekly Gazette Stockman (Reno, Nevada) Oct 10, 1889

SARAH WINNEMUCCA.

Colonel Frank Parker Tells How She Once Saved His Life.

Princess Sarah Winnemucca, who died recently in Montana, was a remarkable woman in many respects, and a prominent feature in the Indian relations of the Pacific Coast for the past quarter of a century. She had but one idea, and that was the civilization of her people. She was the daughter of old Chief Winnemucca, of the great Piute tribe, which included the Bannocks, Sheep-eaters, Weisers, Malheurs and the Snake River Indians, who committed so many depredations in early days in Oregon and Idaho. Winnemucca and her whole family were ever true to the whites, and so far as their jurisdiction extended forced their tribes to peace. Colonel Frank J. Parker, editor of the Walla Walla Statesman, tell how she saved his life and that of his companions in the Malheur country in the spring of 1878:

Sarah was then on her way to the Malheur reservation in the vain endeavor to prevent the reservation Indians there from going on the warpath with Buffalo Horn. One night one of the horses of her team got away, and to help her out we loaned a young fellow, who was along with her, one of our horses to hunt the lost one. Charles Robinson of this city and a boy were along with us at the time, and for the help we rendered her we always gave credit for saving our little company from being killed. The Indians had already donned their war paint and we were in their midst. The very day we arrived on the reservation everything was looking dark. Sarah was all the time in consultation with Chief Egan, and sent for us. Going to her wickiup, she introduced Eagan, and intimated that we had better get, and stand not upon the order of getting. As we only had one gun among our crowd, the advice was taken.

After this Sarah joined Howard‘s outfit, and followed him throughout the Bannock campaign as a guide and a possible interpreter in case of a desire to surrender on the part of the hostiles. When the war ended she was in great demand by the Interior Department authorities, and did good work in having the remnants of her tribe removed to various other reservations where they could do no mischief. She was the only Indian on this coast who ever took any prominent part in settling the Indian question, and as such her memory should be respected.

Col. Parker could not have known old Winnemucca very well, for a more treacherous wretch never lived.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Nov 20, 1891

We called her Sarah Winnemucca, of the mint family? Well, Toc-me-to- which means shell-flower. Have you ever seen these flowers growing in an old garden among their many cousins of the mint family? Well, Tocme-to-ne loved them of all flowers best, for was she not herself a shell-flower?

Her people were Piute Indians, and they lived in every part of what is now the great state of Nevada.

Toc-me-to-ne had a flower name, so she was followed to take part in the children’s flower festival, when all the little girls dance and sing, holding hands and making believe that they are the very flowers for which they are named. They wear their own flowers, too, and after they have sung together for a while one will dance off on the grass by herself while all the boys and girls look on and she sings:

I am a daisy gold and white
Somebody catch me — me!

The grown-up people watch, too, as their children play, and Toc-me-to ne was never happier than when, light as a bird, she danced and sang her shellflower song:

See me – see me, a beautiful flower,
Give me a hand and a dance.

Then after the plays and dancing the children had all sorts of good things to eat, and the flower festival was over for a year.

Only three times did Toc-me-to-ne take part in the flower festival, for when she was quite a little girl, her grandfather, Chief Winnemucca, took his family and went to live in California, and when they came back she was almost grown up.

Her grandfather was very fond of her, and called her sweetheart, so she was sad and lonesome indeed when he left her and went to the Happy Spirit Land; but she did not forget his last words to her before he went. “Sweetheart,” he said, “do not forget my white brothers; be kind to them and they will be kind to you and teach you many things.”

In California the old chief gave to grandchildren new names — Natchez, Lee, Mary and Sarah, and Sarah learned to speak fairly good English. Later, when she came to Pyramid lake, she played with Mr. Ormsby’s children and learned to speak better English. Besides this Mrs. Ormsby taught her to cook and sew and to do housework.

When Sarah was fifteen years old she made the long 500-mile journey to California once more with her brother and sister and her grandmother. Her brothers took care of cattle for good Mr. Scott, who had known and loved Chief Winnemucca, and he gave them good wages, several fine horses, and two ponies for Sarah and Mary to ride. The sisters had always ridden bareback like Indian men, but when Christmas came Sarah was surprised to find a beautiful Mexican side-saddle from her brother Lee, and she learned to ride like the white ladies, and was very proud and happy.

Now the Piutes always would wander about. They lived by hunting and fishing, not by farming, so they moved from place to place wherever there was game. When they were in the mountains rough white settlers came to Pyramid lake and caught almost all of the fish with nets, so that there were no fish when the Indians returned. This made the Indians angry, and so trouble began. All this time Sarah was in California. Her father, Chief Winnemucca Second, and her mother were in Nevada, and she often heard good news from them, but one spring when she was seventeen years old two Indians came bringing the news from her father that he was in the mountains and wanted all his children to come to him, but especially Sarah.

Starting on their ponies they began the journey, riding beside the wagon where the grandmother rode. It took twenty-five days to reach Carson City, but here their father and mother met them, and next day all went to see Gov. Nye, whom Sarah told in English what her father, the chief, wanted to say.

Gov. Nye was very jolly and good, and when he knew how things really were he told the white settlers not to interfere with the Indians, and sent soldiers from the fort to drive the rough men away; so Gov. Nye and Chief Winnemucca became good friends, as they never could have been but for little Toc-me-to-ne and her bright interpretations.

For the next year Sarah talked both Piute and English, and settled many little troubles. She was called friend both by the Indians and soldiers, and her father and she thought often of old Chief Winnemucca’s words and kept peace with their white brothers.

New Oxford Item (New Oxford, Pennsylvania) Nov 5, 1908

Image from Nephilim Skulls International

Seek to clarify Indian myth about tribe of cannibal giants

By BRENDAN RILEY
Associated Press Writer

LOVELOCK, Nev. (AP) — Times are tough for the legendary red-haired cannibal giants whose alleged existence here centuries ago has been debated for nearly 100 years.

Scientists have said there’s no proof the “giants” first described in old Indian tales were cannibals. Chemical staining by earth after burial was advanced as a likely reason why mummified remains have red hair instead of black like most Indians in the area.

Now a new study under way at the University of Nevada indicates the “giants” were about six feet tall, and not up to 10 feet tall as had been claimed.
What’s left is evidence of a tribe separate from principal tribes whose Paiute descendants live here — perhaps a wandering, more aggressive but outnumbered band finally hunted down and killed or chased off.

Anthropologists say the story, while somewhat tamer, is still fascinating. But they concede the old myth has more appeal and, no matter what they say, will probably persist.

Don Tuohy, curator of anthropology at Nevada State Museum, says he’s confident the “giant” myth is about to be debunked. He asked for the latest study after a bundle of “giant” bones were found in a long-overlooked cabinet at the Nevada Historical Society building in Reno.

But Tuohy says the old tale will probably live on.

Dr. Sheilagh Brooks, chairwoman of the anthropology department at UN-La Vegas, is now analyzing the bones which apparently came from the Lovelock Cave, a nearby treasure trove for scientists trying to reconstruct Nevada’s early history.

Dr. Brooks says her initial investigation shows some of the bones were from cows, not giants. The human bones appear to be remains of Indians “maybe six feet tall — big, but not that big,” she says.

The myth was written down in 1883 by Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins, daughter of a Piaute Indian chief. She told of a strange, red-haired tribe of cannibals her ancestors drove into a cave and suffocated by lighting a fire at its entrance.

She said the “people eaters” were so fierce they would leap into the air, snatch arrows whizzing over their heads, and shoot them back at the Piaute attackers.

John T. Reid, a Lovelock, mining engineer, said Indians took him to the cave in 1886 and told him the same tale. But when he entered the cave he found nothing but tons of bat guano.

Reid was unsuccessful in getting an archeological dig started immediately. But miners realizing the value of guano as fertilizer started hauling it out in 1911. They promptly turned up bones, baskets, weapons, tools, duck decoys, various other artifacts and what they described as a 6-foot-8 red-haired mummy.

That spurred the first archeological dig in 1912. A second dig took place in 1924. Thousands of artifacts and about 60 average-height mummies were recovered. More studies followed, including radio-carbon dating which showed the cave was occupied from about 2,000 BC to about 900 AD.

Daily Leader (Pontiac, Illinois) Oct 4, 1976

Gotta Shoot a Man to Start a Graveyard

August 15, 2011

PIONEER LIFE
IN THE
NORTH-WEST.
_____

A MURDER MOST FOUL.

The following sketch is from the pen of “Brick” Pomeroy, and was originally published in the La Crosse Democrat. It is so interesting, and so aptly illustrates life in the early times that I take the liberty of using it here: —

“It has been humorously claimed for the average frontier town, as a point in favor of its climatic conditions, that it was necessary to shoot a man for the purpose of starting a grave-yard. While this may be true of La Crosse, a ramble among the tomb-stones and monuments of Oak Grove Cemetery will discover the fact that it was unnecessary to resort to such an extreme measure as an inaugural, its identity was more clearly established by being the burial place of a murdered man.

“In the spring of 1852, a man named David Darst, came to La Crosse from Illinois, bringing with him in his employ, William Watts. Mr. Darst was a man of means, and his object in leaving civilization for the hardships of the frontier is unknown. However, he located on a piece of land in Mormon Cooley, and engaged in farming.

“On the 5th of June, 1852, six or seven weeks after his settlement in the Cooley, his body was found in the bushes by a man by the name of Merryman, stripped of every rag of clothing and tied to a pole which the murderer had used to carry the body from the shanty in which they lived. Merryman was attracted to the spot by the barking of his little dog. He came into town and reported what he had found, and a number of citizens volunteered to go to the Cooley to investigate the matter and try and arrest the murderer, if he could be found. Several parties were arrested but all proved their innocence to the crowd and were released. — On returning to town the man Watts was found with Darst’s clothes on his back — even to his shirt and underwear. He had all his household goods, money, two yoke of cattle and everything the man had. — He was arrested and, there being no jail, he was given over to the keeping of a Mr. McShodden, who kept him in his cellar, chained to a post. He evidently belonged to a gang of outlaws, as evidenced from letters received at the post-office for him both before and after his arrest.

“One evening he escaped. The whole plantation turned out to hunt him; boats scoured the river bank in all directions; men on horseback and armed searched the prairie. But they could find no trace of him. Parties of boys were also looking for him. About midnight he was found by the noise of a file he was using to get rid of his chains, by a party of these small boys and taken into custody. He afterward was furnished by his friends with a file and some iron-colored-paste. This he used in his “prison” and escaped a second time, and was not found for a long time. He was discovered as a hostler at the Ridge Tavern by a man who had been sent for the mail. The mail-carrier, without appearing to notice him at the time, on his arrival home reported him to the Sheriff, who immediately went out and secured him. A one-story stone jail had been erected by subscription after his first escape. He was incarcerated in this and made his exit through the roof of this institution. A new and stronger roof was put on the building, and a large quantity of stone put loose over the ceiling in such a manner that if he tried again it would fall on him and crush him.

“Watts confessed his crime. He said that Darst was lighting the fire on the morning of the murder, he struck him on the head with an axe. He had no other reason for the deed than that of securing the money and property of the victim. — At the funeral of Darst, which occurred the Sunday following the discovery of his body, the services were held in a small building on State street, with the murdered man in his coffin and the murderer in chains standing at the head. It was understood very generally, that as the funeral procession left for the cemetery, Watts was to be lynched. The Rev. S.C. Sherwin conducted the services, and, although more than one rope was in the hands of the party, such was his influence over the populace that he prevailed upon them to let law and order take their course.

“A few years afterward a party of gentlemen were attracted to the spot where Merryman’s dog had discovered to him the body of Darst by the same animal, and there they found the body of Merryman himself in the icy embrace of death.”

Indiana Progress (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Sep 8, 1881

This version from The History of LaCrosse, Wisconsin gives more details:

THE MURDER OF DAVID DARST.

A great many fights and fracases occurred about this time, but on June 3, 1852, one of the most deliberately-planned and cold-blooded murders ever chronicled was committed in Mormon Cooley, which greatly excited the entire community, and came near ending in the lynching of the accused. David Darst, it seems, had at a comparatively early day removed from Galena, 111., and settled on a claim out in Mormon Cooley. He built him a log hut, and, with two yoke of oxen, was soon in a prosperous condition for a settler of the times. In the spring of the year in which the murder was committed, there came up the river from Galena a young man named William Watts, who had known Darst previous to his removal hither, and seeking him out, proposed making a visit to his friend of former days. After remaining here a short time, accepting the hospitality of his whilom friend, Watts deliberately murdered Darst, and, stripping the body of clothing and valuables, hid it in a plum thicket that occupied a ravine near the house. The murderer dressed himself in the garb of the dead victim of his devilish covetousness, and yoking up the oxen, came into the village for the purpose of disposing of the plunder.

The same day that Watts came out of the cooley, Mr. Merriman, an old bachelor, who had a cabin not far distant, was riding up the ravine on horseback, accompanied by a dog, his daily companion, the keen scent of which detected the dead and decaying remains of the murdered host of Watts. The dog ran into the thicket and thence back to his master, manifesting the utmost concern, and betraying an anxiety that indicated something out of the usual channel. Mr. Merriman finally dismounted, and following the dog into the thicket, was nearly paralyzed and stricken dumb by the horrible sight which met his gaze. There lay his neighbor, stiff and stark and dead, his skull crushed and his throat cut, in the last stages of decomposition, and exuding an odor which was stifling. He at once gave the alarm, and hurrying to the village, startled the inhabitants with the story of what he had seen.

While this condition of affairs was rendering the village a scene of pronounced commotion. Watts was engaged in drinking and carousing, and when he had reached a condition of helpless intoxication, he solved the mystery which had surrounded the crime, and was arrested, narrowly escaping lynching.

An inquest was held over the remains of Darst, his murderer being obliged to confront the remains, and when moved to stand at the head of the coffin. During the funeral there were a number in attendance who had ropes concealed about their persons, and but for an eloquent appeal made by Elder Sherwin to let the law take its course, and not disgrace the village by mob violence, the prisoner would have been executed.

At that time the court house was finished, but no jail had yet been provided, and the stone basempnt on Pearl street, between Second and Third streets, was leased from Col. Childs for the confinement of Watts, who was guarded by a man named McSpadden, hired for that purpose. The prisoner was heavily ironed and safely kept for awhile, but the expense was very considerable, and a jail was built for the safe keeping of the prisoner and others who had been arrested for trifling offenses. In its construction the ceiling was made of joists spiked together, and the attic filled with pounded rock, to the end that a prisoner, if he attempted to bore through the ceiling would be deluged with stones. It was not long, however, before the prisoner dug out through the foundation walls, and when his escape was announced the public turned out to effect his re-capture. About midnight on the second day of the pursuit a party of boys engaged in the search heard the noise of some one filing in the prairie grass near Deacon Smith’s. The alarm was given, and Watts was re-taken and re-conveyed to jail, where he was heavily ironed. Notwithstanding this, and the further assurance endeavored to be secured by the Sheriff visiting him at all hours of the day and night, the prisoner eluded the vigilance, attempted and escaped once more.

Search was again undertaken, but with poor success, for awhile at least. He could not be found anywhere, and the officers and citizens were about giving up the search, when a stagedriver, who twice a week made trips to Hazens, out on the ridge, discovered that Watts was disguised and acting as a hostler at that place. Upon his return he detailed the whereabouts of the fugitive, who was arrested and brought back, and, obtaining a change of venue to Bad Axe County, was tried, convicted and sentenced to Waupun for life.

The account of Sheriff Elder differs materially from the above ; and that no factor or phrase of the horrible crime may be wanting, the statement of that gentleman is submitted substantially as follows:

In the spring of 1852, Watts and Darst came in from Peoria, 111., to Mormon Cooley. where the latter purchased a claim, on which former assisted him to build a cabin. Before its completion, according to an account of the crime furnished by Watts, he asked Darst for some money, which enraged the latter, who retorted that he (Watts) owed him $80; that he had kept him poor, and would not rest until he had ruined him. In the excitement of the moment, Darst made an assault upon his subordinate, who tried to escape, but, being headed off at the door and window, neither of which had been closed in, whereupon Watts seized an unfinished ax-helve, and swinging it around in a threatening manner, struck Darst a fatal blow under the ear. Being “then tempted of the devil,” as he protested, he rifled the murdered man of his money and carried the body part way up the bluffs, near to a point where the two had obtained stone to build a chimney. Upon returning to the house, he yoked up the oxen, and visiting the residence of the Kimball brothers, the three went fishing at the Chipmunk Creek. While driving the oxen, Watts met Mr. Merriman, the nearest neighbor of his victim, who enquired after Darst, with whom he had an engagement to join their teams in some work they had decided it was necessary should be done. »

Watts replied, “he has gone away for a few days, and says you are a d—d scoundrel, and wants nothing to do with you.”

This uncivil and uncalled-for speech on the part of Watts excited Merriman’s suspicions, who sought assistance and discovered the body of Darst. An alarm was given, and Sheriff Eldred arrested Watts and the two Kimballs, all three of them very much intoxicated. That night he locked himself, with the three accused, in Chase & Stevens’ office, and in the morning the Kimballs were horrified upon being informed of what was alleged against them. They at once proposed to “churn out the brains of that critter,” alluding to Watts, but were dissuaded from such an act by the Sheriff, and permitted to visit their families on parole, whence they returned in a few hours to stand trial.

Watts was confronted with the dead body of his victim, but gave no sign of guilt, and a cry was raised to lynch him. This, however, was not done, owing to cooler counsels, and the prisoner was turned over to a Mr. McSpadden, residing on Front street near the present ferry, who kept him in a room in his house, the outer door of which was made fast by rolling a pipe of liquor against it.

The prisoner escaped soon after, and was not recaptured until the following February, notwithstanding the offer of $200 reward for his apprehension, when he was retaken by Messrs. Kellogg and Wasson, and immured in the jail which had been constructed in the meanwhile, where he was manacled, shackled and chained to the wall for safe keeping until his trial, which took place in Crawford County, and resulted in his conviction.

The jail to which allusion is here made was a small one-story stone structure, extending four feet beneath the surface of the ground and abutting upon the rear wall of the court house, into which entrance was afterward made. It was not safe, and in after years was succeeded by the present compact and secure building. The account preceding was obtained from Mr. Eldred, who made the arrest of Watts in the first instance.

When the war broke out, Watts received a pardon, conditioned upon his enlisting in the service, which he did, and all subsequent trace of him was lost.

Mr. Darst lies buried in Oakwood Cemetery, where a plain tombstone relates that “David Darst was murdered by William Watts June 3, 1852.”

A most singular occurrence attended the end of Mr. Merriman. Just two years from the time in which his little dog was the means of enabling him to discover the dead body of Darst, he went wandering up the same ravine, and fell dead in the identical thicket whence he assisted in removing the murdered remains of his friend. The old man was missed by his neighbors, who instituted a thorough search for him, and, while passing through the little cooley back of the missing man’s hut, they encountered his dog. The animal again acted strangely, and scampered off to the thicket as he had done when Darst was missing, then returning and repeating this several times. The searchers finally followed the dog, and were led to the corpse of his master. It was thought that he met foul play, but an examination led to a verdict by a coroner’s jury that he had fallen down dead from an attack of heart disease, almost in the form hollowed out by the body of Darst two years before.

Thus ends the particulars of one of the pioneer murders committed in La Crosse after it became a county—certainly, one of the most cold-blooded and brutal the criminal annals anywhere record, and one whence escape from the usual penalties was comparatively easy. But the frontier settlements even then were too sparsely settled to admit of the expense of a cumbersome system of jurisprudence employed in older settled communities, and the first settlers were always a law unto themselves. But as time passed and the majesty of the law was established,the practice of holding one’s self responsible for his conduct became obsolete, and the redress of grievances was reserved to the courts, those agencies of civilization, and, so equitably have the scales of justice been adjusted, and so irresistibly right have questions arising thereunder been adjudicated, that if it is beyond the wisdom of man to avoid erring in all the affairs of this life, the practice of repetition in evils that have been decreed as such should have been abrogated years ago.

Title: History of La Crosse County, Wisconsin
Author: Consul Willshire Butterfield
Publisher: Western Historical Co., 1881
Pgs 395-400

Close Call with a Shark – 1881

August 10, 2011

A Frightful Situation.

Capt. David L. Longstreet, of Seabright, says a New Jersey paper, accompanied by a fellow-fisherman, was fishing with great success in ten fathoms water. The day was fine, the sea was right, and the trail was strong. — Suddenly the fish stopped biting. Longstreet was unable to account for the phenomenon, but while thinking it over he felt the strong pull of a bluefish at his hook. At the same instant he saw the dorsal fin of a shark close by the boat. The shark’s tail churned the water into foam twelve feet behind the fin.

1880 Census – David Longstreet – Ocean, Monmouth, New Jersey

When the shark snapped at the bluefish Longstreet was pulling to the boat, he could see that it was not the common shark, but the black shark, or dreaded man-eater. Longstreet continues: “I let go of my line, but the blue-fish darted straight for the boat, slipping under it and escaping. The shark, following closely with open mouth, plunged his nose through the ‘tuck’ of the boat, about a foot forward of the stern, and his under jaw closed on the keel with a crash-like the cut of an axe in a dry tree-trunk. Water spurted into the boat. The shock threw me headforemost out of the boat. I sank, and as I rose, I felt that I was kept under by the agitation of the water by the shark’s tail, which stirred the water like the propellor of a tug. But I struck out vigorously, and, to my horror, came to the surface alongside the tail of the shark. I put out my hand before I realized fully where I was, and touched his cold body, and remember I thought, ‘How hard and strong this is!’ As I turned to swim towards the boat my right foot struck his long tail, and here is the mark of the contact. As soon as I got to swimming I felt at ease. I didn’t seem to realize, as I do now, the horrible fate that awaited me if the struggling monster alongside of me got his head clear of the hole in the boat. I climbed into the boat, helping myself by putting my knee on the shark’s back. Meanwhile the other fisherman had been shouting for help, and a relief-boat soon approached, the struggling shark freeing itself and escaping.”

The Indiana Progress (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Sep 8, 1881

John Anderson, My Jo – My Jim – My John – My Tom and My, What a Lunatic!

February 1, 2011

Image of this Irish couple (Luke and Bridget Reilly) is from the Photopol blog.

The parodies continue:

ANSWER TO “JOHN ANDERSON MY JO.”

BY MRS. CRAWFORD.

Jean Anderson, my ain Jean!
Ye’ve been a leal gude wife;
Ye’ve mair than shared by pain, Jean,
Ye’ve been my joy through life;
I loved ye in your youth, Jean,
Wi’ bonny snooded brow;
But maun I tell the truth, Jean,
I love ye better now.

*     *     *     *     *     *     *
I’ve been a man ol toil, Jean,
And aye obliged to roam;
But still ye had the smile, Jean,
And canny “welcome home!”
Our hearth was aye a light, Jean,
The kail pot on the fire,
When I came back at night, Jean,
I found my hearts desire.

Our bairus hae bred some cares, Jean,
But thanks to thee my Jo,
They brought not our gray hairs, Jean,
Wi’ shame or sorrow low;
And when at last our bed, Jean,
Beside the kirk maun be,
They’ll honor us when dead, Jean,
And that’s enough for me.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Mar 1, 1848

The original Robert Burns version (previously posted) for comparison.

Peddlin’ My Jo:

1886 Bicycle for Two – Image from the Copenhagen City Museum

John Anderson, My Jo.
John Anderson, my Jo, John,
When we were first acquent
You wouldn’t ride the bike, John,
But now your spine is bent.
I see you riding by, John,
And goodness how you go —
You’re the swiftest sco???er in the town,
John Anderson, my Jo.

John Anderson, my Jo, John,
We clamb the hill thegither —
I’ll ne’er forget the day, John,
Nor, ”aibelins, wil you ither!
We coasted on your tandem,
And, jinks, how we did go,
Till we struck that fence-rail at the foot,
John Anderson, my Jo.

— Chicago News.

The Daily Herald (Delphos, Ohio) Jun 17, 1899

Civil War Hero:

John Logan, O my Jo, John,
When we were first acquaint,
A soldier bold you were, John,
Bedecked with warlike paint;
And when your slogan sounded
It nerved your loyal clan,
For to the front they bounded —
You led them like a man.

Oshkosh Daily Northwestern (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Jun 24, 1884

Image from Wiki.

Now for politics and corruption, but I repeat myself:

This one is about John Kelly and Tammany Hall:

John Kellyus, my jo, John,
When we were first acquaint,
You were a dreaded chief, John,
When you put on your paint;
But now your goose is cooked, John,
Your head is lying low —
It lies beneath old Sammy’s feet,
John Kellyus, my jo!

Albany Journal.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Oct 30, 1881

Image from The Old Photo Album website – American Civil War Portraits

COLFAX’S FAREWELL.

(“John Anderson, My Jo, John.“)

OLD subsidy, my Pomeroy,
When first we were acquaint,
The gospel of Sharpe’s rifles
Declared you quite a saint.
But now the cause of freedom
Will surely quick succumb —
In spite of all your bonds and things,
They cast you out, my Pom!

Well subsidized, my Pomeroy,
We fought the fight together,
And many a little picking, Pom,
Laid by for stormy weather.
Now we must tumble down, Pom,
But cheek by jowl we’ll fall,
And sink together in the mud
Where we were meant to crawl.

The Portsmouth Times (Portsmouth, Ohio) Mar 1, 1873

Image of Gov. J. Madison Wells from the Vangobot Pop Art Machine website.

“ADAPTED” FROM THE SCOTTISH.

Tom Anderson, my Jo, Tom,
When we were first acquaint,
For those electoral returns
In confidence you “went.”
You “fixed” ’em very bully, Tom,
With “Maddy” Wells and Co.,
And thought you had a certain thing,
Tom Anderson, my Jo!

But, Thomas A., my Jo, now
That matter “hasn’t went”
Entirely “serene,” and so
Your bonny brow is “brent,”
And your locks are prison locks, Tom,
And not at all like snow,
For they’ll not melt away with spring,
Tom Anderson, my Jo!

— Washington Post.

The Daily Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Feb 15, 1878

Image of John Sherman from Wiki.

ANOTHER CONFIDENTIAL LETTER.

FROM JOHN SHERMAN TO JAMES E. ANDERSON.

Jim Anderson, my jo, Jim,
When first we were acquaint,
You hadn’t kalsomined yourself
With pugilistic paint.
But now your jaw is oiled, Jim,
You’re telling what you know,
And I am shaking in my shoes —
Jim Anderson, my jo.

Jim Anderson, my jo, Jim,
We planned the fraud thegither,
And promised that we never would
Go back on one anither,
We juggled the returns, but James,
Jim James, how could you blow
And peach on me and Rutherford —
Jim Anderson, my jo?

Jim Anderson, my jo, Jim,
I promised we would pay,
But you despised a clerkship at
Three dollars every day,
Old Evarts should have sent you off
Consul to Cailao —
But hindsight isn’t foresight much
Jim Anderson, my jo!

Jim Anderson, my jo, Jim,
‘Twas not a fair divide,
You stole the mule for us and then
We wouldn’t let you ride.
And Stanley M. is sick, Jim,
And Hayes is lying low,
And I’m the deadest sort of duck,
Jim Anderson, my jo!

— N.Y. Sun.

The Daily Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Jun 9, 1878

Read more:

Title: A Political Crime: The History of the Great Fraud
Author: Albert M. Gibson
Publisher: W.S. Gottsberger, 1885

pg 214 [Wells, Tom Anderson]

Chapter XV pg 283 [Sherman and John E. Anderson]

President John Tyler image from the We Love the Prairie Primer homeschool blog.

From the United States Gazette.

A New Song to an Old Tune.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, when first we were acquaint,
You did pretend to be a Whig, for Harry, sir, you went;
But now you’ve got in power, John, the cloven foot you show;
A shame unto all traitors, John, John Tyler, sir my Jo.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, the Whigs they fought thegither,
And many a canty day, John, they had with one anither;
But you have betrayed them, John, and why did you do so?
A shame unto all traitors, John, John Tyler, sir, my Jo.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, when nature first began,
To try her canny hand, John, her master work was man,
But when she turned you out, John, she said it was “no go,”
You proved to be but journey-work, John Tyler, sir my Jo.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, why will you be a fool,
And sneak around the Locos, John, who use you as a tool?
They’re laughing in their sleeves, John, to think that you’ll veto
The only bill can save you, John, John Tyler, sir my Jo.

John Tyler, sir, my Jo John, the higher monkies go,
The more they show their tails, John, you know it’s even so;
Then get you out the White House, John, and homeward do you go,
And make the people happy, John, John Tyler, sir, my jo.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 27, 1842

Image from the Turn Back to God website.

Sweet, Long-lasting love:

IT’S MIGHTY COMFORTIN’.

Oh, it’s mighty comfortin’ when your hair is gettin’ thin,
And the wrinkles in your face have come to stay,
Just to feel her little hand smoothin’ out each silver strand,
While you meet her lovin’ look and hear her say:

“John, my dear, it seems as tho’ every day you live you grow
Handsomer than in olden day.”
And you smile back at your wife while you think, in all your life
You never heard a sweeter word of praise.

Then somehow, the teardrops rise to your dim, old fadin’ eyes,
While you kiss the tender hand still white and small,
And you try to tell her how you loved her then — you love her now,
But, bless me, if the words will come at all!

For just then it comes to you to think of trials she’s gone thro’,
And borne without a murmur for your sake;
You can only bow your head at the lovin’ things she’s said,
And your poor old heart can only ache and ache.

But she knows what ails you then, and she kisses you again,
While you hear her gently whisper, sweet and low;
“Life has bro’t more hopes than fears; we have known more smiles than tears;
You are the dearest dear of dears, John Anderson, my Jo!”

So it’s comfortin’, I say, when your hair is gettin’ gray,
And our slippin’ down life’s hill a mighty fast,
Just to feel her little hand strokin’ back each silver strand,
While she whispers that she loves you to the last.

— Farmer’s Voice.

The Daily Herald (Delphos, Ohio) Feb 26, 1898

Image of Lunatic Asylum, Columbus, Ohio from Wiki.

Kind of odd, dare I say crazy, for this Judge to out “riding” with this  “lunatic.” Maybe he was jilted:

A Poetic Fancy.

Judge Gilmore, of Columbus, has the original manuscript of the following verse, written by a young man who went to the lunatic asylum about a week later. The young poet asked the Judge out for a drive, and when they had gone some miles into the country said his object was to submit something to him. He then recited, “John Anderson, my jo,” and when he came to the sad ending: “We’ll sleep the gither at the fit, John Anderson, my jo,” he exclaimed, “That’s not the end of it. Burns never finished it. That’s not the end of such life-long love. There’s more to it. I have the closing verse here.” Then he read it:

John Anderson, my jo, John,
We wilna min’ that sleep;
The grave, so cauld an’ dark, John,
The spirit canna keep
For we will wake in heaven, John;
An’ hand in hand we’ll go
An live for aye in blissfu’ love
John Anderson, my jo.

Lima Daily News (Lima, Ohio) Jul 9, 1889

*****

Previous “John Anderson, My Jo” posts:

Robert Burns: “John Anderson, My Jo”

and

John Alcohol and the Poor Man’s Club

A Columbus Smörgåsbord of Sorts

October 11, 2010

 

 

Chirstopher Columbus (Image from http://www.bonney.org)

 

A San Domingo dispatch says that the remains of Christopher Columbus have been found there. It is proposed to erect a monument over them, and the American Governments are asked to contribute. Certainly Columbus should have a monument.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Nov 18, 1880

The Eureka papers are indulging in local sobs and hysterical jottings over the death of Christopher Columbus 375 years ago.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) May 23, 1881

Mr. Garfield wrote a letter in October, 1880, recommending that the 12th day of October be made a national holiday, in honor of Christopher Columbus and the discovery of America.

The Oshkosh Northwestern (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Jun 1, 1882

 

Calvi, Corsica

 

FOREIGN DISPATCHES.

Born at Calvi.

PARIS, April 28.

Abbe Casanova, a Corsican archaeologist, has discovered archives which show that Christoper Columbus was born in the town of Calvi, in Corsica, and emigrated to Genoa. President Grevy, having examined the evidence and being satisfied of its authenticity, has authorized the authorities of Calvi to celebrate by an official holiday, the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America. The inhabitants of Calvi will hold a fete on May 23d, when the commemorative inscription will be placed on the house in which Columbus was born.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Apr 28, 1886

Where Was Columbus Born?

While statesmen and patriots are busy making history, the citizens of the little town of Calvi have been industriously upsetting biography. Every one knows that Christopher Columbus was born at Genoa. The intelligent schoolboy has read it in the geography books. The hard-working tourist has noted it in his Baedeker. The statue to the great navigator has been set up just outside the railway station, regardless alike of expense and (the critics say) of nature. No one an come in or out of the city without being impressed by the fact that he has seen it.

The citizens of Calvi have endured this for years. But the inhabitants of an island which produced Bonaparte were not to be silenced by stationary and guide books. They revolted and claimed their rights. Such festivities were held in honor of Columbus that all Corsica must regard his birthplace as settled. A marble tablet has been let into the front of the house where he was born, and Calvi claims, henceforth, an indefensible honor.

Unfortunately, some sixteen miles out of Genoa the frontage of a little mean tavern in the village of Cogoleto also exhibits a remarkable plaque. This is the inscription engraved upon it: “Stop, traveller. Here Columbus first saw light. This too straitened house was the home of a man greater than the world. There had been but one world. ‘Let there be two,’ said Columbus, and two there were.” Till Calvi can rival this Cogoleto is safe.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Sep 3, 1889

1. Silver label on the outside of he case in which Columbus’ remains were found.

2. The disputed label on the casket.

3. Lead sarcophagus containing body.

4. Famous old Spanish prison and fort at Santo Domingo.

5. The little case of solid gold which contains the remains.

6. Oldest house in the New World built and occupied by Columbus.

Lima News (Lima, Ohio) Oct 4, 1898

Something humorous mentioning Christopher Columbus:

UNCLE PETE ADVISES A YOUNG MAN.

We yesterday afternoon observed “Uncle Pete” propped at ease against his favorite lamp-post, and overheard him holding forth as follows to a young man of  the genus hoodlum:

“Young man, don’t you go to strivin’ for a big name or frettin’ yourself to make a mark in the world. It’s all wanity and wexation of spirit. You just turn philosopher. That’s the lay I’m on. Say to yourself the world owes me a livin’ and I’m bound to have it. That’s a motto to live up to. To live without care is my philosophy. All else is wanity. What does a man get for doing anything, makin’ inwentions and the like? Nuthin.

Look at Christopher Columbus, young man, and let his fate be a warnin’ to you. What does he get for the trouble he had in discoverin’ of America? He gits called a swindler and a imposture. He had all his trouble for nuthin’, for they have found out that he wasn’t the feller that discovered America, after all. It was some Laplander or one of the feller up north.

What does William H. Shakespeare git for the trouble he had writin’ them plays o’ his? He gets busted out entirely. They now say there never was no such man as William H. Shakespeare, and I believe ’em. No one man could a-done it.

What was the use of William Tell shootin’ old Geyser? He run a big risk of passin’ in his own checks and now they say thar never was no sich man. He’d better a-bin a philosopher and staid up in the mountains. See the life ole Robinson Crusoe led in that air solitary island! and now they say there never was no Crusoe.

Young man, don’t you never try to discover America, nor the steam engine, nor the telegraft — like old Moss did — cause you’ll find out when it’s too late, and you’ve had all the trouble; that it wasn’t you, but some other jackass that is dead and don’t know whether he ever done anything or not. Now here’s the latest instance: Supposin’ you to be Vasquez when you’ve gone and got up a reputation as Vasquez they find out you ain’t Vasquez, but are somebody else. Take my advice, young man, and lead the life of a philosopher; get all you can out of the world and never do nothin’ for the world; then you beat the world and are a true philosopher.

Virginia Enterprise.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) May 31, 1874

 

Hoisting the Flag at Guantánamo, Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, Edward H. Hart, photographer, June 12, 1898. - Library of Congress

 

SPAIN LEAVES AMERICA.

AFTER FOUR CENTURIES SHE FORFEITS COLUMBUS’S GAINS.

The Flag of Castile and Leon Hauled Down From the Last American Possession — Once Floated Over Most of the Western Hemisphere.

More than four centuries of Spanish rule in both the Americas ended when the American flag was hoisted over Havana, Cuba.

The Spanish flag is swept from the western continent, north and south. The Stars and Stripes now flies in its place wherever the flag of some republic or one of the humane European monarchies did not already fly.

Spanish rule in America began in 1492, when Christopher Columbus, an Italian, discovered San Salvador Island. One voyage followed another — all South America and and a good share of North America, to say nothing of Central America, were once claimed by Spain. Columbus died in chains, but Spain was only too eager to profit by his discoveries, and ships and men followed wherever he had set his foot.

Cuba was discovered October 27, 1492, and named Juana by Columbus himself. This name didn’t suit, nor did several others. The natives called the beautiful island Cuba, and that name finally became its legal title.

Pinzon explored, thinking the island to be a part of India, but soon found out that it was an entirely new land. He found the Cubans a mild, hard-working race. It was easy to fasten on the Spanish yoke. With but a slight interruption it has endured ever since, the British capturing the island in 1762 with great loss and restoring it in 1763 under a treaty of peace.

The island was so fertile and tis climate so salubrious that it was soon well populated, despite the never-ending cruelties and impositions practiced by the Spaniards. The revenue was enormous — $25,000,000 a year — and Spain took it all. Spanish soldiers took care of the inhabitants when they protested.

They ruled all the neighboring islands, too, and put their unfortunate inhabitants under the same cruel yoke–  imprisoning, executing, torturing them upon the slightest pretext, and allowing slavery to flourish.

Cuba is now free.

So are all its 1,750,000 people.

Porto Rico is also free. It passed under Spanish rule soon after Cuba, but never even had the single year of humane British rule that Cuba enjoyed. It is known as the healthiest of the Antilles, and but for Spanish oppression would have been the garden spot of the world. Its 800,000 inhabitants will hereafter see nothing but the Star and Stripes from the flagstaffs.

Jamaica was the first of the Spanish possessions to get rid of the Spanish yoke. The British captured it in 1855 and have held it ever since. As a result Jamaica has outstripped all the West Indies. It is a beautiful island, rich in mineral wealth and fertile.

When Cortes invaded South America in 1521 he laid claim to all South America, Central America and North America. Spain claimed all the Pacific Coast from Cape Horn to Alaska, all the Atlantic Coast from Cape Horn to Georgia, Central America and South America, as well as Mexico. No other European nation could well dispute that claim, and Spain promised to be the greatest nation on earth. Now not a foot of earth on either side of he continent owns the Spanish flag.

After Jamaica, Florida was the first North American province to be free. The United States bought Florida from Spain in 1821. In 1822 it became a territory and a few years later a State.

In 1810 began the revolt in South America which ended in Spain’s being forced out from every possession in that continent, though it took a quarter of a century to do it. Spanish cruelties and impositions had been too terrible. One State after another revolted.

The great Bolivar led the revolt. In nine years he drove Spain out of what is now Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador. Freedom got such a hold that other oppressed provinces took heart. Peru and Bolivia fought for and gained their independence in 1825, after suffering Spanish rule for more than three centuries. Argentine, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile all cast off the yoke in bloodshed. Spain was cast out of South America forever.

Mexico and Central America resolved to be free or die 1821. It took these Spain-ridden countries till 1835 to be free.

Then the United States absorbed Texas and took California and all the rest of the Pacific Coast. Spanish influence was still further confined.

When the late war with Spain was declared the Spaniards ruled less than 3,000,000 people in the Western Hemisphere, and but two large islands, Cuba and Porto Rico. Mexico was gone, Central America, all South America and Jamaica.

Now these last two remaining islands have become free, and the Spaniards have betaken themselves back to Europe, whence they came!

Lima News (Lima, Ohio) Jan 26, 1899

*****

I stumbled across the following while searching for the real Christopher Columbus —

Christopher Columbus + Powning:

 

 

Nevada State Journal - Jun 27, 1896

 

EDITORIAL NOTES

The next time the editor of the Gold Hill News goes by here he had better get out of the cars and walk around the town instead of coming through it. His life won’t be safe after publishing such an article as the following:

“Christopher Columbus Powning, the eminent statesman of Washoe county is in Washington City, and the other day interviewed himself in the Critic of that place. The ‘interview’ bears the marks of Mr. Powning’s best style of composition. The advertising rate of the Critic are no doubt reasonable, which will account for the thrifty Senator’s selection of that paper as a medium of giving his foggy ideas to the world.”

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Jan 19, 1882

Christopher Columbus Powning came to Nevada in 1868 and located permanently at Reno in 1870, filling the position of “devil” on the Nevada State Journal, which paper was started at that time. In 1872, before he was twenty-one years of age, he became editor and in 1874 became sole proprietor of the paper. He was elected state senator from Washoe County in 1878, and in the early ’80s was a candidate for congress but was defeated by G.W. Cassidy. He was one of the most energetic men that ever located in Reno, filling many responsible positions, and passed from this life many years ago, while he was yet a comparatively young man.

Nevada Historical Society Papers, Vol.2 – 1920

Remember This Old-Time Favorite?

August 30, 2010

Um, nope, never heard of it. But while searching for something unrelated, I came across an advertisement for Chicken Cock Whiskey, and thought it was a rather funny name for whiskey.  Seemed sort of redundant to me. Anyway, that prompted me to search the keywords “chicken cock” to see what else I could find. The results follow, intermingled with several Chicken Cock Whiskey ads. I bolded each “chicken cock” so they are easy to spot if you don’t want to read each complete article.

1869 - Galveston, Texas

SAM HOUSTON’S DUEL.

In 1826, six miles south of Franklin, Ky., on the farm of H.J. Duncan, two hundred yards from the Tennessee line, was fought a duel which created widespread excitement throughout the Union, owing to the reputation of the principals. In 1826, Gen. Sam Houston was a member of Congress from the Nashville district in Tennessee, and sending home for distribution a number of documents, he claimed that Curry, the postmaster at Nashville, suppressed and failed to deliver them and, denounced him a scoundrel. For this Curry sent him a challenge by Gen. White. Houston refused  to receive the message, as he stated, “from such a contemptible source,” throwing it on the ground and stamping on it. Gen. White said he was surprised, as no one expected Houston to fight.

To this Houston retorted, “Do you try me.”

Of course a challenge followed from White which Houston promptly accepted. The terms and conditions were, “fifteen feet distance; holster pistols; time sunrise.”

The place chosen as stated, was in Simpson county. On the 23d day of September, 1826, the parties met at the designated point with their seconds. The fact that a duel was to be fought had gone abroad, and a number of persons had secreted themselves near the field to witness the affair, a fact unknown to either principles or seconds. After the first shots had been exchanged and White had fallen to the ground the people rushed to the spot. Houston seeing them, and fearing an arrest, started toward the state line with a view of escaping.

Gen. White called to him, “General, you have killed me.”

Houston then faced the crowd with pistol still in hand, and inquired if there were any officers of the law in the among them, and being answered in the negative he advanced to the side of his late antagonist and kneeling by him took his hand saying: “I am very sorry for you, but you know that it was forced upon me.”

Gen. white replied, “I know it and forgive you.”

White had been shot through just above the hips, and to cleanse the wound of blood the surgeons run one of their old fashioned silk neckerchiefs through the wound. Gen. White recovered from his fearful wound as much to the joy of Houston as himself.

During the week preceding the duel Houston remained at the home of Sanford Duncan, near the field, practicing meanwhile with pistols. At his temporary home were two young belligerent dogs, named for their pugnacious dispositions Andrew Jackson and Thomas H. Benton. These were continually fighting, Houston’s political sentiments leading him to espouse the cause of the Jackson pup, who, very much to his delight, was a constant winner in the frays.

The hour of arising and preparing for the duel on the arrival of the day was 3:40 a.m. Just before that hour “Gen. Jackson” barked beneath the window of his admirer’s room, awakening him. Houston arose without disturbing his attending friends, and began the task of molding bullets with which to fight Gen. White. As the first bullet fell from the mold a game-cock, which he had admired scarcely less than he did the dog, crowed a loud, clear note. Houston, with that element of superstition which finds a place in nearly every mind, accepted the early greetings of his friends as a happy omen, and marking the bullet one side for the dog and the other for the chicken, made up his mind that his pistol should be loaded with it, and that he would first fire that particular ball at General White.

He afterward said that “he was not superstitious, but these two circumstances made him feel assured of success,” thus disproving his own words. The bullet was used and White fell at the first fire, as stated.

After the duel Houston selected as a coat-of-arms “a chicken cock and dog,” and many were the comments made by those unfamiliar with the facts in after years, when as president of Texas and senator in Congress, he sported so strange a crest. These facts are authentic, having been related by Gen. Houston to Sanford Duncan, jr., late of Louisville, while the two were en route to Washington city during Houston’s term as senator.

The Herald And Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Aug 4, 1887

1893 - Lowell, Massachusetts

False Salute.

The rebel sympathising papers throughout the length and breadth of the land have been celebrating what they are pleased to consider a victory in the late election in Connecticut, by displaying at the head of their columns the consecrated emblem of their party and principles, namely a dominica dunghill chicken cock.

This is a fit emblem of the principles of their party. It is only upon the dunghills of ignorance, vice, immorality and barbarism that the toeless, frozen comb, and frost-bitten chicken-cock of Democracy can flap his dirty wings and utter a feeble cock-a-doodle-doo of galvanized delight. But even the poor privilege of doing this with any degree of assurance the elections that have occurred since that of Connecticut have rendered absurd and ridiculous.  These election returns can be seen in another place, and they are anything but an indication of progress backwards by the American people.

The Herald And Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Apr 10, 1867

For background; from same page of the paper:

At an election on the  1st inst., in this State the Copperheads succeeded in electing their candidate for Governor, and three out of the four Congressmen. Two of these Congressional districts were Democratic at last year’s election, and the third only showed a small republican majority.

The enemies of intelligence and freedom have, therefore, only succeeded in overcoming a small majority in one of the Congressional districts, and carried the same against P.T. Barnum, a most unfortunate nomination on the part of the Republicans. Mr. Barnum of course is vastly less objectionable to the moral consciousness of the people, than a prize fighter, such as John Morrisy, whom the Copperheads of New York sent to Congress….

The Herald And Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Apr 10, 1867

1906 - Reno, Nevada

Superstitions.

Country folk – some in jest, some in earnest – translate the voice of a chicken cock crowing at the door into “Stranger coming to-day,” and we remember an old lady who invariably made preparation for company when the waring note was sounded upon her premises. In thirty years, she declared, the sign had never failed.

The Indiana Democrat (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Jan 6 1881

1936 - Mansfield, Ohio

Not Appreciated.

The following is all the notice which our contemporary, the Mail, takes of the splendid triumph of Republicanism in Vermont.

“First reports from Vermont give an increased majority for the Republicans. Vermont is all theirs, and the Green Mountain chicken crows loudly on its own wood-pile.”

We understand that paper had made arrangements to put its “tooting” apparatus in full blast in case rebelized Democracy had increased its vote in that State, but the jollification didn’t come off. The fire went down quietly, or was as quietly put out. That election is the grave of the hopes of the Mail and its friends. Good by Democracy. Good bye to the “tooting” performances of the Mail. The 1st of September has smashed the former and silenced the squeak of the latter. Prepare to reverse the position of your dominica chicken cock. Let it have its back to the ground and its heels, gaffed with treason, in the air.

The Herald And Torch Light (Hagerstown, Maryland) Sep 3, 1868

1936 - Mansfield, Ohio

Back in the day, the newspaper editors seemed to really duke it out in their columns. They can be some of the most entertaining things to read in the old papers,  particularly if you can find both sides, which is not the case  for this one:

FOR THE REPUBLICAN COMPILER.
Copy of a letter dated
HARTFORD, Aug. 1, 1820.

Dear Jonathan. – Received yours — nation great favor — very glad to get it; don’t thank you much neither, for copying off my letter and sending it back again — think you might made something of your own; but you used to make new spoons out of old pewter dishes — thought you’d try it again. Heard you’d chang’d your name — glad you got your old one back again — guess you got ‘shamd of your new one — think its no wonder — best a kept your old one — people know you any how, think. Talking about whitewashing, had a mind to whitewash you, to hide the stains — took another look of you — found it must be a foot thick — even wouldn’t do; the stains all over only want another shade; think you best buy lampblack, get some one paint you – if you’re axt how fair you have a mind to be — say jist as white outside as in. Heard you were dead; some say you were and rose again — quite queer thing — have to b’lieve it letter looks so like you — little scaly too; think you’re sick — you look something like a half drowned chicken cock, pecked ‘most to death — too soon begin to crow — too many old games ’bout here — better hold your tongue; they’ve got long spurs — cut your comb for you think — not leave a feather on you — look a little odd when naked — better be still. Queer kind of fowl, Jonathan — put me in mind of the jackdaw with peacock’s feathers on — difference jist this; jackdaw got his stolen feathers plucked out, got a drubbin, and thats enough for him — you better stuff — got worse whipt — won’t behave yet — think you get as much as you’ve a mind to; They say you’ve got turkey feathers put on to cheat the eagles with — want to pass for one; wno’t do, Jonathan — your eyes too bad — too near a been blind — eagles always seen to sharp for you. Cousin doughface got a cart for sale, made for two horses — I got one — you’d best bring a nag from ‘mong the Pennamites with you — but they say Pennamite and Yankee naggies wont pull together; s’pose you found that out by this time.

You promise to come my road — be sure when you come to bring something with you — dont do as you did last time. Talk something ’bout celebrations and modest people — think they’re scarce where you came from — guess you never seen a modest man before; you must know, Jonathan, every one hant got as much impudence as you and

CAUSTIC.

P.S. You may write as many letters as you have a mind to; but dont take the Hiesterics too bad, as you did tother time — tell your secrets when you’ve a mind to keep them; think you had not much mind to tell your real name, if you had not got a fit of them, which mostly makes people insane.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Aug 16, 1820

1936 - Mansfield, Ohio

ROOSTER STORY CONCERNS FIGHT AT FORT M’HENRY

Baltimore — (AP) — Whether there was a rooster at Fort McHenry during the bombardment by the British in 1814 has been a controversial matter for many years. Legend has it that a rooster, because of his happy crowing, made everybody feel a lot better during the battle.

After James E. Hancock, president of the Society of the War of 1812, said at the recent Defenders’ day exercises, he believed the rooster story was a myth, John A. Hartman of Baltimore brought forth the memoirs of his father, John B. Seidenstricker.

Seidenstricker wrote that his uncle, Henry Barnhart, “was under Colonel Armistead at Fort McHenry during bombardment by the British fleet. He had a chicken cock there that he prized very hightly, because of its beauty perhaps, and was careful to preserve it from all harm.

“But he could not protect it from a fragment of a bursting shell which struck the rooster on his foot, causing it, from alarm of pain, to fly up and light upon the flagstaff, where he remained, crowing occasionally, until the conflict ceased.

“Colonel Armistead offered to purchase the cock but he would not part with it and kept it until it died, when he placed it in a suitable box and in company with a platoon of fort soldiers, buried it with the honors of war, firing several rounds over its grave.”

The Daily Northwestern (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Sep 16, 1932

1936 - Uniontown, Pennsylvania

This one is really long, so I bolded the section, rather than just the “chicken cock.” I think this person was some sort of an armchair general or something.

The Aspects of the War — What Next?

The Army of the Potomac has just performed one of those evolutions, for which it is so justly renowned. It has marched forward and then marched back again. As a gymnastic performance, it has been well done, and as exercise is absolutely necessary to health, it is not to be regretted that the army has had an opportunity of stretching its limbs and breathing the fresh air. It has at last arrived at “Brandy Station.” The frequency with which both the rebel and Union armies dwell at this station shows it to be a fashionable place of resort to military gentlemen. We trust the name is rather metaphorical than real. It is “given out” (see the Washington telegraphs) that the grand march over the Rapidan was made to prevent reinforcements from Lee to Longstreet. Perhaps so; but there are some objections to that theory. — Meade began his march on the 27th (Friday) and the army of Bragg had been defeated two days before, leaving Grant at liberty to cut off Longstreet and reinforce Burnside; besides which more than a week must elapse before any efficient reinforcements could reach Longstreet — bringing it to the 4th of December — before which time the fate of the contest between Burnside and Longstreet must have been decided. — Let the theory stand, however, till a better can be given. The facts seem to show that Meade’s army went on very well till it ran against some fortifications, which not liking to storm, it turned back. But, the question may be asked, why not go around them? Why should a man run against a fort, when there is room enough to go around?

It seems that Meade’s army crossed partly at, and partly above where Hooker did; that being across the river instead of moving onward toward Richmond; it wheeled to the right and formed a line of battle across the road from Frederick to Orange Court House, with the right resting on the Rapidan; that between this line of battle and Orange Court House, Lee with his army, in his fortifications. It seems to me that this performance was exactly like what I have seen performed by a chicken cock on the farm, who by deploying his squadron from the barnyard in front of his rival at the chickenhouse, stops, flaps his wings, and crows (in his expressive language) “Come on!” But his enemy will not come, but crows in the intrenchments of the chickenhouse; whereupon the challenger thinks enough has been done for his honor, and retreats on the barnyard. I hope no military hero, renowned in war, will feel aggrieved at this comparison. The analogies of nature are very strong. The great and illustrious men of science are now engaged in tracing man back to monkey. For my own part, I consider a comparison with a game cock far more dignified. I never saw a baboon without a supreme contempt for him, while a game cock has many admirable qualities.

To return form our digression. Meade’s army did not pass by Lee’s; because, if it did, Lee could pass behind it, on the road to Washington. In fact, we must consider the Army of the Potomac as (what it has been for a year past,) a mere movable breastwork for the defense of Washington. Nor is that fact of any positive importance. — Unless Richmond can be taken, from the west side of James River, there is no great use in taking it at all, for, in any other case, the army and the great criminals who compose the rebel Government, will all escape to Lynchburg or Danville. Richmond, as a strategic point, is not worth a straw.

Leaving the Army of the Potomac to its winter quarters, at Brandy Station, we pass to the glorious Army of the Cumberland. That army, which, in the poetic language of General Meigs, fought part of “its battle above the clouds,” which stormed Lookout Mountain, 2,000 feet high, and crowned its summits with living laurels, green as its mountain pines. That army may be thankful, if covetous of fame, that it is not within reach of Washington. To that army our eyes must turn. Will that, too, go into winter quarters? Or will Gen. Grant, with his characteristic vigor and judgment, asking no leave of winter or of enemies, push on, dealing deadly blows at every step? This is what ought to be done. Can he do it? The first thing in the way of the army is the necessity of establishing a new depot of provisions and munitions at Chattanooga. Whenever an army advances a hundred miles, or more, a new center of supplies must be established, and one of the first considerations in the plan of a campaign is where the depots of supplies shall be. Admitting the successful advance of the army, new depots must be established at each and every successive advance. — Nor is this all. Their communications must be kept open, and their defenses such that they can stand a moderate siege. Gen. Grant has had one very instructive example of this in the seizure of his stores at Holly Springs. Heretofore Nashville has been the great center of supplies for the armies in Tennessee.

Now, Chattanooga must be made a center. Nor will there be any great difficulty in this. From Nashville to Chattanooga by rail, is 151 miles, which will make an easy and safe line of transit, when we occupy, as we now do, the defensible points south of Bridgeport. The bridge over the Tennessee must be completed; a great mass of stores removed from Nashville to Chattanooga; and the defenses on the Northern extremities of Mission and Lookout Ridges made strong. When this is done, the army is ready to move two hundred miles further. But this is heavy work, and may take two or three weeks or more. Will Grant then advance? Certainly, if he does not contradict his own character, and all the demands of the war. He has already given us, an example of what he will do in his march on Holly Springs and Grenada, in the middle of December.  Besides, what is there to arrest the march of an army in the South in winter? Is there any reason to stop the operations of an army in Southern Ohio, during winter? Not at all; and there is still less in Georgia. When the troops get disentangled from all the ridges of mountains, that extend about forty miles south of Chattanooga, they will find a winter march comparatively easy. It will not do for our armies to stand still. Now is the time, when every blow tells upon the rebels with double force. They are like the sinking pugilist, who after having stood several rounds with apparent strength and courage, begins to feel the blood oozing from his veins; his sight grows dizzy; his limbs become unsteady, and he deals hard, but ill-directed blows, which often strike the empty air, till he begins to stagger. Then two or three blows from his adversary, fell him to the earth, and he rises no more. Cut off from half their territory; cut off, from their cattle in Texas, and their sugar in Louisiana; their men exhausted by war and disease; their money worthless; their people dissatisfied, how much longer can they last? Toombs’ speech; the North Carolina election; the Richmond papers; the constant accounts of distress and exhaustion from every quarter, tell the story without any resort to argument or imagination. The rebels are staggering from exhaustion, and their only hope is that Lee and Bragg may keep the field till somebody offers them peace or compromise.

The hope is in vain.

Unconditional surrender is the only terms they will be allowed.

Whether their rebel dominion perishes in the last ditch or not; whether they die in battle or by exhaustion, they will come to an early end, and be remembered only for the most signal folly and the most signal punishment which the world ever saw since the downfall of Rome. — Cin. Gaz.

Burlington Weekly Hawkeye, The (Burlington, Iowa) Dec 12, 1863

Shot Outside the Cosmopolitan Hotel Just as the Bozeman Coach Arrived

August 23, 2010

Main St. - Helena, Montana 1872

A BLOODY ENCOUNTER.

John Hugle Shot Down in Front of the Cosmopolitan by Theo. Shed.

Particulars of the Tragedy.

Last evening about half past nine o’clock the sharp crack of a pistol in front of the Cosmopolitan Hotel was distinctly heard along Main street and was followed by the rush of the crowd to the place from which it came. Two hundred people gathered in front of the hotel a moment after the shooting, when Mr. John Hugle, traveling salesman of Greenhood, Bohn & Co., was found lying upon the sidewalk, weltering in blood, while his assailant, Mr. Theo. Shed, book-keeper of the same house, was also seen slowly rising, pistol in hand, from the sidewalk, on which he had fallen — knocked down, it is said, by Hugle, the moment the pistol was fired. By the side of the fallen men were seen the rearing and plunging horses attached to the Bozeman coach, which had just been driven up at the time of the shooting and were frightened to madness by the affray, while the driver — Charley Brown — with his foot upon the brake, was shouting to the running and excited crowd to keep away from the horses.

The wounded man was at once removed to the office of Dr. W.L. Steele, above Webster’s store, and Mr. Shed at the same moment was arrested by the night policeman Mr. Witten and taken to the county jail. A reporter of the INDEPENDENT on entering the office of Dr. Steele found the wounded man lying upon a reclining chair and bleeding profusely. He complained of strangulation from the blood accumulating in his throat. The bullet had struck him in the face about an inch below the left eye and passing through the nasal cavity to the right, came out just at the external orifice of the ear. Doctors Leiser and Steele were in attendance upon him, and considered the wound dangerous and serious, with chances in favor of recovery. The greatest danger is that inflammation will set in, which will reach the brain.

The pistol was so close at the time of the shooting that powder stains could be seen upon the face of the wounded man, and the smell of powder was upon his breath. After remaining about an hour upon the chair, he was assisted by his friends to a carriage and taken to the hospital, where, at lastest accounts, he was resting easily.

THE ENCOUNTER

From the many conflicting accounts of the fight we regard the following as the most reliable: Mr. Shed was standing upon the street in front of the Cosmopolitan Hotel, when suddenly Mr. Hugle was seen to advance towards him and seemed to have come from the hotel. Shed stepped back as his assailant advanced and was in front of Webster’s store when he raised his pistol. At the same instant Hugle dealt him a powerful blow. The report of the pistol and the blow were simultaneous and both men fell together.

Hugle evidently regarded his wound as mortal, and murmured as he was lifted from the sidewalk:

“My name is Hugle, and Theo Shed shot me.”

Shed was perfectly calm when arrested. When questioned by the bystanders as to what was the matter, he simply answered “Oh nothing; that man — pointing to Hugle — struck me and I shot him.” He declined to make any explanation as to the cause of the difficulty to the officer who arrested him, and maintained the same reserve at the jail when our reporter and others sought to interview him upon the subject.

ANOTHER ACCOUNT.

After the above was in type, another account of the difficulty, given by two or more parties who claim to have been spectators, was to the effect that Hugle walked up to Shed while standing on the street and tapping him on the shoulder, asked, “Are you hunting for me?” “Yes, damn you,” answered the latter, and fired at the same instant.

THE BULLET

Was a 38-calibre ball, and the pistol used is said to have been of the kind known as the “English bull-dog.” The ball, after passing through the head of Hugle, ranged across the street and struck the granite corner of the Dunphy Block, seventy-five yards distant, by the entrance of Levine’s tailor shop, knocking out a large piece of granite, and falling upon the sidewalk. It passed between J.F. Blattner and John Barless, who were standing in front of the shop at the time, narrowly missing them.

THE ORIGIN OF THE DIFFICULTY

dates back to some two years ago. Both of the gentlemen were employed then as now by Messrs. Greenhood, Bohm & Co., and we understand that the first trouble arose from Mr. Hugle inadvertently putting on a buffalo overcoat owned by Mr. Shed. The coat in wet or cold weather had been frequently used by employees of the store, and Hugle, who had but recently entered the employ of the house, having observed this, started to use the coat on a certain occasion, when Shed objected. Hugle at once pulled off the coat and apologized for putting it on. shed then stated that he could use it, but said he liked to be asked when such privileges were taken of his property. Hugle declined the proffer of the coat, and ever afterwards the two young men were enemies — never speaking, although employed in the same house. Both were what is known as “high strung;” but Hugle, who is a young man of fine physique and courteous and agreeable manners, never carried a pistol and was evidently not expecting a mortal difficulty at the time of the affray.

We were unable to learn the immediate cause of the tragedy last evening. Both Mr. Greenhood and the employees of his house, are ignorant of any recent trouble between the parties.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Jun 24, 1882

The Cosmopolitan Hotel

Cosmopolitan Hotel image can be found at the Helena As She Was website, along with tons of other great photos.

CORONER’S INQUEST.

Substance of the Testimony of Witnesses Before the Coroner’s Jury in the Matter of the Death of John Hugle.

An inquest was held last evening over the body of John Hugle, the unfortunate victim of last Friday’s shooting, he having died during the afternoon. Nine witnesses were examined. At the request of the coroner, to whom we are indebted for the testimony, the names of the witnesses are not given.

The evidence was substantially as follows:

The first witness testified that at the time of the shooting he was standing in Webster’s store and saw the flash of the pistol. On running out he saw three men helping Shed onto his feet. Shed kept crying “He struck me first!” Someone standing by said: “Here is a man in the gutter!” Hugle was lying on his face. He was helped up and asked his name and replied, “I am John Hugle and that man shot me!” pointing to the spot where Shed was when he fell. He kept saying “The Shed shot me!” Witness, with the assistance of others, helped Hugle up to Dr. Steele’s office. When questioned Hugle said he was standing looking at the coach with his back turned toward Shed, and heard a voice say: “There is the S– — – b—-!” He turned and asked Shed if he meant him, when Shed fired.

Two physicians were examined, who both testified that, to the best of their belief, Hugle’s death was caused by the wound inflicted.

A Chinaman testified to having seen Shed with a pistol in his hand, after the shot was fired. He saw Hugle strike Shed, and then heard the report of the pistol.

Another witness testified that he was standing in the Cosmopolitan hotel when the coach drove up, and heard a pistol shot. Running out, he saw a man lying in the gutter, and with others helped him up. Hugle kept saying “The Shed shot me!” or “The Shed did it!” With others he assisted Hugle up into the doctor’s office.

The next witness said he was standing in the door of Webster’s store. He heard quick steps and supposed them to be those of passengers from the coach. Saw a flash and heard the report of a pistol. Saw one man fall on the walk and another in the gutter. After wards recognized the one who fell on the walk as Theodore Shed and the other as John Hugle.

The seventh witness testified to the facts stated by the preceding witness, and in addition said he saw the pistol in the hand of Theodore Shed while still smoking. He arrested Shed and lodged him in jail.

Another witness said he was in front of Webster’s, when the coach drove up. He continued: “I was walking down immediately behind Theodore Shed, a little to the right. John Hugle was standing looking into the coach, and when Shed was within about four feet of Hugle, the latter saw him and jumped toward him and struck him. Shed fired almost immediately after Hugle struck him. Hugle then staggered and fell into the gutter, bleeding badly from the head.” He did not see Shed fall, but heard him complain that his breast hurt him.

The last witness examined said he was in front of the Cosmopolitan when the coach stopped. Saw Hugle and Shed together. Hugle seemed to be going toward Shed, and Shed was backing. Was nearly behind Hugle. Saw pistol in Shed’s hand, heard the report, and was Hugle fall in the gutter and Shed fall on the walk. At first he thought Shed had shot himself, but on helping Hugle up saw he was bleeding from a wound near his nose.

The evidence being all taken, the jury, after deliberation, handed in the following verdict:

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Jun 28, 1882

Theo. Shed is said to be quite ill at the county jail. He has had an attack of hemorrhage, bleeding at the nose profusely, a complaint to which he has been subject for several years, it is understood.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Jul 1, 1882

Theo. Shed’s Preliminary Hearing.

The preliminary hearing in the case of Theo. Shed for the killing of John Hugle began before the Probate Judge at the court house yesterday morning. Messrs. E.W. Toole and W.E. Cullen appeared for the defense, while District Attorney Lowry appeared for the prosecution, assisted by Hon. I.D. McCutcheon. Three witnesses were examined, but no new facts were elicited. Two or three important witnesses for the prosecution were yet to be brought into the court. One of these is a traveling man named Oberfelder, who was expected to be in Dillon last evening. Deputy sheriff Witten was sent after him early yesterday morning, and it will be two or three days before he will return. In view of this examination was adjourned over until Monday, the 10th inst., at 11 o’clock a.m. No evidence was introduced by the defense. Mr. Shed’s attorneys made an effort to have him admitted to bail pending examination, urging in that behalf the defendant’s poor health and the crowded condition of the jail, but Judge Davis held that under the circumstances such action would not be proper and so Shed was returned to jail to await the conclusion of the examination.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Jul 8, 1882

SHED’S EXAMINATION.

It Was Concluded Yesterday Afternoon in the Probate Court.

The examination of Theodore Shed for shooting John Hugl was concluded in the Probate Court yesterday afternoon at 4:30. The evidence for the prosecution was concluded on Tuesday, and as it was the same in substance as that brought out at the inquest over Hugl’s body, we do not deem it worth while to publish it.

At convening of court yesterday morning evidence for the defense was introduced and was in substance as follows:

R.O. Hickman testified that he was a partner in the firm of Greenhood, Bohm & Co., and that he made his home in Virginia City. He said he generally came to Helena about four times each year, sometimes remaining here two months at a time. Witness said he had known the accused — Theodore Shed — as book-keeper in the employ of his firm for about three years. Said Shed’s character for sobriety, integrity and quietness was good. Did not know anything derogatory to the accused’s character as a peaceable man. Said Hugl had been in the firm’s employ for about five years. Had never heard anything against him except that he went on a spree occasionally. Mr. Greenhood had been requested last fall to discharge Hugl but did not do so.

C.P. Van Wart testified that on the evening of the 23d of June he walked up Main street about 9 o’clock in company with Shed. Their conversation was in regard to witness borrowing Shed’s horse to ride out to Tarleton & Breck’s ranch the next day. They stopped at Kessler’s and had some beer. Shed said he had an engagement to meet a friend at the Cosmopolitan and they walked down that way. Shed went into the hotel and witness stood looking at the Bozeman coach which had just arrived. While looking at the coach he heard a blow and then a shot. Turning around he saw Shed lying on the sidewalk and breathing hard. Witness asked Shed if he was shot and Shed answered, “My breast hurts me; I have been struck.” At first he thought it was Shed who was shot. He had known Shed several years and had always found him a peaceable, quiet gentleman.

William Simms testified that he had lived in Helena 13 years and had known Shed that long. He never knew anything derogatory to Shed’s character, but knew him as a peaceable, law-abiding citizen.

P.M. Atwood testified that on the night of the shooting he was standing in front of the Cosmopolitan hotel shortly after 9 o’clock, at the time the Bozeman coach came in. Hugl stood about four feet to the right of witness and Shed about three feet to his left. As soon as Hugl saw Shed he ran at him and struck him a hard blow on the breast. Shed staggered and immediately shot Hugl. Saw Hugl fall and witness first turned his attention to him. Then looked and saw Shed brushing the dust from his pants. Shed complained that his breast hurt him. Witness believed Hugl was the aggressor.

Samuel Schwab testified that on the evening in question he was in the office of the Cosmopolitan, sitting at the desk writing. Shed walked in and inquired for Max Oberfelder, a guest of the house. Told Shed that Oberfelder had gone away. Did not know whether Shed saw Oberfelder or not. When Oberfelder came in he told him Shed had called to see him, and Mr. O. then went to look for Shed. Pretty soon the Bozeman coach drew up in front and witness went to the door, when he heard some one remark: “Theo. Shed had shot somebody.”

J.W. Thompson testified that he had been book-keeper in the employ of Greenhood, Bohm & Co. for 18 months. Had known defendant as head book keeper for that firm. A revolver was kept in the cash drawer at Shed’s desk and Shed always put it in his pocket when he started home at night and would return it to the cash drawer in the morning.

Shed usually left the store at about half past nine o’clock, sometimes going straight home and sometimes taking a walk first. On the evening of the 23d of June Shed left the store shortly after nine o’clock. Said he was going to the Cosmopolitan to see Mr. Oberfelder. Shed then turned around to the cash drawer, took the pistol and put it into his pocket, and then left the store. The pistol belonged to Shed. It was a Colt’s six-shooter, 3-inch barrel, and was longer than a “bull-dog” pistol. Shed had carried the pistol about a year.

Tong Ling (Chinaman) testified that on the evening of the 23d of June he saw Hugl strike Shed after the coach came in. Hugl and Shed met again when Hugl hit Shed again.

Shed shot Hugl and Shed was taken off by a policeman. Saw Shed carry a pistol in his hand after the shot. Saw Hugl fall in the gutter and Shed fall on the sidewalk.

This closed the testimony for the defense.

There being no question as to Shed shooting Hugl, counsel then submitted argument on the question of admitting Shed to bail. Judge Davis decided that as no conclusive evidence had been produced as to Shed’s act being premeditated and with malice, he would therefore admit him to bail in the sum of $6,000 to appear at the next term of the district court for this county. Court then adjourned.

Shed had no difficulty in securing the required bond.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Jul 13, 1882

Territory vs. Theodore Shed; defendant arraigned upon indictment for murder in the first degree; defendant to plead on November 18.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Nov 17, 1882

Court Proceedings.

In the case of the Territory vs. Theodore Shed, it was ordered that the defendant be admitted to bail in the sum of $8,000.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Nov 18, 1882

THE SHED TRIAL.

The Evidence All In — Nine O’Clock Monday Set for Hearing the Argument of Counsel.

The evidence in the Shed case (the accused being on trial for the killing of John Hugl) was all taken yesterday. The jury, as selected, is constituted as follows, to wit: Benjamin Benson, J.J. Ferrell, T.L. Hodge, O.C. Bundy, M.L. Geary, R.E. Sherry, A.F. Burns, David Blacker, N.A. Mattice, Robert Barnes, S.P. Kinna, and John Morris.

The evidence introduced by the prosecution contained no new features, although ten witnesses were examined, namely: Wm. Schollar, P.W. Atwood, N.H. Webster, W.L. Steele, Milt Witten, Geo. Jones, C.P. Van Wart, Romeo Reneuer, Herman Gans, and Mr. Blatner. The whole testimony of these witnesses may be summed up in a few words:

That Theodore Shed shot John Hugl, and that the affray took place on Main street almost in front of the Cosmopolitan Hotel. One of them testified that at the time the shot was fired Shed had his left arm raised as if to ward off a blow; another, that he heard a blow, and then the report of a pistol; and all, that after firing, Shed fell back upon the walk, while Hugl also fell.

Fourteen witnesses were called for the defense. T.J. Lowry testified that he had known the defendant for about seventeen years — in fact, ever since he (Shed) was quite a boy. He had always had the reputation of being a quiet and peaceable man, and also a very courteous one.

W.A. Chessman, W.K. Roberts, C.K. Wells, A.G. Clark, Major Davenport, Mr. Hartwell, L.F. Evans, R.C. Wallace, and Mr. Stanly testified substantially the same as Mr. Lowry, having known Shed from twelve to seventeen years, and always as a quiet and peaceable man.

Mrs. James McEvily had been acquainted with Mr. Shed for six years, having lived near him. He was not a strong man, and his health was not very good. While living neighbor to her he had had several attacks of hemorrhage of the lungs. Did  not know how violent these attacks were, but remembered having sent her boy for a doctor when Shed was taken with hemorrhage.

Michael Kelly testified to having been on Main street at the time of the difficulty between Shed and Hugl. Was within twenty or thirty feet of them, standing upon the sidewalk, He heard a shot and saw Shed fall. He ran to pick him up, but another gentleman got there first. Judged, from Shed’s appearance, that he was stunned. Asked Shed if he was hurt, and he replied, “He hit me.” A policeman then came up and took charge of Shed. Witness knew Mr. Hugl in his life time. He was about twenty-five years old, and probably five feet ten and a half inches high. He weighed probably 155 or 156 pounds. He was a strong man, there was no question about that. On cross examination Kelly stated that Shed fell at the instant the pistol flashed, and perhaps slightly before.

Dr. Steele testified to having known Shed for ten years, and that his reputation was good, he having never heard anything against him. Was acquainted with Shed’s physical condition. It was not very good. His chest was weak, and he had been addicted to hemorrhage of the lungs. After the difficulty with Hugl, Shed was coughing and spitting up blood. A stout muscular man, by striking him, would do him great bodily injury.

Mrs. Shed, (wife of the accused) testified that her husband’s physical condition had not been good for the past four or five years. In reference to the pistol spoken of, her husband always brought that home from the store with him. When he got home he would place it in the drawer, and in the morning would return it to his pocket. At night he always came home from the store after nine o’clock, and sometimes it was past ten o’clock.

This closed the testimony, and, as it was almost 4 o’clock in the afternoon the judge decided to postpone further proceeding in the case until Monday (to-morrow) at 9 o’clock, a.m., and court adjourned till that hour.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana)Nov 18, 1883

NOT GUILTY.

The Jury in the Shed Case Acquit the Defendant of the Charge of Murder.

All of yesterday’s session of the district court was occupied in hearing the argument of counsel in the Shed case. The proceedings were opened at half past nine o’clock by I.D. McCutcheon, for the prosecution. Mr. McCutcheon spoke for half an hour, and was followed by E.W. Toole, for the defense, who spoke for an hour and twenty minutes, and he, in turn, was followed by Col. Sanders for the defense in an address of over an hour. An adjournment was then taken until two o’clock p.m., at which time Col. Johnston closed for the prosecution, and the case went to the jury at about half-past four o’clock.

The plea of the defense was that in shooting Hugl the accused acted entirely in self-defense. Ordinarily an assault without some deadly weapon is not held to be sufficient cause for killing an assailant, as in order to establish the plea of self-defense it is necessary to show that the accused was in danger of great bodily harm; but in this case, although Hugl displayed no weapon, it was asserted by the defense (and the testimony introduced by them established it as a fact) that Shed’s physical condition was such that a blow from a strong man (as Hugh proved to be) might prove fatal, and would at any rate probably result in great bodily harm. The testimony of the defense went to prove that Shed was weak about the chest, and was afflicted at times with hemorrhage of the lungs; also that Hugl was large, active, and powerful. It was proven also that Hugl was in the act of striking Shed (had probably already struck him) and that he and Shed both fell when the fatal {SHOT} was fired. After the affray Shed was troubled with his chest and with spitting blood, which went to prove that Hugl, although unarmed, actually was able to do Shed great bodily injury, and in fact had already done so — and at the time the shot was fired he was following Shed up in an aggressive manner. These facts once proven, any measure for defense became justifiable.

Judge Wade, in his charge to the jury, made this point clear, and instructed that if the jury found that the deceased was the aggressor and that the defendant had good reason for believing himself to be in danger of great bodily harm, and if the jury believed that he did think so, then they should acquit. This same point was covered by several separate charges in the Court’s instructions.

The jury retired at about half-past four o’clock, and court took a recess until a verdict should be arrived at — which was within about three hours, when the jury brought in a verdict of not guilty.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Nov 20, 1883

Main St. Looking South - Helena Montana

Theodore Shed before the shooting:

Kiyus Saloon.

Those who delight in pure liquors and fine wines at reasonable prices should give the old established “Kiyus”, on Main street a call. Col. Shed, the proprietor, is known throughout the West for the superiority of his brands, and the remarkable fact that none but pure liquors are dispensed at this bar. It will also be seen by reference to his advertisement in another column that he has reduced his price to the hard times standard, of twelve and a half cents a drink. The “Kiyus” is therefore the place to obtain elegant beverages at reasonable rates.

The Helena Independent — 16 May 1876

Col. Shed, of the famous “Kiyus,” returned yesterday from a visit to Brewer’s Springs, visibly improved in health and appearance.

The Helena Independent — 30 Jul 1876

Theo. Shed has sold his interest in the trader’s store at the Missoula post to D.J. Welch of Williams & Co.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Nov 4, 1877

Theo. Shed sold out his interest in the sutler’s store yesterday to Williams & Co. It is Theo.’s intention to return to Helena.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Nov 6, 1877

Mr. Theodore Shed arrived here yesterday and has again taken charge of the Kiyus. There will be opened next Saturday an oyster department in connection with this establishment.

The Helena Independent — 22 Nov 1877

The head of the monster bear recently slaughtered by Theo. Shed while out hunting on Beaver Creek was on exhibition in Greenhood, Bohm & Co.’s counting room last evening. It was a formidable looking affair.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Oct 20, 1881

A handsome nugget pin was won in a raffle at White Sulphur Springs last Monday by Theo. Shed.

Helena Independent, The (Helena, Montana) Feb 12, 1882

Sol Star – A Picturesque Pioneer

August 7, 2010

Sol Star (Image from Wikepedia)

Sol Star was a friend and business partner of Seth Bullock’s. These two men had a lot in common.  Both were foreign born. Both lived in Montana during the 1870s, and both caught the Black Hills fever and headed for Deadwood. And both men had a hand in civilizing and bringing about the statehood of South Dakota.

The Deadwood S.D. Revealed website has a Sol Star biography written in 1901. NOTE: They give his place of burial as Mt. Moriah Cemetery, Lawrence Co., South Dakota, but he was actually buried in the New Mount Sinai Cemetery in St Louis, Missouri.

The Daily Independent - May 30, 1874

*****

The Daily Independent - Jun 21, 1874

It is fashionable to angle for trout in the Little Blackfoot, and Sol Star, who was out with Gen. Smith and party reports the fish as hungry as Crow Indians — they will bite at anything except a crowbar.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Aug 11, 1874

The Daily Independent - Jan 16, 1875

Personal.

Auditor Sol Star arrived last evening at the Capital of Montana with bag and baggage, also the archives of the Auditor’s office. See his notice in to-day’s INDEPENDENT.

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Mar 2, 1875

The Daily Independent - Mar 5, 1875

Receiver’s Office.

The business of the Helena Land Office has been retarded for some time, owing to the resignation of Mr. Sol Star, and the non-appearance of his successor, Mr. Sheridan. But the office runs smoothly again. Commissioner Burdett has modified the acceptance of Mr. Star’s resignation, and Mr. Star, as ordered, will resume the duties of the office until the arrival and qualification of his successor. We understand it will not interfere with his duties as Auditor. The following is the dispatch:

WASHINGTON, March 25, 1875.

To Sol Star, Esq., Helena, M.T.:

“The acceptance of your resignation has been modified so far as to take effect upon the appointment and qualification of your successor. You will, therefore, continue to act as Receiver until that event.”

S.S. BURDETT, Commissioner

The Daily Independent (Helena, Montana) Mar 27, 1875

Short Stops.

Mr. Sol Star has ordered from the East a large stock of queensware, glassware, wire and willoware, lamps and chandeliers, which he expects to open to the trade about the 1st of June.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Apr 4, 1876

Sol Star and Seth Bullock, on their way to Benton, narrowly escaped drowning in the Little Prickly Pear.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jun 24, 1876

Sol Star & Seth Bullock (Image from http://picasaweb.google.com/John.Auw)

THE TERRITORY.

Mr. Sol. Star, who had shipped a large invoice of queensware to Helena and designed opening a store, has taken the Black Hills fever, shipped his goods back from Benton to Bismarck, and designed starting to-day for Deadwood City. Sorry you are going, Sol., but good luck to you.
North-West.

Butte Miner (Butte, Montana) Jul 8, 1876

Personal.

Sol Star has gone East by way of the river.

Seth Bullock left yesterday for Dakota Territory. He will be absent several weeks.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Jul 8, 1876

You can read about Sol and Seth’s arrival at Deadwood (Google book link)  in the 1899  book,  The Black Hills, by Annie D. Tallent.

Lincoln Territory.

Delegates representing all the interests and localities in the Black Hills, assembled in convention at Deadwood on the 21st ult. and adopted a memorial to Congress setting forth the wants and necessities of the people. We notice that our former townsman, Sol Star, was appointed one of the Committee on Organization, and W.H. Claggett, late of Deer Lodge, one of the Committee on Resolution.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) May 8, 1877

Implicated in Star Route Frauds.

WASHINGTON, September 28. — President Arthur to-day directed the removal of Sol Star, postmaster at Deadwood, D.T., for confessed complicity with the Star route contractors in defrauding the Postoffice Department.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Sep 30, 1881

Sol. Star.

Sol. Star denounces through the columns of the Black Hills Pioneer, the statement emanating, as he supposed, from one Pursy, to the effect that he had confessed complicity in the Star route frauds. He says that such statements are unqualifiedly false in every particulas and are malicious slanders and fabrications; that no such confessions were ever made, and that no facts existed on which the alleged confession could be made. Mr. Star was for many years a resident of Helena, and has many friends here who would be glad to learn of his complete vindication.

The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana) Oct 11, 1881

Sol Star and the Star Routes.

Mr. Sol Star has been removed from the postmastership at Deadwood on the charge of being complicated in some of the Star Route frauds in Dakota. As Mr. Star is well-known in this territory, being at one time Territorial Auditor, the following, which we clip from the Black Hills Times, concerning his removal, and his letter of explanation, may be fo some interest to our readers. We therefore produce them:

WASHINGTON, Oct. 1. — Star, postmaster at Deadwood, removed yesterday, has confessed that for several years past he has made false certificates of star route service between Sidney and Deadwood. His confession exposes the rascality of the star route ring in the northwest.

WASHINGTON, Oct. 1. — The action of the president in removing Postmaster Star, of Deadwood, was caused by his revelations concerning the star route in the northwest. For some months past one of the most efficient inspectors of the postoffice department has been secretly investigating the management of the Deadwood postoffice, and when he confronted the postmaster with his proofs the latter confessed.

The telegraph lines have been weighted with reports concerning star-route frauds, in which postmaster Sol Star of this city is proclaimed as being implicated, and as having made a confession to that effect. To those who know the facts it is scarcely necessary to state the report is an unmitigated lie from first to last. He has made no confession of fraud for the best of all reasons — there is no fraud to confess on his part. The confession, so called, we here publish. As will be seen, nothing short of entire malice could constitute this report of facts as a confession of crooked dealing. It is about as much of a confession as an almanac is a confession of the state of the weather:

DEADWOOD, D.T. Sept. 1, 1881.

John B. Furay, Special Agent Postoffice Department:

In reply to your verbal request in relation to the arrival of mails on route 34,156, I beg to state that the record of arrivals as reported by my mail bills was based upon the schedule time given by the contractor, and not the actual time of arrival. The report thus made was not made with any expectation or promise to receive a reward from the contractor, but was done and reported, first, because I believed that if the public was satisfied the government would also be with the arrival of the mails; and second, having so reported for two years last past without hearing any complaint from the department I took it for granted that my view of it was correct. I am now informed that such a report was detrimental to the interest of the government, and that the actual time of arrival, and not the schedule time or near the schedule time, is what was wanted. I desire to state that in my belief arrivals of mails will vary from two to four hours later than as reported, as follows: From July, 1879, to September, 1881, for ten months in the time mentioned, the time of actual arrival will vary from two to four hours per day, and for two months in each year named, say for March and April, 1880, and March and April, 1881, the time from that reported will vary from one to three days too early.

Yours truly,

SOL STAR, Postmaster.

The Daily Miner (Butte, Montana) Oct 11, 1881

The elation of the star route people over a verdict of acquittal from Judge Dundy’s court in Omaha will, it is stated, not avail them in other cases. These cases originated in the confession of the postmaster at Deadwood that he had been giving false certificates of the arrival and departure of mails in order to enable the contractors to draw their full pay, though they had not fulfilled their contract. This confession was obtained by Postoffice Inspector Furay, in an investigation set on foot by himself. There were strong local influences of mail contractors in that region. Monroe Saulsbury, one of the largest mail contractors who lives at Deadwood, prevented an indictment of guilty persons once, but it was finally had. On the trial, however, the Deadwood postmaster refused to testify on the ground that he would criminate himself. The confession in these cases was made last summer by Sol Star, a former resident of this Territory, and led to his removal from the position of postmaster of Deadwood.

The Daily Minor (Butte, Montana) Feb 25, 1882

JUSTICE TO AN OLD MONTANIAN.

The Inter Mountain professes to be indignant because the Black Hills Plains says some kind words about Mr. Sol. Star, one of the newly elected aldermen of Deadwood City, and thinks that “such perversity in press and people cannot help the application of Dakota for Statehood.” It is quite likely the thought never entered the head of the Times writer that he was jeopardizing the interests of his Territory when he penned the favorable notice of his townsman, the genial, clever Sol. He may take it all back after seeing the Inter Mountain of the 16th inst., but we don’t believe he will. Now we propose to say a few kind words about Mr. Star even if by so doing we imperil Montana’s prospects of Statehood. But we will state in the outset our firm belief that Mr. Sol. Star is no more a star route thief than the Inter Mountain editor is an angel.

Mr. Star lived many years in Montana and while here he occupied responsible positions both public and private and earned a reputation for intelligence, capability and integrity of character which we are yet to learn he has lost. He served a term as auditor of this Territory and faithfully performed its duties and when he retired from the office he carried with him the confidence and respect of a host of friends. It will be news to those friends and to Mr. Star, himself to learn that he confessed “to the commission of a felony.”

Mr. Star did nothing of the kind. He simply certified as postmaster to the arrival and departure of the mails. Sometimes the mail did not arrive or leave exactly on schedule time, but as is generally usual among nearly all postmasters, where there was not too long a continuance of diversion from schedule time, he made no exceptions in his certification. These, as we understand them, are the simple facts of the case, but the officious, and as the sequel has proved, not over scrupulous Furay preferred charges against him in the interest, it is said, of one of his (Furay) friends. Mr. Star resigned, stood his trial and was acquitted.

If Mr. Star is as guilty as the Inter Mountain would have its readers believe the citizens of Deadwood are certainly a bad lot, for in the face of all this Star route business they have elected him as an Alderman of the city. Our word for it he will make a good one. If he is not the Sol Star of old it is because he has too closely followed the precepts and practices of the Republican party of which, while here, he was an honored and leading member.

The Daily Miner (Butte, Montana) May 18, 1882

If the Inter Mountain has not completely exhausted itself in its endeavor to injure the reputation of an old, well-known and much-esteemed ex-resident of Montana and now a respected citizen of Deadwood, could it not dispose of a portion of its time and space in noticing the Dorseys, Bradys, Howgates and a score of other worthies of the party to which it seems to owe allegiance? It appears to ignore the fact that two of these distinguished Republican luminaries are on trial for swindling the government and that the other is a fugitive from justice. Just for a change from diatribes against Governor Potts, slanderous accusations against Mr. Sol Star and stale editorials from the New York Herald, give us a live article about something else its knows nothing about — for instance the effect which a “dishonest coinage law” and “fraudlent dollars” have upon the business of the country.

The Daily Minor (Butte, Montana) May 19, 1882

DAKOTA CONVENTIONS.

Republicans and Democrats Hold Powwows In Their Respective Burgs.

HUDSON, S.D., August 29. — The republican state convention reassembled at 10 o’clock this morning and heard reports of the committee on credentials and organization. Permanent organization was effected by the election of Sol Star as permanent chairman and E.W. Caldwell as secretary with two assistants. Mr. Star made a brief address, and Judge Moody took the platform amid deafening cheers. On behalf of the delegation of Lawrence county he presented the chairman with a tin gavel made from tin taken from the Etta mine in that county. Judge Moody’s speech was very eloquent and was frequently applauded. The convention then adjourned till 2 o’clock this afternoon.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Aug 30, 1889

The Convention Meets.

MITCHELL, Aug. 27. — Convention called to order by C.T. McCoy, chairman, at 2:15….

Sage of Faulk nominated Sol. Star of Deadwood for temporary chairman. He was unanimously elected.

Mr. Star was introduced by the committee and addressed the convention as follows:

Gentlemen of the Convention: On behalf of the Black Hills country, and particularly those residents of Deadwood here, I can but return to you my thanks personally for your grateful acknowledgment of services I have rendered you at a convention of a similar nature and character at the city of Huron a year ago, and to the pledges I have made and services I have rendered. I can only add in addition, that I will endeavor to discharge these duties which devolve upon me as temporary chairman of this orginization without fear or favor…

Daily Huronite (Huron, South Dakota) Aug 28, 1890

A bill has been introduced at Pierre by Sol Star of the Black Hills, providing for the resubmission of the question of prohibition. It is safe to say it will not pass.

Mitchell Daily Republican (Mitchell, South Dakota) Jan 17, 1890

Mitchell Daily Republican - Jan 28, 1890

The Black Hills Journal website has some interesting tidbits in regards to the history of prohibition in South Dakota,  and mentions Deadwood, specifically.

THE NEWS.
Miscellaneous.

Sol Star is elected mayor of Deadwood for the eight time.

Daily Huronite (Huron, South Dakota) May 6, 1891

Gossip among the Republican delegates in town this afternoon en route to the Aberdeen convention was to the effect that Sol Star of Deadwood was to be pushed to the front on the anti-prohibition issue, and that Judge Moody would be at the head of the Lawrence county delegation. Minnehaha county was claimed for Star, while French of Yankton was thought to be the second choice of the Star men.

Mitchell Daily Republican (Mitchell, South Dakota) Sep 28, 1891

The Hills on Jolley.

Sol Star in the Sioux City Journal: We saw that there was no show, ans so we went for the best man, and that man is Col. Jolley, of Vermillion. He is the very best man that the party could have nominated. He is a worker, thoroughly posted in the needs of the state, an able man and one who will do the state credit at Washington. I think, too, that he will be broad enough to look out for our interests as well as those of his own part of the state. We are satisfied with the nomination and Jolley will get the support of the Hills Republicans.

Mitchell Daily Republican ( Mitchell, South Dakota) Oct 4, 1891

Sol Star was re-elected for the ninth time mayor of Deadwood, by 37 majority. Another republican victory.

Daily Huronite (Huron, South Dakota) May 9, 1892

Dec 16, 1892

*****

Mar 6, 1896

*****

Gravestone image posted by afraydknot,  on Find-A-Grave, along with a biography.

PICTURESQUE PIONEER WHO FOUGHT INDIANS ON BISMARCK — BLACK HILLS TRAIL IN ’76 DIES AT DEADWOOD

Deadwood, S.D., Oct. 19 — Sol Star, picturesque pioneer of the Black Hills, and who, with his partner, Seth Bullock, was among the first to take the Old Black Hills trail from Bismarck to Deadwood, has left on his last, lone, prospecting tour. “If the streets up there are paved with gold, Sol will be right at home,” said one of his old pals.

Sol Star, several times mayor of Deadwood, and one of the best liked of all the old timers, was born in Bavaria in 1840, coming to America at the age of 10, and to Helena, Mont., in 1865. He remained at Helena and Virginia City until 1876, serving as register of the United States land office from 1872 to 1874, and for one year as territorial auditor of Montana. He arrived in Deadwood on Aug. 1, 1876, with Capt. Seth Bullock, who years ago gained fame as a personal friend of Theodore Roosevelt. The Partners picked Deadwood as a good camp. They had a large consignment of goods en route to Helena for them, and upon Bullock’s suggestion this shipment was headed off at Bismarck and brought to Deadwood over the old Black Hills trail.

The trail from Bismarck to the Black Hills was beset with hostile Sioux, angry with the whites because of ignored treaties, and when Bullock and Star reached old Crook City they were compelled to fight a pitched battle with the redskins. Again they encountered the enemy on Big Bottom, but they finally reached Deadwood with their skins and their goods intact. Upon their arrival here they opened a general store, and their partnership in this business continued until 1894. Star was mayor of Deadwood from 1884 to 1893 and from 1895 to 1899. For 19 years he served as clerk of court, and in 1889 he attended the first state convention at Huron, where the enabling act was ratified, and he nominated the first set of officers for the new state of South Dakota. Later he served in both branches of the state legislature.

The Bismarck Tribune (Bismarck, North Dakota) Oct 19, 1917

The Broom Brigade and Broom Drill

May 11, 2010

FOR THE LADIES.

A Broom Drill.

A new idea in amusements this, and its inventors were some girls in Lowell, Mass. Twelve young ladies, commanded by a captain, gave a public drill of their proficiency in handling the broom. The girls were uniformed in red, white and blue. The brooms were decorated with colored ribbons, and as the young women marched with the streamers behind them they looked very martial and were warmly applauded. A young lady, dressed in the national colors, was the “drummer boy” of the broom corps. A fan drill is performed in somewhat the same fashion, only the fan can be used more gracefully and effectively than the broom.

But, after all, perhaps, the best broom drill is the one that takes place in the kitchen, where there is only one broom and no streamers.

The Indiana Democrat (Indiana, Pennsylvania) Apr 14, 1881

Pasadena Broom Brigade - 1886

The above picture is from the Revolution blog, which appears to be an L.A. Times site?  The article that accompanies  this picture is from the L.A. Times. Hopefully, Carla is not a journalist. It seems like a few minutes of GOOGLING might have answered her questions about the mysterious photograph:

An 1886 photograph shown at the L.A. archives bazaar is a bit of a mystery. The man at their feet is identified as Lt. Rockwood, but why did members of the Pasadena Broom Brigade gather? (Pasadena Museum of History / October 17, 2009)

The women are lined up in a row–straight backs, dark starched dresses, sober faces. They clutch long-handled brooms to their sides, bristles up, as if they were rifles. The black-and-white photo is dated 1886.

A cleaning crew? Unlikely. For one thing, the women are too well dressed. For another, they look ready to march into battle or, at least, a parade.

“Isn’t it neat?” asked Laura Verlaque, collection manager at the Pasadena Museum of History, which counts the photograph of the Pasadena Broom Brigade in its archives. “We don’t really know what it was. We think it was a social group. Whether they marched in brigades, we don’t know.”

The mysterious photo was one of the artifacts that the museum displayed at the fourth annual Los Angeles Archives Bazaar held Saturday at USC’s Davidson Conference Center.

Spencerport Broom Brigade, 1883

Image from Town of Ogden‘s photostream on Flickr.

FOR THE FAIR SEX.

The Broom Drill.

The most recent device for raising a church fund is an entertainment known as “the broom drill,” in which a number of young ladies, attired in pure white, with jaunty red caps, crimson collars and girdles of the same tint, go through the regular regimental evolutions, armed with brooms instead of guns. The young ladies, it is said, at some of these entertainments exhibit great precision in the manual and marching, and far more grace than half the crack military corps of the country.
New Orleans Democrat.

The Marion Daily Star (Marion, Ohio) Apr 18, 1882

The Universalist sociable, this evening, will be held in the hall over the church. The program includes a supper and other attractions, but the “broom drill” has been given up. The ladies do not propose to make the “broom” prominent so early in leap year.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Mar 10, 1880

The Fair, Tuesday Evening

The fair of the Ladies’ Union Aid society in city hall, Tuesday evening, was well attended, the refreshment tables were liberally patronized, and the tables loaded with fancy articles, confectionery, etc., added considerable to the receipts of the evening. The musical entertainment included a piano solo by Miss Ida Smith, solos by Misses Carrie L. Davis and Hattie M. Goodwin, a duet by Misses Nellie M. Howland and Cora Goff, and two trios by Misses Howland and C. Jennie Jackson and Mrs. E.R. Farnsworth. All who took part in the concert gained the appreciative applause of the audience.

The great attraction of the evening was the “Broom Drill,” in which 17 young ladies, commanded by Capt. George Burford of the Fusihers, appeared on the stage in neat white sailor suits with red trimmings. The brooms were also decorated with red trimmings, and as the ladies marched with colors flying, keeping perfect time to the piano (Miss Kate Chaffin, pianist,) they presented quite a warlike appearance and fairly took the house by storm. They showed a proficiency in the usual military tactics which was truly surprising. At the close of the drill, the brooms were sold at auction by D.F. McIntire, bringing from 50 cents to $1 each.

The following is a list of the ladies who took part in the broom drill: Misses S el-la Lowe, Susie Cushing, Jennie Colony, Addie Putnam, Marion Putnam, Anna Putnam, Minnie Wallace, Fannie Smith, Mary Miles, Hester Miles, Gertie Chaffin, Annie Crocker, Nellie Wilder, Nellie Burr, Nellie Hewins, Flora Wright and Mrs. Caswell.

Album Quilt - 1868-1880

Image from the Nebraska State Historical Society

The net proceeds of the fair will be about $150, to which will be added the $75 obtained for the album quilt.

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) Mar 29, 1882

Patience (Image from http://diamond.boisestate.edu)

BROOM DRILL IN RED AND WHITE.

Eighteen Young Women in Novel and Effective Evolutions on the Stage.

A broom drill by eighteen young women students in the Normal College and residents of Harlem was a unique feature of the concert at Chickering Hall last night for the benefit of the Harlem Congregational Church. The broom drill was invented by a Captain in the Seventh Regiment, and is founded on Upton’s tactics.

At the notes of a march from “Patience,” played on the piano, the door of the stage opened and Capt. Florence J. Timpson led her company before the footlights. The uniform of the company was a short and beautiful white dress, with a cardinal red ribbon around the waist, a red cape around the shoulders, a jaunty red cap on the head, low slippers, cardinal red stockings, and white kid gloves. A red dust pan, with a letter C in white, did duty instead of a cartridge box, and a cardinal red handkerchief tucked in the belt passed for a dust cloth. Finally, each soldieress carried a broom, beribboned.

Capt. Timpson was distinguished by gold epaulets and a gilt band around her hat but chiefly by an enormous feather duster. A guard with a smaller feather duster did ornamental duty by hovering around the little squad as it maneuvred.

At the command “Order brooms!” the brushes whacked the floor in unison. When the recruits were commanded to they whacked the dustpans with their right hand and then whacked the brush of the broom. At the command “Fire!” they sang out “Bang!” in a tone calculated to convey terror. Then they marched by fours and by sections back and forth on the stage and were applauded for their precise execution of the evolutions. The evolution most applauded consisted in marching up and down the stage with measured steps and sweeping the floor. Finally brooms were stacked and held in place by a pretty red ribbon and slipped over the broom handles.

Chester Times (Chester, Pennsylvania) Mar 15, 1882

LOCAL AMUSEMENTS.

The understanding is that the “broom drill” will be repeated at the opera house.

One Dr. J.D. Words, says:

“But here’s to the ladies ‘Broom Brigade,’
Whether awake or sleeping,
May all your campaigns be well weighed,
Your victories be ‘sweeping,’
And may you, girls, whatever befall,
Amid your fun and laughter,
Secure, while in the manual,
The man u al (1) are after.”

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Sep 3, 1882

Red Stockings are for heretics? This is something else:

MORE HERESY.
[Excerpt]

About two weeks ago, just after a successful strawberry festival, the Managing Committee of the “Twenty-ninth Congregational Church” under took to produce the Broom Drill spectacle, latterly so popular through the country, and for that purpose engaged the “John Calvin Broomstick Combination” — a company consisting of 45 young ladies, all of whom are experienced and capable artists. The spectacle was placed on the platform with the thoroughness characteristic of the house, and although speculators sold tickets at three times the usual price, every seat was occupied. The proficiency of the company in the drill act left nothing to be desired, and the singing of Miss Geneva Knox, who sang the famous “J’aime les militaires” from the “Grand Duchess,” was enthusiastically applauded. Pecuniarily the affair was a brilliant success, but on the following day a formal charge of heresy was brought against the managers by Deacon Bradford, who was elected to the Deaconate six weeks ago.

The specification under the charge of heresy was to the effect that the managers had knowingly and willfully permitted the ladies of the “John Calvin Broomstick Combination” to appear in red stockings. Deacon Bradford maintained that red stockings are one of the worst errors of the Roman Church, and that to substitute them for the pure white stockings of Protestantism in a spectacle produced in an orthodox evangelical business church is to cast contempt upon Protestantism and to lead the minds of the young and ignorant into Romanism.

The accused managers maintain that there is nothing in the creed of the “Twenty-ninth Congregational Church” which condemns red stockings, and that a member of the society may not only gaze upon, but may actually wear red stockings without being guilty of heresy; that the red stockings worn by the “John Calvin Broomstick Combination” were advertised by colored posters several days in advance of the entertainment, and no objection was then made to them by any one; that the pecuniary success of the entertainment was unquestionably largely due to the red stockings, and that if religious freedom is to be cramped by the success of bigots like Deacon Bradford, no church can carry on its business for six months — not to speak of paying dividends.

The accused managers are to be brought to trial for heresy next October, and in the meantime the “Twenty-ninth Congregational Church” will be closed, although it can be hired by worldly people for balls and other non-religious entertainments. It is a great pity that a thriving business church should have its prosperity checked in this sudden and painful way, and it is earnestly to be hoped that the efforts of Deacon Bradford will be in vain, and that Potterville will not be long deprived of its favorite place of amusement.

The New York Times (New York, New York) Jun 9, 1883

THE broom-drill mania is extending all over the country, but it is noticed that the young ladies who are most expert in the drill generally go off on a visit when house-cleaning commences.

Title    The Odd Fellow’s Talisman and Literary Journal
Publisher    John Reynolds, 1882
Page 454

Broom Brigade - Union, Oregon (Image fromwww.ohs.org)

THE BROOM DRILL.

The seating capacity of Turn Halle was taken up last night with a very fine audience to witness the entertainment by the ladies of Trinity church. In the broom drill were the following young ladies: Captain, Miss DeHart; drummer, Miss Katharine Grecu; sergeant, Miss Green; and Miss Savier, Miss Burnside, Miss Beck, Miss Wygart, Miss Myrick, Miss Teal, Miss Yarndley, Miss Eva Lewis, Miss Story, Miss McCraken, and Miss Effinger.

The uniforms were strikingly neat. The skirt was of black, reaching to the top of high-buttoned boots, and trimmed with a broad band of scarlet bordered with gold braid; black waistcoat; scarlet Zouave jacket, trimmed with gold braid a la militaire; scarlet Zouave cap, trimmed with gold bands and tassel. A dust pan and wisp-broom for a knapsack, with a broom for arms, completed the m????ic soldier. The drill, both in use of arms and marching, was nearly the acme of precision and grace, and each movement was received with loud applause. General surprise at the proficiency of the young ladies was shown, and after two encores had been demanded and answered, many congratulations were offered to those who had taken part. The floor was then cleared and all present danced until midnight.

Morning Oregonian (Portland, Oregon) Feb 4. 1883

A Broom Brigade (Image from http://www.antiquephotographics.com)

EXHIBITION DRILL.

The Girls with Their Brooms and Boys with Their Guns.

A gay crowd, as well as a very fashionable and select one, assembled early at Turner hall last night to witness the broom drill and the drill given by the Belkamp Rifles.

The Broom Brigade executed their maneuvres very well, but seemed to have grown careless since last drill and were not as perfect as before. The Belkamp Rifles surpassed themselves in any previous effort they have made and won golden opinions and rounds of applause from the spectators. All their movements were nearly as perfect as regulars, and the drill they were put through by Captain Bob Green was particularly severe.

The silent manual put up by a squad composed of Messrs. Maybry, Shook, Vaitz, Lingan, Dittmar, Jonas, Richardson, Truax, Rote, Tobin, Watts and J. Green. Then manual was gone through with simply at the tap of the drum, and the perfect manner of its execution, fairly brought down the house.

After the drill the hall was turned into a ball room, and the remainder of the evening was spent in tripping the light fantastic. There were at one time over 200 couples on the floor, and one of the quadrilles danced was the largest ever seen in Turner hall.

Refreshments were served in the club room adjoining the hall, and the boys realized quite a nice little sum of money towards the purchase of their new fatigue uniform, which they will take with them to Lampasas.

San Antonio Light (San Antonio, Texas) Jun 6, 1885

Gossip.

There is a stagnation of news. Nobody seems willing to get into trouble for the public benefit. In the meantime the Broom Drill goes bravely on.

Daily Miner, The (Butte, Montana) May 9, 1882

Sport.

All sport should be amusement, but it does not follow that all amusements can be called sporting events, the broom drill to-morrow evening for instance.

Daily Miner, The (Butte, Montana) May 26, 1882

Image from Calisthenics and Light Gymnastics for Home and School (Google book link)

PENELOPE

Successfully Rendered a Third Time.

It is much to be regretted that the audiences at the performances of Penelope have not been larger. Taking into consideration the broom drill and the concerts, the inducements to attend an amateur entertainment have not been greater this winter. Last night the broom brigade, headed by the little drummer girl in dainty costume, was again the cynosure of all eyes. So sweeping was the applause that these fair daughters of the regiment actually underwent the fatigues of a campaign in marching on and off the stage, in response to the repeated encores. Penelope was for the third time rendered with spirit and effect, the dramatic talent displayed by Miss McIntyre, as well as by her support, Miss Lincoln, Mr. Duffet and the Messrs Pensrose, proving an agreeable surprise.

The actors and the audience were in equally good spirits, and the charming melange of popular music was well rendered and received. After the performances Fred Taylor auctioned off the brooms, dust pans, tassels-on-the-boots and other paraphernalia of the regiment so gayly mustered out of service, the whole thing realizing a total of about eighty-five dollars and thus testifying the generous appreciation of the audience. The dance and refreshments came last of all, happily closing a pleasant evening.

Daily Miner, The (Butte, Montana) May 31, 1882

I have included this next article, not so much for the “Broom Drill” reference, but for the “A Look into the Future” performance further down in the article. It is set in the 1950’s, and is rather humorous.

FOR THE GYMNASIUM.

The Young Ladies of the University Give a Splendid Performance at the Opera House.

A few such entertainments as that given by the young ladies of the University at the Opera House Saturday night and the gymnasium fund will be large enough to begin operations immediately. There was not a vacant seat in the house and standing room was at a premium. It was one of the largest audiences ever seen in the theatre, and best of it all they were well pleased with their night’s entertainment.

The program was very interesting from beginning to end and considering the short time spent in getting it up, the young ladies are entitled to a great deal of credit.

The music was furnished by the University orchestra, Professor Hillman director. Finer music was never heard at a theatre in Reno, and the applause that followed the first overture showed that the audience highly appreciated it.

The military drill, by privates Misses Gould, Maxwell, Saddler, Shafer, Allen, Mayberry, Fanning, Grimes, Longley, Hart, Evans and Jones, commanded by Miss Bender, was a complete success. The young ladies were dressed in their regulation uniform and carried the cadet rifles. They marched and drilled exceedingly well, and were frequently applauded on executing some new movement.

The sweet voice of Miss Mabel Stanaway always calls for an encore, but the solo rendered Saturday evening was received with more than the usual applause.

The next feature on the program was entitled Bellamy’s (Looking Backward). Nine young ladies with ghostly appearance, in flowing white robes and with masks on the back of their heads and their hair combed over their faces, went through with a sort of a quadrille.

This pleased the audience hugely and received a hearty encore.

The next was a broom drill, Captain Linnscott commanding, color sergeant, Miss North; privates, Misses Irwin, Steiner, Robinson, Bradshaw, Stubbs, Edmunds, Twombly, Patton, Virgin, Ward, Linn, Edmunds, Murphy, Douglas and Haines.

The young ladies were all dressed in red with white aprons, which made a very nice effect. They all carried brooms except the sergeant, who held aloft a large feather duster. Hanging at the side of each where the cartridge box is worn, was a dustpan.

This drill was exceptionally good, the young ladies going through with some very difficult evolutions. A very pretty effect was produced when different colored lights were thrown on them, especially the purple light, which changed the color of their uniforms from red to orange.

This drill also received a hearty encore.

The Soldier's Departure by Charles Hunt - 1868

Living Pictures, “The Soldier’s Farwell,” “The Soldier’s Dream” and “The Soldier’s Return,” by the Misses Douglas and Virgin, was well received, the first two pictures being exceedingly good.

“A Look into the Future,” (scene in the United States Senate, 1950) probably pleased the audience more than any other feature of the program. It was woman suffrage illustrated in the superlative degree. The audience having for some time been reading the GAZETTE’s articles on woman suffrage was the better prepared to appreciate it. It illustrated the Senate after women had secured the right of suffrage and had disenfranchised the men. The Senate was represented complete, from the Vice President, who presides, to the pages. There were also present the general of the army, foreign ambassadors and others. Bills were introduced for the remonetization of gold, for the granting of suffrage to men and various other measures. Speeches were made which were well delivered and highly humorous. The dignity of the Senate was occasionally interrupted by the chaplain falling asleep and it becoming necessary to awaken her. Everything was progressing quite smoothly until a spider dropped down from the ceiling, which created a panic for a few minutes. But at last a rat ran across the floor for which reason it became necessary to adjourn for the day. A man was finally produced to kill the rat.

The Fan drill, Captain — Miss Catlin — Privates Frey, Hironymous, Martin, Wheeler, Parker, Bruette, Robb and Phillips, was one of the prettiest parts of the whole program. The young ladies were tastily dressed, wore their hair powdered and carried large Japanese fans. They were exceedingly graceful in their movements and deserved the applause and encore they received.

The performance was closed by “The Famous Oklahoma Jubilee Singers,” who rendered some old plantation songs in good style.

The next performance will be by the boys, who will have to work hard if they outdo the young ladies.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Dec 17, 1894

Learn how to do the Broom Drill:

Title: New Games for Parlor and Lawn
Author: George Bradford Bartlett
Publisher: Harper & brothers, 1882
“THE COMICAL BROOM DRILL”
Page 127

The Ignorance of Braggarts and Fools

October 26, 2009

Image from http://artfiles.art.com

NOISE AND RESULTS

The fact that one can make a noise,
Is hardly proof of skill, or poise.
Most braggarts, when they’re put to test,
Produce performance not the best.
To boast is easy, but indeed,
It takes some action to succeed.
A donkey has a noisy bray,
But that is all he has to say.
Some blowers are about the same,
In real results, if not in name.
Just listen to the folks who brag,
And see if their attainments lag!

–N.A. LUFBURROW

The Frederick Post (Frederick, Maryland) Mar 16, 1939

Image from www.lib.ed.ac.uk

THE ARROGANCE OF IGNORANCE

The self complacency of uneducated people is one of the great barriers in the way of improvement. No one can fail to have noticed how dogmatic the man is who knows a very little about any important matter. It is proverbial that the greatest students have only found out how little they know after a lifetime, and another proverb is, “A little learning is a dangerous thing.”

IT is a great step upward for a man to break the shell of his self-conceit, so that he can keep his mind in a receptive mood, and discriminate between wheat and chaff. He cannot grow unless he is willing to learn, and he cannot learn as long as it mortifies him to acknowledge that there is anyone wiser than he.

A great many very ignorant men assume an air of superiority, and by their dogmatic impudence override the very people that could teach them something. This sort of thing does the wise no harm but it keeps the fool a fool to his dying day. It is an excellent plan for young men to associate with their superiors. Don’t choose for companions the men who flatter and make much of you, but cultivate the acquaintance of the wise and good, and you will grow to be wise and good yourselves.

The Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Jan 5, 1881

Image from http://2.bp.blogspot.com

IGNORANCE

He knew Latin and he knew Greek,
But the plumber who came to mend the tap
Thought him a strangely ignorant chap
Who couldn’t fix faucets when they leak.

He stopped with a farmer once to chat
And he looked at straw and called it hay.
And the farmer said as he moved away:
“I’d certainly hate to be dumb as that.”

All the ancient writers he could quote,
But sailors laughed when he went to sea
And said: “What an ignorant fool is he
To call such a splendid ship a boat!”

So in spite of the knowledge man has earned,
There is so much to this worldly scheme
That down to the last a fool he’ll seem
To the man who knows what he hasn’t learned.

The Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Jan 21, 1930