Posts Tagged ‘1922’

Pearline – Don’t Wear Yourself Out Over the Washtub

December 2, 2010

Sandusky Daily Register –  Jan 30, 1891

As stated in this 1891 Pearline advertisement, the produce came into being about 1877. They seemed to have kept their illustrator pretty busy producing a wide variety of advertisements.

Since I ran across some “Hints for Housekeepers,” while looking for the Pearline ads, I am including them. Some are entertaining, some might be useful, and some are rather dangerous, and come with a cautionary warning:

Galveston Daily News – Jul 13, 1888

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Can you tell it was election season when this next one ran?

Daily Northwestern – Nov 27, 1888

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These hints don’t appear to be serious:

Handy Hints for the Housekeeper.

A perplexed housekeeper wants to know what she shall do with the tin cans that from day to day accumulate about the house — fruit cans, meat cans — of all kinds cans, cans, and a thousand cans. Well, if you keep a boarding house, you might throw them into the street, right in front of the house as a bait for the homeless man seeking a boarding house, If you have a home, however, you might utilize the cans in many ways.

You might take the tomato cans, fill them with soft, rich earth, and plant them, and by and by a whole handful of all sorts of weeks would come up. Then you could take the can to the pottery and have the potter twist a nice terra cotta vase about it so as to completely hid the can, and thus at a trifling expense, not over a few dollars, you could utilize your old tomato can as a garden vase.

Or you could take a lobster can, and bore three holes at equal distances in the sides, close to the open end. Then cover the can as thickly as you need with fine plastic material used in the manufacture of cheap statuettes, and employ some good artist to fashion ?? in graceful shape and beautiful designs. Then fasten bright brass chains in the three holes and hang it in a hook in the porch roof, and you will have a handsome hanging basket that need not cost you more than $5.

If you should break a kerosene lamp, save the foot of it, and with a bit of red flannel and merino and some white crochet make a pin cushion of it, stuffing the flannel and merino out in a large, irregular shaped sphere and with the crochet cotton work “lOve thE giVEr” on it. Then set it in the spare room on the dresser, care being taken to have the cushion fastened on so loosely that it will cant a little to one side. Then, when the guest wakes up in the night and sees that awful apparition in the moonlight, he will confess all his sins, put on his clothes hindside foremost, and dropping himself out of the window will flee in terror into the wilderness and never come back to spoil your best pillow shams with his bear’s oily head again.

“It isn’t what you get,” they say down in West Virginia, “that makes you rich, it’s what you save.” A few cents here and there in household expenses are not noticed at the time, but at the end of a year they aggregate enough to pay the for a steam thresher.

Fort Wayne Daily Gazette (Fort Wayne, Indiana) May 7, 1881

Sandusky Daily Register – Aug 8, 1889

Sandusky Daily Register – Mar 3, 1890

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This one even mentions Pearline in its hints:

Hints for the Housekeeper.

If you think the kitchen is a hot place be easy on the cook.

Lard applied at once will remove the discoloration after a bruise.

A rug under one’s feet is restful when long standing is necessary, as in ironing or washing dishes.

Whites of eggs may be beaten to a stiff froth by an open window when it would be impossible in a steamy kitchen.

Mrs. Emma Ewing avers that not book knowledge alone but cook knowledge is needed in this broad nation of dyspeptics.

Cistern water that has become foul may be purified with powdered borax or alum. A quarter of a pound of each will cleanse twenty-five or more barrels.

Put a little pearline in the greasy pots and roasting pans and it will greatly facilitate cleaning them, especially if you stand them on the range to heat the water.

Most vegetables are better cooked fast, excepting potatoes, beans, peas, cauliflower and others which contain starch. Cabbage should be boiled rapidly in plenty of water; so should onions, young beets and turnips.

William Galvani learned from experiments that by cooking most fruits and vegetables lose their natural flavor, which he says in “Food, Home and Garden,” is after all, more delicious than any that can be artificially supplied.

You can prevent your pretty new ginghams from fading if you let them lie for several hours in water in which has been dissolved a goodly quantity of salt. Put the dress in it while it is hot, and after several hours wring it out dry and wash and usual.

The pretty woman fades with the roses on her cheeks and the girlhood that lasts and hour; the beautiful woman finds her fullness of bloom only when a past has written itself on her, and her power is then most irresistible when it seems going.

When a warm bath is taken, if the whole body from the crown of the head to the soles of the feet is instantly sponged with cold water there will not be danger of taking cold. The cold water closed the pores naturally. They are left open unnaturally after a warm bath.

Commonplace but important is the suggestion, “Be careful of fire.” Never take risk of lighting fire in stove or furnace not known to be ready and safe. In building or repairing see that the pipe holes in the chimney are tight and well protected from lath and siding by use of clay pots made for the purpose.

The Mountain Democrat (Placerville, California) Jan 2, 1892

Sandusky Daily Register – Jul 21, 1890

Sandusky Daily Register – Dec 12, 1890

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PLAIN TALK.

Every Day Hints for the Practical Housekeeper.

The oil of white birch bark, which gives to Russia leather its peculiar aromatic and lasting qualities, when dissolved in alcohol is said to be excellent for preserving and waterproofing various fabrics. It renders them both acid and insect proof, and in no way destroys their pliability.

Tea and coffee stains will usually come out of linen if put into water at once or if soon washed. IF the yare of long standing rub pure glycerine on them, and then after washing this out, wash the linen in the usual way.

Prick potatoes before baking so that the air can escape. This will prevent their bursting in the oven.

Bad breath or offensive breath may be removed by taking a teaspoonful of the following mixture after each meal. One ounce liquor of potash, one ounce chloride of soda, one and one-half ounces phosphate of soda, and three ounces of water.

A good formula for layer cakes is as follows: One cupful of sugar, one-half cup of butter, one-half cup of sweet milk, the beaten whites of four eggs, two cupfuls of flour and a heaping teaspoonful of baking powder.

The Housekeeper gives the following hints: To take ink out of linen, dip the spotted parts immediately in pure melted tallow, the wash out the tallow and the ink will have disappeared.

Lima Daily Times (Lima, Ohio) Aug 16, 1892

Sandusky Daily Register – Jul 15, 1892

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This next one is kind of creepy:

Sandusky Daily Register – Oct 11, 1892

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Let the men wash!

Fort Wayne Gazette – Apr 30, 1895

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Here are the household hints that come with the warning. The dangerous hints are mostly at the end of the list:

HINTS FOR THE HOUSEKEEPER.

The following directions for removing stains, spots, etc., must be used with exceeding caution, Chloroform, benzine, turpentine, kerosene and gasoline are all dangerous substances unless handled with extreme care.

Sponge a grease spot with four tablespoonsful of alcohol to one of salt.

Sprinkle salt over the spot on a carpet and sweep all up together.

Rub finger marks from furniture with a little sweet oil.

Put a lump of camphor in an air-tight case with silverware to keep it from discoloration.

Remove paint spots from a window by rubbing a copper cent over them.

Sprinkle salt over fresh claret stains.

Wash ink stains in strong brine and then sponge with lemon juice.

Hold a fruit stained article over a bowl and pour boiling water through the cloth.

Rub egg stains on silver with salt on a damp cloth.

Use wood ashes on discolored tableware.

Clean steel knives with raw potato dipped in fine brick dust.

Rub brass with hot vinegar and salt and scour with fine ashes.

Clean a carpet with a broom dipped in a very weak solution of turpentine in hot water.

Cleanse grained woodwork with cold tea.

Scour ironware with finely sifted coal ashes.

Soak mildewed clothes in buttermilk and spread on the grass in the sun.

Wash rusty gilt frames in spirits of wine.

Wash oilcloth with a flannel and warm water; dry thoroughly and rub with a little skimmed milk.

Purify jars by soaking hem in strong sodawater.

Wash blackened ceilings with sodawater.

Rub white spots on furniture with camphor.

Rub a stove zinc with kerosene.

Cleanse bottles with hot water and fine ????s.

Remove fruit stains from hands with weak oxalic acid.

Clean jewelry with prepared chalk.

Wash hair brushes in weak ammonia water.

Rub stained hands with salt and lemon juice.

Remove ink from wood with muriatic acid, after rinsing with water.

Wash japanned ware with a little warm soda.

Rub mirrors with spirits of wine.

Apply spirits of salt to ink stained mahogany.

Use sulphuric acid, wash off with suds, for medicine stains on silver.

Remove all stains from wall paper by powdered pipe clay moistened.

Use gasoline for removing paint.

Use jewelers’ rouge and lard for rubbing nickel plating.

Wash willow ware with salt water.

Clean hard finished walls with ammonia water.

Rub whitewash spots with strong vinegar.

Rub soft grease over tar and then wash in warm soda water.

Dip a soft cloth in vinegar and rub on smoky mica.

Sponge faded plush with chloroform.

Take paint out of clothing by equal parts of ammonia and turpentine.

To remove machine oil from satin use benzine. Be careful about having a light in the room as it is very explosive.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) May 27, 1894

Fort Wayne Gazette – Dec 30, 1895

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Pearline gets violent:

Fort Wayne Gazette – Jun 12, 1896

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HINTS FOR THE HOUSEKEEPER

A PAN of borax and sugar, kept under the sink, will discourage roaches.

Plenty of hot water and washing soda put down the sink pipes will keep them clear, and lessen the plumber’s bill.

A piece of lime or charcoal in the new refrigerator will prevent the “new” odor and taste from clinging to eatables.

To successfully bake a piecrust without its filling, line it with paraffin paper and fill it with uncooked rice.

Enameled ware that has become burned or discolored may be cleaned by rubbing with coarse salt and vinegar.

A teaspoonful of lemon juice to a quart of water will make rice very white and keep the grains separate when boiled.

A tablespoonful of borax is an agreeable addition to the dishwasher, and helps to keep the hands soft instead of irritating them, as soda does.

The Anaconda Standard (Anaconda, Montana) Dec 1, 1907

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Curse Monday, Wash Day:

Nebraska State Journal – Oct 25, 1897

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The late 1890s must have been desperate times; this  woman is slashing with a dagger:

Eau Claire Leader – Jul 6, 1898

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Hints for the Housekeeper.

A soft clean cloth dipped in melted paraffin will give the stove a smooth, attractive surface. Kerosene-oil on a soft lintless cloth may be used on the nickel afterward to effect a polish.

Put two worn blankets together, cover with silkolene and stitch with worsted. Thsi makes an attractive comforter, if you choose the silkolene and worsted to harmonize with the color scheme of the bedroom.

Brushes should be hung up. They should never be allowed to stand on their bristles as this mats them and tends to make the bristles fall out. In using a broom, sometimes use one side and sometimes the other; this will make it wear evenly and so last longer. An oil mop will wear longer if it is not hung too near the heat after washing it. The bristles of a carpet sweeper or a vacuum cleaner can be well cleaned of hairs with a buttonhook or a pair of scissors.

Fine china nicks particularly easily when it is warm. A towel in the bottom of the dish pan will save much danger of chipping. Use a mild soap in washing painted or gilt-edged china and wash one piece at a time. Avoid using water that is too hot, in washing dishes and put plates into it edgewise so that both sides will expand with the heat alike. Much fine china, especially that which is made in China, is rough on the bottom. When the dishes are stacked in the closet, soft paper, or flannel pads should be kept between them to prevent the decoration on the front from being scratched, worn or chipped.

— Delineator.

The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska) May 27, 1922

Nebraska State Journal – Aug 16, 1897

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Hints For The Housekeeper

A Model Floor Waxer

I haven’t a floor waxer, so will tell how I wax my floors. I lay down a piece of cloth, put on the middle of it the amount of wax it will take, then place a warm flatiron on the wax, gather the cloth all up on the handle of the iron and proceed to iron the floor. As the iron cools change for a warmer iron. The wax goes go much faster this way and soaks in better, because it is warm. I wait about half an hour, then put a large piece of old woolen goods in the mop and then polish the floor. Try it on your Congoleum rugs and see how much brighter they are.

Save On Cleaning Candlesticks

Instead of scraping the wax from brass or silver candlesticks, plunge the metal part in hot water and thus melt the wax. Candlesticks are often scratched when the wax is scraped off. By melting off the wax much time is saved and you will not run the risk of marring the candlesticks.

Sheboygan Press (Shepoygan, Wisconsin) Jan 7, 1927

Marshall Wright: Aged War Veteran Tells of Experience

November 12, 2010

140th Pennsylvania - Officers

Image from the History of Co. K,  140th Penna Volunteers – 1862 – “65

Aged War Veteran Tells Of Experience

Marshall Wright, 85 years of age, of Croton avenue, clear of vision and mind, and still able to go about without a staff tells of his early days in the Panhandle of West Virginia, relates thrilling experiences of how he suffered for the flag and endured hardness for his country. The whole story is an inspiration to the faltering ones of today, who are losing their nerve.

“I was born in “old Virginny” September 10, 1837, on a large 400-acre Brooke’s county farm, just across the Ohio river from Steubenville, O. Brooke county has always been in that narrow strip of land called the Panhandle lying between the state of Pennsylvania and the Ohio river. Up to 1861 it was a part of Virginia; but when Virginia seceded from the Union, representatives from 47 counties of the northwestern part of the state organized a state government, and in 1863 were admitted to the Union as West Virginia. That part of the country was a hotbed of secession. Families were arrayed against each other, friend was against friend. Seven of my schoolmates favored the southern cause.

“My father was Jacob Wright and my mother was Margaret Davis Wright. There were 11 of we children. We did not have free schools but the parents paid tuition of abut $2 for each child for a term of three months a year.

Lived In Log House

“When I was 12 years old I was doing all kinds of farm work and working the same number of hours as father. We lived in a log house. I can still see the big fireplace, the spinning wheel, the long barreled rifle on pegs above the mantle, the flickering tallow candle or the piece of wicking burning on the edge of a saucer of grease. Then that gun. The barrel was as heavy as a crow bar, but oh boy, how it would shoot. One day father gave me a dozen lead bullets as I was preparing to go hunting with the old relic on the pegs. I came back with 13 squirrels. The thirteenth squirrel was killed with the ‘neck’ cut from one of the bullets, which had adhered when taking from the moulds. In those early days the wild ducks and geese flying to or from their winter home in the south would sometimes hand and occupy the river. There would be thousands of them in the river at one time. In the winter when the farm work was all done up, I would make trips down the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans on a flat boat. I usually went with Bill Householder who was a regular at that kind of seafaring, and had just completed my third trip when the was came on. I was 24 years old and the first act of the seceders was to go down along the Baltimore & Ohio as far as Grafton and burn buildings and bridges. I joined the three-month men as a private in the First Virginia regiment and when we overtook the bridge burners at Phillippi and shelled them, there was nothing further to it. We were paid $11 a month in gold and at the expiration of the term were mustered out at Wheeling.

In 140th Pa. Volunteers

“I then enlisted in Company K, 140th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry for three years. My captain was William Stockton of Cross Creek and the colonel was Dick Roberts of Beaver, Pa. We assembled and organized at Washington’s fair grounds. Then went to Camp Copeland, Pittsburgh, then moved to Harrisburg where we were equipped and sent out to patrol the Northern Central railway, now the P.R.R., to Parkton, Md. On December 1, 1862, we joined the Army of the Potomac. Our first fight was at Chancellorsville where the famous General Stonewall Jackson was killed. We were defeated, and re-crossed the Rappahannock to go into camp. Next, we followed Lee’s army which was invading Pennsylvania. Our regiment arrived at Gettysburg about 9o’clock on the morning of July 2 and took a position in the famous wheatfield. Our losses were very heavy and among the slain was Colonel Roberts. I was struck on the right elbow and had to retire. Later I was sent to Satterlee hospital, West Philadelphia. My father came and took me home. At the expiration of my furlough I went to the detention camp at Alexandria, Va., and a little later on was given full equipment including a gun and 40 rounds of ammunition, and with others boarded a supply train on the Orange and Alexandria railroad to rejoin the regiment, which was in camp, in the county of Culpeper. That was as rough a road as a man ever rode on! It now appears to me that the engine bell never stopped ringing owing to the low joints. It’s a wonder the water did not splash out of the boiler.
At Cancellorsville.

“General Grant now had charge of the army of the Potomac and great activity was going on at every point. Our regiment crossed the Rapidan and slept on the Chancellorsville battlefield. On May 4th, 1864, we went into the battle of the Wilderness and got into action on the second day, just before sundown, at Todd’s Tavern, where Corporal Wright, that’s me, had one bullet put thru the sleeve of his blouse and another right through his cap. Well, they say “a miss is as good as a mile.” We next crossed the Mataponny river in the night. At daybreak a large force of Confederates came out and formed as if to go into battle. We fired one volley into them and they disappeared, while we fell back across the little stream. Spottsylvania came next where Lee had his army behind earthworks. Our regiment was marching in the night to the immediate vicinity of the works. It has been said that we were twenty men deep on the assaulting line. We knew something was going to happen. It rained all night. Just as the first streaks of dawn lifted the darkness of the night the order to charge rang all along the line. The fight was on. The noise of that battle was awful. I was in the first line and went over the top twenty or thirty feet, when a bullet struck me in the neck, passed clear through and came out of my back. We took several thousand prisoners. My injury was of such a nature that I was paralyzed. The battle was at its height and the captured ‘rebs’ were pouring back to our lines and eager they were to get back to a place of safety. As one of them came close to me I held out my hands, and asked him if he wouldn’t take me back. He stopped and helped me to our side of the works and laid me down where the flying bullets would not be so liable to get me, then beat it back into our lines as fast as he could travel.

That was on May 12th. They carried me back to the field hospital with other wounded. The tide of battle changed and the field hospital was left unguarded. The ‘rebs’ came that way and while they wanted nothing to do with anything that looked like I did, they took my boots and every bit of my clothing except my underwear. This little scene had hardly been staged when Sheridan’s cavalry came down and took care of us. I was loaded into an ambulance with another wounded soldier and for 36 hours was bumped and jolted over rough country roads, many miles of the way being corduroy.

Suffer Intensely.

The ride was worse than death. We both suffered intensely. Upon arrival at Acquai creek we were placed on straw or hay that had been scattered on the ground and when the hospital boat arrived we were loaded onto the boat, and put onto cots that seemed so nice and soft to anything we had thus far. Up to this time nothing had been done for me. Not a drop of medicine, nothing to ease the pain, had not been bathed or had my wound dressed. There were 1500 [or 1600] of us in that cargo bearing every conceivable kind of an injury. One of the attendants came to me and said: “Open your mouth.” I did so and he said: “drink all you can,” as he put a bottle to my lips. I immediately went to sleep and when I awoke it was in the Harvard Hospital, Washington, D.C. It had been five days since I was hurt and the only thing that had been done was to give me that medicine out of the bottle.”

Stopping as if to collect his thoughts this old veteran said, “What makes us old Grand Army men love the flag so much is, that we have suffered so much for it and it has done so much for us.” “My wound was an unusual one owing to the way it cut a pathway thru my neck among the arteries and cleared itself without striking a vital spot. The surgeons took a photograph of it. My left arm was paralyzed by the wound. At the end of thirty days my mother went to Washington and took me home on furlough.

After six months treatment at the Penn Hospital, Pittsburgh, I was sent back to the regiment which was lying in front of Petersburg. In November 1864, After the final withdrawal from Richmond, the army followed Lee with the 140th Regiment deployed as skirmishers. We overtook them at Appomattox and the surrender followed, April 9th, 1865. I was in the Grand Review at Washington in May, then we proceeded to Pittsburgh turned in our guns and equipment and were mustered out of the service.

I went back to farming and 12 years ago came to New Castle to make my home. In 1880 Miss Margaret Pollock became my wife.

We have two daughters, Mrs. Geo. Richardson of Main street and Mrs. J.H. Fulton of Los Angeles, Calif.

We live in the Dufford Block, Croton avenue.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) 2 Dec 1922

New Castle News (New Castle,  Pennsylvania) Mar 3,  1911

Oak Park Cemetery (Image from Find-A-Grave)

D. Marshall Wright.

D. Marshall Wright, aged 86 years, of 337 1-2 Croton avenue, one of the oldest residents of New Castle and veteran of the Civil War, died Saturday afternoon at the home of his daughter, Mrs. George Richardson of 601 East Main street after a brief Illness of pneumonia.

Mr. Wright was born in Virginia, September 10, 1837, and had resided in this city for the past 14 years. He was a member of Epworth Methodist church, G.A.R. and I.O.O.F. lodge.

He enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War in Washington county in the Union Army with Company K, 140th Pennsylvania Volunteers and served for four years.

Besides hsi widow, Mrs. Margaret Wright, he leaves two daughters, Mrs. J.H. Fulton of California, and Mrs. George Richardson of this city, and three sisters, Mrs. Thomas Wheeler and Mrs. Alex Ralston of West Virginia, and Mrs. Wesley Crawford, of Brazil, Ind.

Funeral services took place this afternoon at 2:30 from the Richardson home on Main street in charge of Rev. Homer Davis assisted by Rev. C.M. Small. Interment was made in Oak Park Mausoleum.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Feb 11, 1924

Name:      Marshall Wright
Enlistment Date:     9 Apr 1862
Rank at enlistment:     Corporal
State Served:     Pennsylvania
Was Wounded?:     Yes
Survived the War?:     Yes
Service Record:     Enlisted in on 18 May 1861.
Mustered out on 28 Aug 1861.
Enlisted in Company K, Pennsylvania 140th Infantry Regiment on 04 Sep 1862.
Mustered out on 31 May 1865 at Washington, DC.
Sources:     History of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-1865
Research by R. Ross Houston

Marshall Wright‘s daughter, Hattie L. Wright married James Hunter Fulton. They has a son, H. Marshall Fulton:

Name:   Hattie L Fulton
[Hattie L Wright]
Birth Date: 12 Jul 1873
Birthplace: West Virginia
Death Date: 21 Dec 1941
Death Place: Los Angeles
Mother’s Maiden Name: Pollock
Father’s Surname: Wright

Name:  Hattie Fulton
Home in 1900: Ellwood City, Lawrence, Pennsylvania
Age: 26
Birth Date: Jul 1873
Birthplace: West Virginia
Race: White
Gender: Female
Relationship to Head of House: Wife
Father’s Birthplace: West Virginia
Mother’s Birthplace: Pennsylvania
Mother: number of living children: 1
Mother: How many children: 1
Spouse’s name:     James H Fulton
Marriage Year: 1893
Marital Status: Married
Years Married:     7
Household Members:
Name     Age
James H Fulton 30 Jul 1869 PA PA PA
Hattie Fulton 26
Marshall Fulton 5 Jun 1894 PA PA WV

Name:  Hattie L Fulton
Age in 1910: 36
Estimated birth year: abt 1874
Birthplace: West Virginia
Relation to Head of House: Wife
Father’s Birth Place: Virginia
Mother’s Birth Place: Pennsylvania
Spouse’s name: James H Fulton
Home in 1910: New Castle Ward 3, Lawrence, Pennsylvania
Marital Status: Married
Race: White
Gender: Female
Household Members:
Name     Age
James H Fulton     40
Hattie L Fulton 36
H Marshall Fulton 15

Name: H Marshall Fulton
Home in 1930: Alhambra, Los Angeles, California
Age: 35
Estimated birth year: abt 1895
Birthplace: Pennsylvania
Relation to Head of House: Head
Spouse’s name: Hazel L Fulton
Household Members:
Name     Age
H Marshall Fulton 35 (machinist – can factory)
Hazel L Fulton 33 UT ENG SWE
Jack Fulton 10

Jack Fulton

As I was doing some research on Marshall Wright, I ran across this obituary for his great-grandson, who coincidentally passed away this year.

Jack Marshall Fulton 06/02/1919 ~ 03/28/2010

ESCONDIDO — Jack Marshall  Fulton  was born June 2, 1919 in Ogden, Utah, the son of Hazel and Marshall  Fulton. He passed away peacefully on Sunday, March 28, 2010. Jack graduated from Alhambra High School, Alhambra, Calif. He served in the Army Air Corps during WWII. After being discharged, he returned to school graduating from Pierce College and then the Agricultural Teacher Program at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo where he received his Bachelors and Masters of Ed.

He began his teaching career at Escondido High School in 1957 and served until he retired in 1980. He then married the love of his life, Martha Moen on January 15, 1983 and enjoyed 14 years of marriage that included many travels and cruises. Jack became a Master Mason in 1949. He served his community with the Masons and also the Lions Club throughout his life. He leaves his loving family, Cary and Cheryl Moen, Norman and Carol Peet; and grandchildren, Dana and Wendy Moen, Deric and Amber Moen, Darin Moen, Andrew and Erin Peet, Aaron and Amanda Peet, Josh and April Peet; and five great grandchildren with one on the way!

You are invited to the memorial service on Wednesday, April 21, 2010, at 2 p.m., at the Masonic Center, 1331 S. Escondido Blvd., Escondido, CA 92025, 760-745-4957. In lieu of flowers, the family suggests donations be given to Elizabeth Hospice, http://www.elizabethhospice.org.

obits.nctimes.com

Old Bucktails Answer the Final Roll Call

November 11, 2010

Alanson E. Niles

DEATH OF COLONEL ALANSON E NILES

SKETCH OF A PROMINENT MILITARY OFFICER AND WELL-KNOWN CITIZEN

Last Thursday morning Colonel Alanson E Niles, of this borough, died at the German hospital in Philadelphia, where he went on the 21st of September to undergo a delicate surgical operation. He stood the operation well and seemed to be on the way to recovery, when Bright’s disease was developed and he rapidly grew weaker until the end. Mrs. Niles and his son Lieut. Nathan E. Niles were at his bedside. The remains were brought home on Friday, and on Saturday afternoon the funeral was held at his late residence on Main street, the burial being with military honors.

Alanson Erric Niles was a son of Mr. Nathan Niles, one of the early settlers of Charleston township. He was born on his father’s farm near this borough October 5, 1816. He inherited the homestead and was engaged in farming until 1857, when he came to this borough and engaged in the mercantile business with Mr. Aaron G. Elliott, the firm of Niles & Elliott doing business in the old wooden building which stood on Main street on the corner just below the First National bank.

In 1861 Mr. Niles was among the first to respond to the call  for volunteers to suppress the Rebellion. He enlisted in this borough, recruiting a company of men, and was elected Captain of Company E of the First Pennsylvania Rifles, better known throughout the country as the “Bucktails.” He was mustered into service May 31, 1861.

At Dranesville on December 20, 1861, the Bucktails are credited with winning the first victory of the war for the army of the Potomac. Here Captain Niles was severely wounded, being shot through the lungs. He was in the hospital some time, but as soon as he was able he hastened back to his regiment.

On the morning of the second day of the battle of Gaines Hill six companies of the Bucktails were stationed on a hill above a swamp to guard a bridge, the only crossing for miles in either direction. When the armies retreated, Companies D and E, with Captain Niles in command, were left to hold the bridge. The boys stood their ground until a Rebel brigade came up in their rear to within ten rods, when they retreated over the brow of the hill to fall into Jackson’s advancing corps. They were completely surrounded and taken prisoners. Company E was the color company of the regiment and rather than have their flag fall into Rebel hands they burned it in the swamp. Captain Niles was in Libby prison for 49 days, when he was exchanged, together with most of the members in his company, and they at once went to the front again.

Captain Niles was promoted to the rank of Major on March 1, 1863, and on the 15th of May following he was made Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment. It was while with the Bucktails in their charge on Little Round Top at Gettysburg, on the 2d of July, 1863, that he was wounded in the left thigh.

Lieut Col Niles was afterward transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps with promotion to the rank of Colonel. He commanded the corps during the raids of the famous Mosby in eastern Virginia, and at White House Landing he held the field against Mosby’s men for one whole day, when he was relieved by Gen. Sheridan.

Colonel Niles was then sent to Point Lookout, a general depot for prisoners, where he remained in charge until after Lee’s surrender. He then went to Washington.

On the night that President Lincoln was assassinated Col Niles was in Ford’s theater, and he heard the pistol shot and hastened to the hallway and saw the wounded President being carried out.

Col Niles participated in the following battles during the war: New Creek, Hunter’s Mills, Dranesville, Gaines Hill of the seven days fight before Richmond, Fredericksburg, South Mountain, Antietam and Gettysburg.

When the war closed and the grand review was held in Washington Colonel Niles was selected from among the thousands of officers to be the officer of the day, and he had full military charge of the city at the time.

Col Niles was then commissioned as Captain in the regular Army, and for three years he was stationed at Plattsburgh, N.Y., in command of the military barracks.

On account of disability by reason of his wounds he was retired in 1869 with the rank and pay of a Captain, and he came to this borough to reside. After his retirement he lived here quietly, enjoying the respect and esteem of his neighbors, and always taking a lively interest in the affairs of the Government. He was an ardent lover of rifle-shooting and recently notwithstanding his years, he made some remarkable scores on the rifle range.

It can truthfully be said of Col Niles that he was a stranger to fear and a martyr to duty. His record during the war was one of great personal courage and of thorough devotion to the exact discharge of military duty in every station. At home among his friends although of a naturally retiring nature, he was cheerful, genial and steadfast.

Col Niles was married November 10, 1842 to Angeline Austin, of Charleston. Two sons and two daughters were born to them. His widow and Lieut Nathan E. Niles of the Navy, survive him.

The funeral was held last Saturday afternoon at the family residence and it was largely attended. Rev. Dr. A.C. Shaw conducted the service. The Cook Post, G.A.R. attended in a body, and twenty five members of Col Niles’s company acted as a military escort to the cemetery and tenderly committed the remains of their late commander to the dust. Each member wore the distinguishing bucktail on his hat. Among the many floral tributes was a buck constructed of white flowers, which was a testimonial of Company E of the Bucktails. At the cemetery the service was in charge of the Cook Post No. 315, G.A.R.

The Wellsboro Agitator (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania Oct 14, 1891

Image from Find-A-Grave

Mr. Henry Clay Roland died at his home in Delmar township last Friday morning — a victim of the prevalent influenza. Mr. Roland was born in Lycoming county forty-eight years ago; but he came to this county when still young, living for a time in Charleston and afterward in Delmar.

During the war of the Rebellion he was an efficient soldier of the Union, being a member of Company E of the Bucktails, under the late Colonel Niles.

After the war he was engaged in farming, and he was an excellent citizen and a man respected and liked by all his acquaintances. The funeral was largely attended last Sunday at the family residence, many of Mr. Roland’s old comrades being present. The interment was in the cemetery in this borough. Mr. Roland leaves a widow and four children — two sons and two daughters.

The Wellsboro Agitator (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Apr 6, 1892

Flag image from the Descendant’s Association of the 149th PA Bucktails

Death of Mr. Jacob Huck.

Mr. Jacob Huck, aged 72, died after a week’s illness of pneumonia, on Friday evening at the home of Mr. George W. Smith, at Cedar Run, with whom he made his home. He was a member of Co. E, of the famous 1st Pa. Rifles, or “Bucktails,” and served through the civil war. Five brothers also served in this war.

Mr. Huck had been a member of Wellsboro Lodge, I.O.O.F., for 25 years. He was a conscientious, upright Christian gentleman and was respected and esteemed by all who knew him. Mr. Huck never married. He is survived by the following brothers and sisters: Messrs. Harrison Huck, of Lockhaven; Myron, of Delmar, and Samuel and John, who live in the West, and Mrs. Bert Lloyd, of Olmsville. The Wellsboro Odd Fellows sent a beautiful floral offering and several members of that Lodge besides many Slate Run Odd Fellows attended the funeral at the Cedar Run Methodist church on Monday at 2 p.m.

The following was written by a comrade of the deceased:

“Sergeant Jacob Huck was one of six brothers who enlisted in 1861. Jacob, George and Samuel served in Co. E, of the “Old Bucktails.” Jacob was Color Sergeant for two years and during that time he was wounded three times. At the battle of Cold Harbor a Rebel soldier seized the flag staff and tried to capture the colors. Huck killed him instantly by running him through with a saber. As a soldier and friend none excelled him. He was characterized by his extreme modesty, never mentioning his brave deeds to his most intimate friends. His brothers, Harrison, of Lockhaven, and Myron, of Delmar, with their families, and his sister, Mrs. Bert Lloyd, of Olmsville, attended the funeral. Comrades G.O. Darby, Peter D. Walbridge and W.W. English, of Co. E, with three other veterans acted as pall bearers.”

The Wellsboro Agitator (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Mar 1, 1905

Image from Find-A-Grave

Mr. Chester F. Kimball, aged 64, died Saturday evening about 9 o’clock at his home on Crafton street. He was apparently as well as usual on Saturday afternoon, but was stricken suddenly with paralysis about 4 o’clock while making purchases in Finkelstein Bros.’ store. He was removed to his home, where he passed away within a few hours.

Mr. Kimball was born at Homer, Cortland county, N.Y., on April 30th, 1842. He was twice married, his first wife being Sarah Boydson, whom he married on December 20, 1870. and who died on May 18, 1878. Two sons were born to them, Charles N. Kimball, Esq., of Sistersville, West Virginia, and Mr. Everett E. Kimball, of Cleveland, Ohio, both of whom survive.

On April 30, 1890, Mr. Kimball married Sarah Rollins, of Roundtop, who survives him, with one daughter, Clara A.

Two sisters also survive him, Mrs. Adelbert Green, of Syracuse, N.Y., and Mrs. Miles Dunbar, of Necedah, Wisconsin.

Mr. Kimball enlisted on August 7, 1861, in Co. E, of the 1st Pa. rifles, better known as the “Old Bucktails.” He served with honor and distinction and was one of the best soldiers in his company. He later served with the 13th Veteran Reserve Corps. He was a member of the Union Veteran Legion and of the Methodist church. The deceased was a good man, an upright and progressive citizen and was highly esteemed by all who knew him.

Funeral services will be held this morning at 10 o’clock at the late home of the deceased, Rev. W.H. Reese, D.D., officiating.

The Wellsboro Agitator (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Jan 30, 1907

 

Another Veteran Mustered Out.

At his home near Ewing, Neb., February 16th, of bronchitis, Orsamus P. Borden answered the final roll call. He was born November 30, 1829 at Pultney, N.Y., and at the time of his death was 77 years, 2 months and 16 days old.

When a young man he moved with his parents to Tioga county, Pa. He married Miss Sarah Impson, January 28, 1854, in Delmar, Pa. To this union were born four children, three sons and one daughter, only one of whom survive, namely, Arthur H. Borden of Genessee, Potter county. His wife died April 17, 867.

On November 2, 1867, he married Miss Josephine S. Butler, his present wife. To them were born thirteen children of whom five are living, three sons and two daughters.

In 1861, Mr. Borden enlisted in Company E of the “Bucktails.” He served through the entire war. Was taken prisoner at Mechanicsville, June 26, 1862, and spent some time in Libby and Belle Island prisons.

In 1882 he moved his family to Nebraska and settled on a homestead, where he spent the remainder of his days, and with his faithful wife, fought the hard battles, and faced the privations of a frontier life. In courage and fidelity to what he considered right, he proved himself in every respect a man. He was a member of the Grand Army, General Anger Post 192 of Ewing, and no one of its members was more faithful in attendance at its meetings, or more loyal to its laws.

The Wellsboro Agitator (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Mar 27, 1907

Another Veteran Gone.

Samuel Freeland, aged 75 years, died last Tuesday morning at 3:45 o’clock at his home in Corning of paralysis.

Mr. Freeland was born in Chatham Tioga county, Pa., December 1, 18[3]3, and the early part of his life was spent on farms in different parts of this country. When the civil war broke out he enlisted in Company A, Bucktails. Early in the war he was captured by the Confederates and was in Libby prison for a number of weeks until he was exchanged. When he entered this famous prison pen he was a large man, weighing over 200 pounds but so severe was his treatment that when he came from the confinement he tipped the scale at only 100 pounds. He was so worn and changed that his own brother failed to recognize him. He again went into active serviced and shortly after he was wounded in the right hip. He lay for four days on the battle field where he received the wound and was finally found by the Rebels and again taken to Libby prison. During the days that he lay on the filed of battle he had only one drink of water, this from the canteen of a Rebel captain. This time he was confined in Libby prison only about six weeks and when exchanged he was honorably discharged from service because of his wound. He carried the bullet to the day of his death.

After recovering from his injury he lived at Addison where he worked in the sash and blind factory and where he married Mary L. Seaman on the first day of February, 1865. He also lived at Coudersport for a time. About four years ago he removed to Corning where he had since lived. Besides his wife he is survived by five children — G.V. Freeland, of Spokane, Wash., C.H. Freeland, of Corning; William Freeland, of Hunt, N.Y.; Mrs. Arthur Slad with whom he lived, and Mrs. Rose Varner, of Albany Falls.

He was a member of the Arch Jones Post, G.A.R. at Coudersport, and was one of the charter members of the W.W. Angle Post, at Addison.

The Wellsboro Agitator (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania Mar 3, 1909

Image from the Richard Warren Smith family tree on Ancestry.com

Benjamin W. Topping, Sr., died recently at his home in Elmira, aged 79 years. He is survived by his widow, one son, B.W. Topping, Jr.; one daughter, Mrs. B.G. Birney, of Cincinnati. Mr. Topping had been a resident of Elmira for many years. He was a veteran of the civil war and was a captain in Co. H, Pennsylvania “Bucktails.” He was a commercial traveler for 35 years and, as a cigar salesman, was well known in almost every city and town in northern Pennsylvania and southern New York.

Wellsboro Agitator (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania Feb 21, 1917

Image from Find-A-Grave

DEATH OF P.D. WALBRIDGE.

Highly Esteemed Civil War Veteran Died Last Wednesday.

Peter D. Walbridge, aged 83 years, died at the Blossburg hospital early last Wednesday morning, following the amputation of his right leg, which operation was performed Monday. Mr. Walbridge’s right foot had caused him much suffering for several years and not long ago gangrene developed and amputation of his knee was necessary as the only hope of saving is life, but he failed to recover from the shock of the operation.

He is survived by one son, Peter D. Walbridge, Jr., of Pueblo, Colorado, and three daughters, Mrs. W.D. Riffle and Miss May Walbridge, of Wellsboro, and Miss Maude Walbridge, of New York city.

Mr. Walbridge served with conspicuous bravery during the civil war as a member of Co. E, of the famous “Old Bucktails” regiment, and many are the tales of heroism his comrades tell of him, but Mr. Walbridge seldom spoke of his own experiences during the dark days of ’61-’65. He was a prisoner at Andersonville for nearly a year and that trying ordeal took a heavy toll from his naturally strong constitution. Mr. Walbridge had a host of warm friends to whom his death brings deepest sorrow.

The funeral was held Saturday afternoon at two o’clock at the First Baptist church, Rev. C.W. Macgeorge officiating; burial in the Wellsboro cemetery.

The Wellsboro Agitator (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Dec 3, 1919

BRILLIANT WAR RECORD.

Brief Review of a Brave Soldier’s Career During the Civil War.

The brilliant and gallant Civil War record of the late Peter D. Walbridge, of Wellsboro, who died a few days ago at the Blossburg Hospital, following amputation of his left leg for gangrene, should not pass unnoticed. He was one of the first from Wellsboro to enlist in the original Old Bucktails under Captain Alanson E. Niles and served throughout the entire Civil War.

Notwithstanding Peter Walbridge was always conceded one of the bravest and most daring soldiers of the fighting Bucktails, having performed many heroic deeds worthy of note, he bore his honors meekly, without display, blow or bluster. He had a big heart and it was in the right place, as all his comrades in arms can testify.

The Gazette takes great pride in presenting the following summary of this brave soldier’s war record:

Peter D. Walbridge enlisted April 28th, 1861, from Wellboro, Pa., and was mustered into the United States service May 31st, 1861, at Harrisburg, as a private to serve for a term of three years in Company E, First Regiment, Penna. Vol. Rifles, under Captains A.E. Niles and S.J. Mack and Cols. Theodore L. Kane, J. Biddle, H.W. McNeil and C.F. Taylor. The Regiment was the 42nd Pa. Vol. Inf., 1st Bucktails or 13th Regiment, Penna. Reserves Infantry.

Moved to a point opposite Cumberland, Md., June 22nd, thence to West Va., in support of Lew Wallace till October; then moved to Tennallytown and attached to McCall’s Reserve Division, Army of Potomac. Engaged at Drainesville, Va., Dec. 20th, ’61. Moved to Virginia Peninsula, June 9th to 12th, ’62.

Attached to 5th Corps Army of Potomac. Engaged in seven days battle before Richmond, Jun 25th to July 1st, ’62; battle of Mechanisville, June 26th; Meadow Bridge, June 26th; Gainesville, July 27th; Savage Station, June 29th; Charles City, Cross-Road and Glendale, Jun 30th ’62; Malvern Hill, July 1st, ’62; battles of Gailnesville and Groveton, August 28th and 29th, ’62; Second Bull Run, August 30th, ’62; South Mountain, Md. Sept. 1?, Antietam, Md., Sept. 7th, ’62. Was wounded here by gunshot in right leg and sent to Harrisburg. Received 50 days furlough to go home from Governor Curtin. Rejoined regiment and participated in battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, ’62, and March, January 20th to 24th, ’63.

Ordered to Washington, D.C., Feb. 6th, ’63. Duty there and at Alexandria till June 25th, ’63. Rejoined the Potomac Army, June 25th, ’63. Attached to 1st Brigade, 3rd Div., 5th Corps, Army of Potomac. Engaged in Battle of Gettysburg, July 1st to 3rd, ’63. Pursuit of Lee, July 5th to 24th, ’63. Engaged at Rappahannock Station, Nov. 7th, ’63; Mine Run, Nov. 26th and 28th, ’63.

Honorably discharged Feb. 27th, ’64. Re-enlisted as a veteran Feb. 28th, ’64, in the field as Sergeant in same Company and Regiment, three years more, or during the war, under Captains S.J. Mack and Col. A.E. Niles. Participated in Battle of the Wilderness, May 5th-7th, ’64;; Laurel Hill, Va., May 8th; Spottsylvania, May 8th to 12th, ’64; assault on the Bloody Angle, May 12th ’64; Spottsylvania Court House, May 13th to 21st, ’64; Harris Farm, May 19th; North Anna River, May 23rd to 26th, ’64; Jericho Ford, May 25th; Penunkeg River, May 26th to 28th; Totokotomy, May 29th to 31st; Bethesda Church, May 30th to June 6th.

Was wounded May 30th in head, left leg and right arm by shell explosion and was captured and taken to Spotts Hospital, Richmond, Va., until July ’64. Then was placed in Andersonville, later Florence, prison. Was paroled and sent to Annapolis, Md. Received furlough home until April, 1865. Rejoined regiment. Was on May 31st, 1865, transferred to Co. E, 190th Reg., Pa. Vol., Infantry, which he joined close to Petersburg. Engaged at Appomattox Court House, Lee’s surrender, April 9th, 1865. Washington, D.C., May 1st to 12th; Grand Review, May 23rd, 1865. Honorably discharged June 28th, 1865, at Harrisburg, by reason of close of war.

The Wellsboro Gazette (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Dec 11, 1919

Image from Find-A-Grave

CIVIL WAR VETERAN ANSWERS LAST CALL

James T. Hebel, 79 years old, a veteran of the Civil War, while accompanying a neighbor, Joseph Lenig from his home in Hunter’s Valley to Newport, Perry County, Pa., on Friday morning, May 26, got off the wagon in the narrows, along the steep mountain road to walk up a hill, and while walking along back of the wagon, dropped dead in the road. Death was due to heart failure.

His son, Alfred of Osecola Mills, went to visit him on Monday, May 22, as had been his custom, about every four to six weeks. On Tuesday morning his father suggested that they go to Newport on Wednesday morning, as he wanted to buy a suit and hat and shoes to wear to the Memorial services at Liverpool on Sunday, May 28 and on Tuesday, May 30. As planned, they went to Newport on Wednesday morning and after making the purchases, and were about to part to go in different directions to their homes, and as his father said “Good Bye” to his boy he remarked, he would wear his new clothes to the memorial services, neither thinking that the time was so near at hand when he should answer the final “roll call” and be numbered among those whose graves would be strewn with flowers, by his few surviving comrades on that day.

Mr. Hebel was born near Liverpool Perry County, Pa., March 19th, 1843. He was the son of George and Rosanna (Matchet) Hebel, natives of Lancaster and Dauphin Counties. The early part of his life was spent in working as a millwright with his father. He was eighteen years old when the Civil War broke out and at once enlisted in the service of his country in Co. B, 7th Penna. Reserves, being organized at Liverpool by Capt. G.K. Shull and after serving in this regiment and company for some time was transferred to the “Old Bucktails” and at the expiration of his 3 year enlistment re-enlisted, for three years more, or until the close of the war. He took part in nearly all the important battles between the Army of the Potomac and the Confederate forces under command of Robert E. Lee, from the first battle of Bull Run to Appomattox. Then took part in the Grand Review at Washington, D.C. Then went to Harrisburg where he was honorably discharged from the United States Service, July 5th, 1865, after having served his country over four years, in its most trying hours.

He then returned to his home in Perry County, but in December of the same year, came to Clearfield, where he learned the carpenter trade under Ezra Ale. During the spring of 1867 he was united in marriage to Miss Charlotte Deis, and moved to Luthersburg, where he followed his trade, farming and lumbering until October 1897 when he was appointed and assumed the position of post master. He resigned that position April, 1906 and moved to Curwensville where his wife died on the 19th of December 1907. He then returned to Perry county and purchased forty acres of land in Hunter’s Valley, near the place of his birth, and about midway between Newport and Liverpool, where he lived during the summer and spent the winter with his four surviving children, Alfred M. of Osceola Mills, Mrs. Mary Freedline of Bell Township near Mahaffey, Clearfield County, Pa., Mrs. C.U. Downs of Kansas City, Mo and Warren L. of Harrisburg, Pa. He is also survived by nine grandchildren.

His Body was taken to Osceola Mills to the home of his son Alfred, on Saturday evening at which place funeral services were held Sunday afternoon at 4:30 o’clock, conducted by Rev. J.W. Shillington of the M.E. Church. On Monday morning the body was taken to Luthersburg where it was laid to rest beside that of his wife and deceased children.

Mr. Hebel was a kind and affectionate father and was dearly loved by his children. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church from the time he first moved to Luthersburg until he returned to Perry County, where he associated himself with the church he attended as a boy and was regular in attendance at services until his advanced age made it almost impossible for him to walk the six miles to the church and back.

Clearfield Progress (Clearfield, Pennsylvania) Jun 2, 1922

AGED CIVIL WAR VETERAN DIES

Eugene H. Stone Was Nearly One Hundred Two Years Old.

Eugene H. Stone, of near Wellsboro, civil war veteran, died at the Soldiers’ Facility, Bath, N.Y., Thurdays afternoon, Sept. 2, after a long illness.

There is now only one civil war veteran living in Tioga county, John Eldridge Harvey, aged 101, of Westfield.

Mr. Stone was a half-brother of the late William A. Stone, a former governor of Pennsylvania. He was born in Delmar, Jan. 31, 1842, son of Israel and Abbie Stone. At the age of 19 in August, 1861, he enlisted with Co. E, 42nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, known as the Bucktails.

Mr. Stone was captured July 22, 1862, at the battle of Mechanicsville, after being in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. He was held prisoner at Libby and Belle Isle Prisons 40 days, when he was exchanged and rejoined his regiment. He was mustered out Aug. 7, 1864, at Petersburg, Va.

On Nov. 9, 1864, he married Sarah Francis, daughter of Ephraim Francis, of Charleston. For six years they resided on his parents’ farm and then he purchased adjoining farms in Shippen and Delmar townships.

He went to Pawnee county, Kans., where he took up 160 acres of government land. Three years later he returned to Tioga county.

He served as school director and Shippen township Supervisor, was a member of the Masons and the Grange.

The funeral was held Saturday at the Johnson Funeral Home in Wellsboro, Rev. C.W. Sheriff officiating’; burial in the West Branch cemetery.

Mr. Stone is survived by a son, Fred A. stone, of Ansonia; two daughters, Mrs. Hobart Maynard and Mrs. Rankin Stermer, of Wellboro, R.D.; five grandchildren and 12 great-grandchildren.

The first three “Bucktail” companies were organized by Thomas L. Kane at Smethport, McKean county, in April, 1861. One volunteer, seeing a deer suspended in front of a market, cut off the buck’s tail and stuck it in his hat and when he enlisted the name “Bucktail” was adopted.

The Tioga county contingent was organized in early May, 1861, by R.C. Cocks, of Liberty, afterward Colonel of the 207th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers and later advanced to Brigadier General, in answer to President Lincoln’s call for 75,000 men.

The Wellsboro regiment was commanded by Alanson [E.] Niles. This troop, with four others, marched overland to Troy and took the Northern Central Railroad to Harrisburg, announcing the arrival at the state capitol by a salvo of musketry. The contingent became Co. E, First Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment, and entered active service.

Mr. Stone participated in many of the principal battles of the war. He had three brothers in the Union forces. One was a member of his own company. All returned to their homes at the close of the war.

Of adult population of 6,000, 2,000 Tioga county men enlisted in the civil war and 445 never came back, a record equaled by only one other county in the union in proportion to population.

Wellsboro Agitator (Wellboro, Pennsylvania) Sep 8, 1943

Punctuation, Typewriting and Telegrams

September 24, 2010

A bit of a mixed bag for Punctuation Day:

Fire Inspector Not in Jail as Telegram Stated

Lack of punctuation in a telegram received at the state fire marshal’s office Friday morning made it appear that L.J. Butcher, state fire inspector, was in jail at North Platte waiting for somebody to go his bail. But by inserting a period where the telegraph company had omitted it, Chief Clerk Eva Anderson figured it out that two incendiary suspects and not Butcher, were in jail.

The inspector was sent there two or three days ago to probe the circumstances of several supposed incendiary attempts to burn a residence in North Platte. He wired Friday that one blaze which started April 9 at 11 p.m., had been put out, and the next morning at 8 o’clock fire broke out again at six different places in the house.

“Owner and wife made complete confession to County Attorney J.T. Keefe and myself are in jail awaiting bail,” the message concluded.

This looked bad, on its face, for “J.T. Keefe and myself.” But telegram English is a little different. Miss Anderson finally decided that this was the way it should read:

“Owner and wife made complete confession to County Attorney T.J. Keefe and myself. Are in jail awaiting bail.”

The Lincoln Star (Lincoln, Nebraska) Apr 14, 1922

Sarcoxie, Missouri (Image from http://www.sarcoxielibrary.org)

Getting Into Print.

A certain gentleman who wanted to get into print sent the following to the Sarcoxie Record

The scribe arose
And rubbed his nose —
His eyes expressing exultation
Aha — cried he —
I will be free —
I will be free from punctuation

This writer then
Seized on his pen
Writing fast with fiery flashes —
And to him came —
One morning — fame —
Instead of commas he used dashes

The magazines
And pictured screens
Acclaim’d him genius — great – annoited —
His stuff was grand —
You understand —
Because it was so oddly pointed.

The Lincoln Star (Lincoln, Nebraska) Mar 21, 1922

A Little Punctuation.

People who fail to punctuate their communications are invited to study the following line, which is a correct sentence

“It was and I said not or.”

We got that line one day this week by wire, where punctuations are always omitted. We nearly wrecked our mentality trying to clear up the mystery of the single line, when all of a sudden it occurred to us to look up a copy of our letter to the party, when we discovered that our friend wanted to inform us he did not use the word “or,” but did use “and.” To be plain, the sentence is correct and should have read, “It was ‘and’ I said – not ‘or.'”

Another party who has been studying Pope wrote us as follows: “My Dear Mr. George — I have been thinking over the statement you made last week, and I too believe that that is is that that is not is not, and I take pleasure in believing so.”

A good way to untangle the above is to write it as follows: “That that is, is. That that is not, is not.” In other words, it is a play on Pope’s “whatever is, is right.” People who eschew punctuation should not feel hurt if their meaning is not always readily grasped.

— George’s Denver Weekly.

Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Jul 22, 1899

While the rest of us are looking for truth in the book of life the Cynic spends his time searching for small flaws in the punctuation.

Daily Mail (Hagerstown, Maryland) Sep 6, 1927

PUNCTUATION.

It is a prevailing fad of job printers to omit punctuation. The consequences are sometimes far from satisfactory to the customer, as witness the following street car sign of a well-known Connellsville druggist:

Your Doctor’s Orders
Are Obeyed Strictly and Accurately
I Never Substitute
Pure Drugs and Medicines

What the druggist does do, and what he wanted to say, was that he fills prescriptions accurately; that he never substitutes other remedies for those called for in the prescription; and, finally, that he sell nothing but pure drugs and medicines.

The job printer has made him say that he obeys the doctor’s orders by never substituting pure drugs and medicines for the impure kind prescribed!

The Daily Courier (Connellsville, Pennsylvania) Mar 15, 1906

HEARD IN THE PROOFROOM.

How Poetry, Prose and Advertisements Sound Via the Copyholder.

If one of our modern graduate elocutionists could hear a copyholder reading aloud in the proofroom of a daily newspaper, it would be very apt to drive the elocutionist to drink. For the benefit of those who have never heard this class of reading an imitation thereof in type may be of passing interest.

In the first place, be it understood, a copyholder is a proofreader’s assistant, and it is his (or her) business to read aloud the copy, including punctuation, spelling of names, etc., so that the proofreader may have a correct understanding of just what the copy is without bothering to look and see for himself.

This is about the way it sounds when the copyholder starts in:

“The G-r-a-m-m-e Machine — three up — E type — period. In the diagram before you A B — two small caps — is a ring of soft iron — comma — with its ends connected so as to form a continuous circuit — period. This ring can be made to rotate on its axis between the poles N S — two small caps — of an electro-magnet — compounded — period. How the magnetism of the electro-magnet — compounded — is established will be explained by-and-by — compounded — no e on by — colon — for the present I simply assume that N — small cap — and s — small cap — are two magnetic poles — comma — north and south respectively — period — parry — no dash.”

Perhaps the next bit of copy is a news item, and we hear:

“Accident in Newark — H 1. About 6 o’clock this morning as William — abbreviated — Clarke — with an e — was crossing E-v-a-n-s st — comma — near the corner of Clover — comma — he was struck by a trolley-car — compounded — No. 42 — figures — comma — and thrown to the ground on one side just in time to fall under the wheels of a passing wagon — period. He was picked up unconscious and conveyed to G-r-o-s-v-e-n-o-r hospital — comma — where his injuries were pronounced dangerous — period — more to come.”

Possibly a little poetic gem may be the next thing on the proof, and this is how it sounds:

“Miss P-e-g-g-y-pos-s Bonnet — three up — K type. Poetry — begins flush.

The century was six years old — comma — one em — Miss Peggy — two up — just sixteen — spelled, of course — comma — dash — flush — not yet a woman — comma — nor a child — comma — one em — but that sweet age between charms from either side — comma — dash — one em — the dimpled smile of four — spelled again — comma — flush — with gentle mier and glance serene — one em — of twenty-one — hyphened — or more — scarce — stanza.”

Next an advertisement appears and as this is more important than poetry or news the copy reader’s pace slackens very perceptibly, and we catch:

“Two inches — daily — top of column — third page — send five proofs — four blank lines — avoid consumption — 38 — 1 line — pica old style lower next — begins flush — don’t wait until the hacking cough — all caps — has weakened the system and strained the Lungs — one up — period — take — break — S-m-i-t-h-pos-s E-m-u-l-s-i-o-n — two lines 27 — upper and lower — centered — no — point — goes on in pica old style — flush — the cream — one up – of Cod liver — cod up — hyphened — Oil — up — and Hyposphosphates — up — comma — to supply the nourishment your system craves — period — no address — that’s funny — better show it to the boss and see if it goes.”

And thus the copyholder hurries along, dissecting his material at a rate only a printer can properly appreciate. — American Bookmaker.

The Mountain Democrat (Placerville, California) Mar 21, 1896

A Writing Machine

The first of the writing machines manufactured in New York has been received by E.S. Belden, phonetic reporter of Washington. The invention was made in England, but it has been added to and improved in this country. The machine is about the same size of an ordinary sewing machine, and can be worked by a child who can spell, as easily as by a grown person.

It consists of a series of forty-two keys, to which are attached steel hammers, and each one of these represents a letter, figure, or a punctuation mark. The keys are arranged in four rows, like the keys of an organ, and are operated on precisely the same principle. The hammers are arranged in a circle, and when the key is pressed the corresponding letter moves to the centre, receding again immediately when the pressure is removed. A space key is provided, by means of which the spaces between words are made. Mr. Washburn, of San Francisco, patented an improvement on the machine, and he contemplates the use of printers’ ink. In the original, the color is taken from a prepared ribbon, which is between the hammer and paper. At the end of each line the machine is adjusted for the next line by means of a treadle, which is worked by the feet of the operator.

By this machine three times as much can be written as an ordinary man can write. The Western Union Telegraph Company has already ordered all that can be manufactured for the next six months. They are to be used manifolding copy telegraphed to the press.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Oct 19, 1873

Charles A. Washburn’s 1870 patent illustrations:

Here is a link to last year’s post for National Punctuation Day!

Constitution Day 1922 – Study the Constitution

September 17, 2010

September 17 To Be U.S. Constitution Day

Constitution day — September 17.

Study the Constitution.

It is no small thing to be a citizen of the world’s greatest republic! It is a great responsibility to be a voter here. You want to know your privileges and your power as an American voter; and you want to know your duties and responsibilities as well as your rights under the Constitution. Think them out, for yourself, as you read and study the clear provisions of our great fundamental law. We cannot all be learned constitutional lawyers. But every American citizen, man or woman, young or old, may have and should have an intelligent idea of our form of representative government “of the people, by the people, for the people.” Every one of us should know and should value the security it guarantees to each of us in guarding for us our enjoyment of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

Let us each have a copy of our titled-deed to our rights as American citizens. Let us read, think about, and discuss with our friends, the Constitution which is the charter of our national life. Study its principles. Know it! Then we shall love it!

President Harding has said: “I have always thought of Constitution day as marking the real birth of our nation.

“The trying times of the last eight years have supremely tested the governmental systems of all the world, and I feel that we of America may well felicitate ourselves and give thanks to Divine Providence that in this test no governmental system has demonstrated a greater capacity to meet and bear the utmost stresses of human crisis than our own. This knowledge can not but enhearten us as we look to the future, with its many and difficult problems still to be met.”

On the 17th of September, the United States will celebrate the 135th anniversary of the adoption of the Constitution of the United States by the convention held in Philadelphia in 1787. The constitutional convention began its deliberations o the 25th of May in that year and concluded its labors on the 17th of September, nearly four months having been given to the careful consideration and preparation of that great document under which we have lived and prospered so greatly for nearly a century and a half.

William Gladstone, one of the greatest of English statesmen of the nineteenth century, said that it was “the most wonderful work ever struck off at a given time by the brain and purpose of man.”

The first symptom of any union among the original 13 colonies was in 1643 — known as the United Colonies of New England. The first Continental Congress in 1774. Mecklenburg declaration, in 1775. The Thirteen Colonies were not even a nation at the signing of the Declaration of Independence, which was adopted in 1776, the adoption of which is still celebrated on the 4th day of July in each year throughout the length and breadth of our land. It is by many people considered as part of our organic law, and, while this is technically incorrect, yet the ideas therein set forth have probably had more influence upon the minds of our people than any other document known to our history.

Congress in 1777 adopted the Articles of Confederation which were finally ratified and became effective in 1781. But, the Articles of Confederation which preceded the Constitution, were inadequate to hold the states together.

In January, 1787, congress, after a long delay, adopted a resolution authorizing the assemblage of a convention in Philadelphia “for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation.” It should be noticed that the authority of the convention did not extend to the preparation of an entirely new frame of government, but nevertheless this convention gave us our Constitution.

John Marshall rendered a great service in connection with the Constitution of our country, when he, in 1801, became chief justice of the United States. In his service at the head of the supreme court he did more than any other man, by his masterly opinions on constitutional questions, to put form and life and strength into our national government.

The evolution of the Federal Constitution is very interesting and could be studied with great profit to all.

After passage of the Fifteenth Amendment 43 years elapsed before another amendment was added to the Constitution, can you name the provisions of the Sixteenth Amendment? Can you name the provisions in the Seventeenth Amendment?

This Constitution of ours has been costly. Let us prize it.

Republican women are asked to make a study of the fundamental law of our land.

BELLA A. TAYLOR.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Sep 16, 1922

Fort Sam Houston Fire Department

August 9, 2010

I have been trying to date this photo, which belonged to my grandfather, so I searched the newspaper archives and found a few articles that seem to be from the correct time period.  If anyone has any personal knowledge regarding the fire fighters at Fort Sam Houston during this time period, please leave me a comment. (Click the photo for a larger image.)

FIRE TROOPS UNITED

Blaze Fighters in Fort Sam Houston Vicinity Now One Unit.

The fire fighting organizations of all army stations located in the vicinity of Fort Sam Houston have been consolidated and Fire Chief Hogan of Camp Travis placed in control of training and operation, according to a general order issued by Maj. Gen. John L. Hines, commanding general of the Eighth Corps area, Friday. Fire departments affected by the order are Fort Sam Houston, Camp Travis, Eighth Corps Area Depot No. 2 and the remount depot.

The consolidation was made in the interests of economy and efficiency, and after October 15 the four units will operate as one fire department insofar as fire prevention and fire fighting is concerned.

None of the personnel or equipment of the various units is to be transferred without the approval of the corps area headquarters however, the order states.

The area which the newly consolidated fire department will have to cover is scattered, extending several miles from the central station at Camp Travis. Up to the present time the department has operated very efficiently, as no destructive fires have ever occurred, with the exception of one warehouse.

The fire department is manned exclusively with soldier firemen, with Chief Hogan, former city fireman, as chief. In addition to keeping a close watch in order to prevent fires, the department keeps the men constantly in training.

San Antonio Light (San Antonio, Texas) Oct 14, 1921

This photo goes with the one above. I haven’t been able to identify any of the men named here. Here is a list of the names, as best as I can make them out:

WOOD, STUP??? or STY???, MORSE, and KING or KINGS

MILLER, MUIJARD, BOONE, DONNELLY, COOK, LEE and GANDY / GANLY or GUNDY / GUNLY

FIRE CLOTHES RECEIVED

New Equipment Here For Camp Travis Fire Department.

Fire-fighting clothes have been received by the three stations comprising the Fire Department at Camp Travis and Fort Sam Houston. they are of canvas lined with fleeced wool and interlined with material that is water proof. There are pants and coat and each fireman will have a suit handy to his cot on retiring at night. The pants are built sailor fashion, designed for speed in donning them rather than for style, and to keep the water off in rainy weather or should the fireman get mixed up with the stream from the hose.

There are three fire houses in the military reservation in charge of Fire Chief Hogan; No. 1 is equipped with an Ahrens Fox Pumper, No. 2 has a Brockway Hosewagon and No. 3 has a 10 valve White pumper.

Most of the buildings in Camp Travis are of frame but an automatic general fire alarm system that extends throughout the entire camp and through Fort Sam Houston coupled with the fact that the fire-fighting apparatus is of the most modern known, makes the risk an extremely light one.

San Antonio Express (San Antonio, Texas) Nov 8, 1922

This photo in the newspaper looks like it could have been taken about the same time, if not the same day, but none of the names listed on my photo above are listed in the article below, so I can’t be sure.  (Click for larger image.)

Headquarters of the Fort Sam Houston Fire Department, showing part of the officers and men of Wagon Company No. 4, who guard Uncle Sam's huge investment in the Staff Post and Cantonment Garrison. The department on paper is carried as a wagon company. It's chauffeurs rate as horse shoers and other ratings are similar to those in any wagon company. Lieut. Joseph L. Hogan, chief of the Fort Sam Houston Fire Department, a former member of the San Antonio city fire department. Chief Hogan is responsible for the department as far as actual fire fighting is concerned. Lieut. T.J. Weed, fire marshal at Fort Sam Houston, including Camp Stanley. Lieutenant Weed, with Chief Hogan, drew the plan whereby Wagon Company No. 4 was changed bodily into the crack fire-fighting organization it has become. In addition to being fire marshal and responsible for maintenance of discipline in the department Lieutenant Weed is adjutant of the Second Division Trains and holds temporary command of one or two other organizations pending assignment of other officers to them.

PROBABLY the most unique fire fighting organization in the world and certainly in the United States Army is Wagon Company No. 4, which was converted bodily into a crack fire department, but still functions on the organization rolls of the Second Division as a wagon company.

“We must have a well organized fire company,” went out the word from division headquarters.

Lieut. T.J. Weed, Quartermaster Corps, adjutant of the Second Division trains, was given the problem to work out in conjunction with Joseph L. Hogan, then captain in the San Antonio city department, and later chief of the Camp Travis and later of the Fort Sam Houston consolidated departments.

Under the plan arranged by the two Wagon Company No. 4 was converted into the fire company and the former rank of the men involved still stood on organization rolls. But there really is this difference, the sergeant wagon masters really are station chiefs, the corporals, or assistant wagon masters now serve as company clerks, mess sergeants, etc. The chauffeurs of the fire trucks are carried on the company pay rolls as horseshoers.

The personnel of the wagon company today shows many changes from its original roster. The pick of the entire Second Division was given its commander and the result was the gathering of a splendid body of men. Capt. E.A. Fischer first was placed in command, later being succeeded by Capt. Wilbur Elliott, who in turn was succeeded as fire marshal and commander of the company by Lieutenant Weed, who now holds that position in addition to other duties.

Three Assistants on Job.

Fire Chief Hogan is assisted by three other civilians, all of whom are former San Antonio city fire department members and thoroughly conversant with the duties of a fireman and how men should be trained to make first-class firemen of them. They are First Assistant Chief Ed Hogan, a brother of the chief, Second Assistant Chief E. Kirsch, and Third Assistant Chief J.E. Dowdy.

In the enlisted force of the fire department there are three sergeants, three corporals and 84 enlisted men. In order that the men should be satisfied with their new duties and the possible hazards they might be called upon to take in the department, they have been given various specialist ratings which carry with them a slight increase in pay.

Wagon Company No. 4 is one organization which holds no drills, as a whole, and never assembles as a whole. While it maintains company headquarters and a mess, where the men eat, and draw their pay, these are the only two things which bring the men assigned to the various stations to company headquarters. At meal times one piece of apparatus drives up and its crew alights, with the exception of one man, who stands by the apparatus while the others eat hurriedly. After the last man had eaten the truck returns to the house, relieving the other piece which then carries its crew to the mess hall. In this way the firehouses never are left unguarded.

Fire drills of all sorts are given at regular intervals, including hose drills, catching plugs, ladder drills. Occasionally a salvaged building in isolated occasion will be set off, alarm turned in and the firemen will receive the actual practice of combatting flames.

Behind the highly organized fire company stands splendid equipment, including seven pieces of motor apparatus ranging from the Dodge car used by Chief Hogan to a large Ahrens-Fox pumper. These vehicles are supplemented by approximately 40 hand hose reels throughout the cantonment garrison and army post. Altogether the department has about 20,000 feet of standard hose.

Men Always in Watch Towers.

High towers are features of the fire fighting equipment at the  cantonment garrison and at no time is the vigilance of the watchers relaxed. Like the foresters who watch over the great Government preserves, these servants of the Government constantly scan the horizon for smoke or flames. Not along does the responsibility of guarding the cantonment with its millions of dollars worth of fixed property, but the knowledge that within the buildings are many additional millions worth of fine equipment and that much of the housing construction is of flimsy wooden type, adds gravity to the firemen’s duty.

The fire fighters do not confine their activities to Fort Sam Houston as included in the consolidation. Fires anywhere in the vicinity of the cantonment garrison also are considered as imposing duty upon the firemen. They have sent equipment to farm houses beyond the camp limits and successfully combatted flames. Frequently, when the alarm is near the post, they aid the city department with which a reciprocal understanding is maintained. Runs are made as far as Government Hill, at times.

Included in the department are three stations in the cantonment garrison, one at the staff post and one at Camp Stanley.

A modern telegraph fire alarm system is a feature of the equipment of the Fort Sam Houston department. There are direct alarm lines from the camp laundry and camp exchange, both of which are very large and valuable buildings with highly valuable contents. The big warehouses and the hospitals are equipped with automatic alarms which are set off in headquarters station when the temperature of the buildings reaches a certain degree of heat.

All fire alarms are answered by the military police, to patrol the grounds around the threatened building, and by a surgeon with an ambulance, equipped with first aid appliances.

Recreation Rooms Provided.

It would be dull indeed for the firemen were their daily life to consist altogether of duty. Lieutenant Weed therefore had arranged with the assistance of Chief Hogan, for the installation of recreation rooms at each of the fire stations. The equipment will included pool table, game boards, literature of various kinds. A recreation room also will be installed at company headquarters for the tower guards, fire alarm operators and others stationed there.

Both the military and civilian heads of the department are natives of San Antonio.

Lieutenant Weed is a San Antonian. With the exception of a few years during which he has been in the public service, in the army and other branches of the Government, he has spent practically all his life in this city. With the Government he served in construction work on the Panama Canal and in the consular service in Mexico.
Upon the entry of the United States into the World War, Lieutenant Weed was serving in the office of Gen. H.L. Rogers, then Colonel Rogers who later served as Quartermaster General of the Army, but who at that time was serving as Quartermaster of the Old Southern Department. When General Rogers was ordered overseas Lieutenant Weed accompanied him, remaining there for over two years, when he was ordered back to the United States for duty in the office of the Quartermaster General of the Army. He remained there for two years, until ordered to the Second Division.

While overseas Lieutenant Weed rose from the grade of sergeant to that of captain, serving in the latter grade as chief of the administrative division office of the Chief Quartermaster, A.E.F. In Washington he occupied a similar position, and was assigned the additional duty of preparing a history of Quartermaster Operations in Europe, which was completed prior to his transfer here.

Hogan Native of San Antonio.

Chief Hogan is a native of San Antonio, having been born and reared in this city. He spent a number of years in the fire department in San Antonio, where he was promoted successively until he became a station captain. When war was declared he immediately enlisted and later commissioned. Under the fire marshal, Chief Hogan is technically responsible for the efficient operation of the Fort Sam Houston department, while the fire marshal enforces military discipline.

Men on duty with the fire department follow: First Lieut. T.J. Weed, fire marshal; Joseph L. Hogan, fire chief; Ed. J. Hogan, assistant fire chief; J.E. Dowdy, third assistant fire chief.

Station No. 1: First Sgt. W.J. Bailey; P.F.C. Ernt Estes, 1st chauf; P.F.C. Gus J. Clay, 2nd chauf.; P.F.C. Otto E. Karth, 3rd chauf.; P.F.C. Sidney F. Pedigo, P.F.C. Frank D. West, P.F.C. Charles Smith, Pvt. Jesse Baggett, Pvt. Robert E. Hapkins, Pvt. James O. Hill, Pvt. Andrew Karpik, Pvt. Mark H. Earle, Pvt. John Lamont.

Station No. 2: Sergt. Robert Payne, P.F.C. Flint D. Bingham, P.F.C. Charles E. Youngblood, Pvt. George A. Brown, P.F.C. Mark W. Parker, Pvt. Orville G. May, Pvt. George White, Pvt. Herman G. Miller, Pvt. Arthur Fielding, Pvt. William F. Cumming.

Station No. 3: Sergt. Michael T. Mason, P.F.C. Arthur Foley, P.F.C. Luther Waddell, P.F.C. Leonard Deuctcon, Pvt. James J. Gotely, Pvt. Herbert C. Landrum, Pvt. Robert L. Sarran, Pvt. Courney Barker, Pvt. Marion Anderson.

Station No. 4: Tech. Sergt. Tony Huege (attached); Sergt. W.Z. Zapadnik (attached); P.F.C. Eddie Eddyhouse; P.F.C. Carl Hanmann, P.F.C. Carl L. Storey, Pvt. Robert E. Hunt, Pvt. Jack P. Stout, Pvt. Nicholas J. Sassano.

Fire inspector, Chester A. Carter.

San Antonio Express (San Antonio, Texas) Jan 28, 1923

This article pretty much repeats  a lot of what is in the above article in regards to fire equipment etc.

CAMP TRAVIS FIRE CHIEF TURNS DOWN SAN ANTONIO JOB

Joseph L. Hogan Prefers to Direct Army Firemen to Handling City’s Department.

Being chief of Fort Sam Houston’s fire department appeals more to Joseph L. Hogan than does heading the department of San Antonio.

Persistent rumors that Chief Hogan had been tendered the position of head of the city’s fire department, made vacant by the resignation Tuesday of Chief A.J. Goetz, was confirmed Wednesday afternoon, at least to the extent that Chief Hogan admitted that he had been approached tentatively on the subject and had refused to consider a change of positions.

“It would not be proper to say that I had been offered the position,” said Chief Hogan. “However, it is true that I have been approached not alone by one but by several persons to confer with me to ascertain whether, if it were offered me I would take the position of chief of the San Antonio department. It appeared plain to me that if I wanted the position I could get it, but I have refused even to consider leaving the Fort Sam Houston department.

“I may appear strange to some people that I take this attitude, but my reasons are easy to see. In the first place the position I now hold is based on merit alone. I feel fairly sure that so long as I am able to furnish an efficient fire-fighting organization at Fort Sam Houston I can hold it. There is not a great difference in salary, while free medical attention, and other services which I receive in the position as army chief practically make up the difference.

Political Angle Displeases.

“On the other hand, if I go into the city fire department there is first of all to be considered the fact that it is a political appointment and politics is capricious. I might hold that position just as long as I hold this at the fort, but the political angle spoils it from my point of view.”

Chief Hogan announced that he was a strong supporter of J.G. Sarran, now assistant chief and acting chief of the department for appointment.

Chief Hogan was connected with the San Antonio fire department for a period of nine years, joining about the same time as former Chief Goetz until working up from call man to truck captain. While in that position Hogan quit the fire department to become a lieutenant in the army during the war with Germany.

Hogan Has Five Stations.

When it was decided to have a real fire department at Fort Sam Houston, Hogan was chosen chief on his merit and was given charge of training the men of Wagon Company No. 4 was a department. He is responsible for the efficiency of the fire department, while Lieut. T.J. Weed, fire marshal, oversees maintenance of ?_____.

Under the chief at Fort Sam Houston are four fire stations in the Fort Sam Houston area and one at Camp Stanley. In addition to a personnel of non-commissioned officers and privates chosen on a basis of personal merit from various organizations in the garrison, the chief brought with him to the fort’s department three other civilians, all former members of the San Antonio department and thoroughly conversant with how to best drill the men under them as fire-fighters. In addition to the four civilians there are three sergeants, three corporals and 84 enlisted men in the department. Equipment includes seven pieces of apparatus, all motorized, ranging from a Dodge car used by Chief Hogan to a large Fox-Ahrens pumper. Supplementing these are approximately 40 hand reels in all parts of the post and 20,000 feet of standard fire hose.

Under Chief Hogan the efficiency of the fire department is kept at top notch by constant watchfulness and drills.

San Antonio Express (San Antonio, Texas) Apr 26, 1923

Prophet Mohammed and the King of Tramps

May 20, 2010

Prophet Mohammed - Glasgow, Scotland

MOHAMMED IN COURT.

It was in a court of law, and a witness was being cross examined.

Counsel — Why do you assert that the plaintiff is insane?

Witness — Because he goes about declaring he is the Prophet Mohammed.

Counsel — And do you consider that clear proof of his insanity?

Witness — I do.

Counsel — Why?

“Because,” answered the witness, with a complacent smile, “I am the Prophet Mohammed myself.”

— Exchange.

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Jun 2, 1922

THE “KING OF TRAMPS.”

The Continent Wheelbarrow Trotter, “Mohammed,” Arrives in Reno — He Will Hold a Levee on the Plaza this Evening.

“Mohammed, the King of Tramps,” called at the GAZETTE office this forenoon. He is on his return trip to Cincinnatti, from which city he started with his wheelbarrow February 1st of this year, arriving in San Francisco on the 12th of July. He left San Francisco for the east July 20th, but has lost twenty days on the road owing to a fall from a railroad trestle which laid him up for that length of time. His accident also caused the loss of the records of his trip and a cigarette holder presented to him by late Vice President Hendricks.

According to the terms of his wager, as he related them, he must travel with his barrow 10,000 miles in 450 days. He must put up only at the best class of hotels on his road. He was to start with only one cent in his pocket and was not to beg or accept anything in charity, nor steal anything while on his trip. Last but not least he must, before the termination of his trip, marry some woman with whom he became acquainted while on his travels.

The last condition he says he will fulfill when he arrives at Ogden. “Mohammed” refused to give the name of the expectant bride, but said she was from Sacramento and that she would pass here in a few days in a Pullman for Ogden. He showed her picture to a GAZETTE scribe, or one at least whom he said was the future Mrs. Mohammed, who by her royal marital connection will acquire the title of “Queen of Tramps.” The photo represents a rather buxom damsel, tolerably good looking, but with a cast of countenance which indicates that when she gets her dander up her peregrinating spouse would do well to make a wheelbarrow trip to his native Turkey rather than endure her righteous wrath.

The wheel of the barrow is flanged so that it can be trundled on a railroad track, and it has upon it a small locker in which he stores his light baggage. He will give an exhibition of slight-of-hand, paper manipulating, etc., on the Plaza this evening. He says he is a Turk, and 32 years of age.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Aug 18, 1892

Grand Opera House - Ogden, Utah

THE KING OF TRAMPS.

He Gets Married at Ogden Last Week.

A novel ceremony, which united in marriage for better or worse Hassan Mohammed, the self-styled King of Tramps, and Miss Emily S. Campbell of Sacramento, was performed last week in the Grand Opera House at Ogden, Utah, before a good-sized audience. Mohammed is walking under the terms of a wager from Cincinnati to San Francisco and back, and reached Ogden on the home stretch last week pushing his wheelbarrow. Miss Campbell arrived at Ogden on Tuesday of last week in a Pullman over the Southern Pacific. One of the conditions of Mohammed’s wager is that on his journey of 10,000 miles he must marry a woman he never met before.

Miss Campbell was born in Canada and emigrated with her family to California ten years ago. She is 28 years of age, and became acquainted with Mohammed by answering an advertisement in a newspaper. She is a telegraph operator by profession and her father is in the livery business in Sacramento. Mohammed selected her out of 1,500 applications received to marry him. She says she marries him because she thinks he is a true man and not for money, and even if he fails to win the wager she will stay with him should they be compelled to exist on potatoes and salt. From Ogden the couple go to Salt Lake and then east to Omaha.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Sep 30, 1892

Corn: Better Use It For Fuel Than Make Booze of It

March 17, 2010

ADEL FACTORY BURNING CORN

Manager Declare Over Supply Should Be Utilized.

CORN IS IDEAL FUEL

Better Use It For Fuel Than Make Booze of It.

The Adel Clay Products company is burning corn in its kilns in making tile and sewer pipes.

H.R. Straight of the company defends it warmly. “No one ever protested on economics grounds against the consumption of millions of bushels of corn annually in the distilleries,” he said today.

“Industrial alcohol is still made from corn and a great deal of this alcohol is burned for various purposes. If industrial alcohol made from corn was burned in a tractor instead of gasoline, surely no one would say it was wrong.”

The government having encouraged the farmer to increase production during the war, the only way to sell the oversupply at a price that it cost to produce it is to encourage the use of corn in other ways than customary, but Mr. Straight is strongly opposed to using it to make alcohol.

“When the farmers,” says Mr. Straight, “can save handling and hauling to market and the hauling of coal home, keep his money in his own community and help to relieve his bankrupting situation, it surely seems to me that it is right to do so. Since everyone in Iowa is indirectly dependent on the farmer, it seems quite evident that anything that any of us can do to decrease the excessive supply will mean money in all of our pockets in the long run.

Other Wastes.

“No one ever severely criticized the farmer for wasting a good percentage of corn fed to hogs on the bare ground instead of on a masonry platform, where it is all saved. Who ever heard of telling the farmer that he was doing an economic wrong by feeding his stock in a cold barn or without adequate shelter and thereby wasting a good part of his feed? If the writers against burning of corn think it is such a sin, why don’t they go after the rats, which eat enough corn, which if burned, would heat hundreds of homes.

“The results were equivalent to that secured from the highest grade of eastern coal and the cost was but very little more. Since it is necessary to use eastern coal, low in sulphur content, to secure thorough vitrification and a uniform color, can any one say that it was economically wrong to use the corn instead?

“The war caused an over production of warships and war materials for peace time needs. No one would criticize the nations for making an agreement to junk a part of hte warships at heavy losses.

A War Condition.

“Along the same general lines, corn was a war material and the over supply is a direct result of the war. Let us use it up to the best advantage so that the new crop, which will shortly be coming on, can be in demand at a price that will help raise us out of the present financial chaos.

“Hard times in the east or in the extreme west had no great effect on Iowa during the depression of 1907 and 1914 because we didn’t have more food products than the balance of the world needed. If we were now short, even 30 per cent of what we have on hand, it is my opinion that we would be getting a living return for the balance.

“I would say don’t encourage the feeding of corn to hogs or we shall shortly have an over production of hogs selling at perhaps 3 cents. As it is now, they are the last straw of hope for the farmer.

“Let us use up the corn in such a way as to save as much as possible of the freight, which is too high, on the corn, and also save the freight on and the cost of coal, both of which are far out of line with the value of farm product.”

The Carroll Herald – Jan 25, 1922

‘The Archer Gang’ and the Archer-Stanfield Feud

March 23, 2009

Martin County Courthouse in Shoals, Indiana

Martin County Courthouse in Shoals, Indiana

Some background on the Archer Gang, posted by Jan Taylor, on Rootsweb.com.

Much has been written about the Archer Gang. This was one of the reckless gangs who brought fear and terror to the hearts of many. Today they have all faded into history and only their stories remain to be told and retold, stories which always seem to hold great interest and sometimes an air of romance about them. How the outlaws lived and died and about the crimes, they committed in Orange, Dubois and Martin counties in Southern Indiana. The Archer Gang made their headquarters in what is now known as Lost River Township in Martin County, next to the county line. This gang was made up of family members being Thomas Sr., Sam, John, Martin and young Martin Jr. The remaining family members were Sam Marley, first cousin; Kinder Smith,nephew; and John Lynch, related by marriage.

You can read the rest at the link above.

sheriff1

A Sheriff Defeated.

VINCENNES, Ind., Dec. 29. — Sheriff John A. Padgett arrived here from Martin county, Ind., seeking John B. Archer, who is wanted for the murder of John Bunch, a farmer of that county, who disappeared four years ago. The crime was fastened upon Archer by the recent confession of his deserted wife, who said that Archer murdered Bunch for his money, boiled the flesh of the body in a boiler and buried the bones. Padgett found Archer on a farm five miles south of here. Archer and two companions barricaded themselves in a house and threatened to shoot the officer. Padgett thereupon returned here for re-enforcements and has got a posse of fifteen men to go out with him and capture Archer dead or alive.

The Olean Democrat (Olean, New York) Dec 31, 1885

squiggle53

BAGGED ON A FARM.
An Alleged Murderer Caught near Vincennes, Indiana.

By Telegraph to the GAZETTE.
SHOALS, Ind., December 30. — John B. Archer, who is charged with the murder of John B.*[Samuel A.] Bunch, four years ago, was captured at the farm of Leroy Boyd, five miles south of Vincennes, and brought to the Martin county jail, Tuesday, by sheriff Podgett**. David Crane, another of the gang, was also arrested here and lodged in jail. Both state that Bunch was killed by the Archer gang in July, 1882, because he had aided a farm hand of his named Morley***, in escaping from the country. It seems that Morley had killed one of the Archers.

Daily Gazette, The (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Dec 31, 1885

*There appears to be a mix-up/typo regarding the victim’s name in the article above. Based on the “History of Orange County Indiana, Bunch’s name was Samuel, not John. **Podgett is probably Padgett as well. ***Morley is actually Marley.

handcuffs

A Murderer Caught.

POPULAR BLUFF, Mo., Jan. 2.
Tom Archer, charged with the murder of Jno. B.* Bunch, near Shoals, Martin Co., Indiana, in 1881, was arrested in this city late Thursday night by City Marshall Miles. Archer had just arrived and getting considerably under the influence of liquor, divulged his name to the Marshall. In 1881 John B. Bunch was murdered near Shoals and his body sunk in the river and afterwards is supposed to have been taken up by the perpetrators of the crime and burned. Tom Archer, this same Archer, and a man named Lynch are charged with committing the deed. All have been arrested.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Jan 2, 1886

noose3

SWINGING FROM TREES.

THREE DESPERADOES SUMMARILY DEALT WITH IN INDIANA.

A Father, Brother, and Son’s Murderous Career.

Three leaders of a gang of desperadoes in Martin county, Ind., have just received summary punishment at the hands of a midnight band of lynchers. Details of the affair are as follows:

Precisely at 11:30 o’clock a vigilance committee of about 100, composed of men from Martin and Orange counties surrounded the jail at Shoals. The lynchers were very quiet and orderly, and the sheriff was first aroused by the barking of his dog, followed by a knock on the door. He asked who was there, and the answer was a crashing in of the front door, followed by heavy blows which completely demolished it. The mob then went to the jail door and knocked off the lock and were dismayed to find another which would not yield to blows. After about twenty minutes a man in the crowd was found who understood opening the cell door. It yielded to his efforts and the lynchers rushed in and grabbed all three of the intended victims, Thomas, Martin, and John Archer, the latter the son of Thomas, the ringleaders of what is known as the Archer gang. The mob was provided with the necessary tools both to get in and to capture them if they made any resistance. Several of them had long iron hooks with which to grab the prisoners around the neck if they resisted without endangering their own lives.

When the Archer gang saw the lynchers they offered no resistance, and when asked if they had anything to say they refused to speak. Their hands were tied behind their backs, and they were taken over to the court house yard. They were again asked if they had any confession to make, and, still no reply being given by any of them they were unceremoniously strung up to young maple trees. Tom Archer, the oldest one of the gang, about sixty years of age, was hanged first. Martin Archer, brother to Tom, aged about forty-five years, was suspended next. John Archer, son of Tom Archer, who was about thirty years old, was hung to a tree with his hands tied behind him, about thirty feet from his father.

The crimes for which the three men were hanged comprise almost everything in the criminal calendar from murder to petty thieving. For twenty-five years they had been a reigning terror, both in Martin and Orange counties, and had terrorized the community in which they lived until the people did not know when they went to bed at night whether they would be murdered before morning or their houses burned down. They never failed to visit vengeance for a fancied slight, and many a farmer in Orange and Martin counties had lost considerable sums of money by daring robbery, the theft of cattle, or the burning down of barns and houses. Martin Archer had a family living in Southwest Township, Orange county, who are well thought of. Two of his children are young ladies teaching school in that section of the country. Old Tom Archer, as he was called, lived in Martin county, Columbia township, and had a large family, every one of whom are under indictments for larceny, arson and murder, an bear a bad name generally. John Archer, formerly lived in Columbia township, and in the past year had been living seven miles east of Vincennes, where he was captured two months ago and brought to Shoals by Sheriff Padgett. The chief cause for their being hanged was the confession of John Lynch, anther member of the gang, who is in the Washington Daviess county jail. He made a confession and told where the bones of a man named Bunch, one of the victims, were. They were found in two different graves, the body having been cut lengthwise, and each piece being buried separate. It seems that unknown parties followed the officials when they went to the place where Bunch was buried and saw them exhume the remains. Word was immediately spread over the county, and the vigilants prepared themselves accordingly.

The Delta Herald (Delta, Pennsylvania) Mar 19, 1886

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In a trial on Thursday of a brother for shooting at the man who had assaulted his sister, while on trial for the crime in the Criminal Court, Judge Clark gave the jury this charge:

“The current history of crime in this country is that, with rare exceptions, juries will not convict a man of murder for killing another man who has in any of the forms of licentiousness violated the virtue and chastity of a female who stands in the near relation of wife, daughter, or sister to the slayer. This results from a higher degree of civilization and a more elevated plane of common sense that recognizes the truth that nothing so justly exasperates and more heats the blood than such an offense against a near female relative, and that therefore if hot blood should in any case extenuate homicide much more should it in such cases.”

The man was acquitted, of course, but the charge of the judge has attracted no little attention and comment among lawyers and others.

Judge D.O? Heffner and Sheriff J.A. Padgett, of Martin County, have sent a request to the Governor for troops to assist in preserving the peace at the preliminary examinations of Sam Archer and Lynch, to be held at Shoals Wednesday next. The Governor has instructed the Attorney-General to have a company of militia ready.

The New York Times (New York, New York) Mar 21, 1886

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THE LAST OF THE ARCHER GANG.
SAM ARCHER TO BE HANGED AND JOHN D. LYNCH TO GO TO PRISON.

INDIANAPOLIS, Ind., March 27. — A special dispatch from Shoals, Ind., gives the conclusion of the trial of Sam Archer, the last of the gang three of whom were recently lynched in the Court House yard. The trial has been proceeding since Wednesday, the prisoner being under the guard of a company of State militia from this city. After the Judge had charged the jury they retired, but were not out more than an hour when they agreed upon the verdict, as follows:

“We, the jury, find the defendant, Samuel Archer, not guilty as charged in the second count of the indictment, and we do find the defendant, Samuel Archer, guilty of murder in the first degree as charged in the first count of the indictment, and assess his punishment at death.”

The prisoner, who sat facing the jury, moved not a muscle, but sat motionless as he had during the whole of his trial, yet his face showed that he was in deep thought. The attorneys asked for a new trial, which the Judge overruled. Another motion was made asking an arrest of judgement, which was also overruled, and then the Judge addressed the prisoner as follows:

“It has been proved beyond a reasonable doubt that you willfully and maliciously took the life of Samuel A. Bunch, making you guilty of the charge proffered against you of murder in the first degree, for which crime you shall suffer death. You shall hang by your neck in the jail yard in West Shoals until you are dead on the 9th day of July, 1886.”

Had the Judge fixed the date three days later it would have been the fourth anniversary of the murder for which Archer forfeits his life. In the meantime the Judge ordered that the prisoner be kept in close confinement in the Martin County Jail or such other place of safety as the court may from time to time direct. The prisoner was then removed to his cell. He was gazed at by hundreds as he passed through the long lines of people on either side of the walk through which he was required to pass.

The court room was then cleared of part of the spectators, and John D. Lynch, the last of the notorious gang, and through whom the principal evidence was obtained which fixed the guilt of his comrade, was called to answer the charge of perjury. He pleaded guilty, and was immediately sentenced to three years at hard labor in the State prison. He was removed to jail to remain until afternoon, when he was taken to the station under the escort of Sheriff Padgett and the militia, and arrived at the Jeffersonville.

Prison this evening.

Since the conviction and sentence of Sam Archer it is currently and authentically reported that he has exposed the entire gang, and that some startling revelations will be the result. It is thought the Archer gang is not the proper appellation, and that the organization extends over some half dozen counties at least, and that Mart Archer, the acknowledged leader in this locality, ranks no higher than second lieutenant as compared with some of the other leaders.

The New York Times (New York, New York) Mar 28, 1886

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ENJOYING KILLING PEOPLE.

VINCENNES, Ind., April 2. Samuel Archer, sentenced to be hanged July 9 for his many crimes, confessed in jail yesterday that the testimony of John Lynch against him was correct from beginning to end, and attributes the misfortunes and criminal actions of the Archer family to his uncle, Martin Archer who, Sam said, seemed to enjoy killing people.

The New York Times (New York, New York) Apr 3, 1886

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MOB LAW IN INDIANA.
THE TERRIBLE PUNISHMENT METED OUT TO KINDER SMITH.

INDIANAPOLIS, Ind., March 16. — A Shoals (Martin County) special to the Journal says: Much violence seems to have spread to adjoining counties. A report was current here today for the first time that a bold attempt at lynching was made on Friday night last near French Lick, Orange County. This was not generally known until to-day. The victim was Kinder Smith, a nephew of the late Thomas and Mart Archer, who expiated their crimes more fully. Smith was a desperate character, and was supposed to be implicated in the horrible crimes perpetuated by the family in this county. The mob captured their victim at the house of Bennett Grigsbey. The lynchers, about 35 in number, surrounded the house and demanded the surrender of Smith, who was soon in their possession. They then marched him in  their midst to a dark woods near by, where a rope was in readiness. A noose was hastily made and placed over his neck. The spokesman then ordered the lynchers to make ready. He placed one end of the rope over a limb of a tree and the mob pulled up Smith’s body, leaving him dangling in the air for a few moments, when, fearing death would free their victim, he was lowered to the ground. After recovering consciousness he was again swung in midair until he began to turn black, when he was again lowered and asked to tell what he knew of the Archer gang and their crimes. He said he knew nothing. He was then raised by the rope and lowered again. This time he was almost past saving, but after a short time revived sufficiently to speak, when he was again asked what he knew of the Archer gang, and if he was a member, and, receiving no answer, they decided to try, the whipping post. A large bunch of hickory switches were obtained and he was given 40 lashes. When he was again asked for the desired information he said he was innocent, and begged for mercy, when they agreed to free him on condition that he would leave that section of the State and never again return. He accepted the proposition, and they told him that if he were seen here again a like punishment would be inflicted. The people in that section of the country are determined to protect themselves and property at all hazards, and mob law is the last resort, and they claim it is justifiable in this case, believing that there are some persons yet at large who are as deeply implicated as those already dealt with.

The New York Times (New York, New York) Mar 17, 1886

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NOTES OF THE DAY.

The Governor of Indiana positively declines to interfere with the sentence of death pronounced against Sam Archer, at Shoals.

The Daily Review (Decatur, Illinois) May 7, 1886

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PAID THE PENALTY.

Samuel Archer, Member of a Noted Gang of Desperadoes, Hanged at Shoals, Ind.

A Brief History of the Bloody Crimes for Which He and His Brothers Suffered Death.

SAM ARCHER HANGED.

SHOALS, Ind., July 10. — Sam Archer, one of the members of the famous Archer gang of desperadoes, received the reward of his many crimes yesterday from the hands of the sheriff, being hanged for the brutal murder of Samuel A. Burch on the 11th of July, 1882. The story of the murder, as condensed from the confession of Lynch, one of the gang, is as follows: On the 3d of July, 1882, Sam Marley and Matt Archer got into a difficulty, resulting in the fatal shooting of Archer and Marley. This enraged the older Archers, as they were called, very much, and they determined to punish Marley at the first opportunity, and to accomplish this end they organized themselves into a gang of six members, viz Tom, Mart, John and Sam Archer, John D. Lynch and David Crane. Mart was chosen captain and adviser. The work of ferreting out the hiding place of Marley began. Bunch’s house was guarded constantly, as suspicion rested on him as the one who was aiding Marley to escape. This espionage did not reveal the desired information and the Archers resolved to kill Bunch if he refused to reveal Marley’s hiding-place. They seized him, took him to a cave and murdered him. Nothing was learned of Bunch’s fate until last winter, when the deserted wife of John Archer, who had taken refuge in the Martin County Poor Asylum, gave evidence that caused the arrest of the Archers. On March 9, 1886, a mob attacked the jail at Shoals, battered down the doors, and, seizing Mart, Thomas and John Archer, father, son and brother, lynched them. A week later Sam Archer was arrested in Fountain County and brought here, and was tried and convicted as above stated. Sam Archer leaves a mother, two sisters and two brothers. His oldest brother is serving a term in the penitentiary for grand larceny, while the youngest is serving time in the reform school at Plainfield. The fate of the Archer family is a hard one. Four of them have been victims of the gallows and two others are in prison.

The Daily Review (Decatur, Illinois) Jul 11, 1886

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THE STANFIELD TRAGEDY.

The Coroner Acquits Archer of Her Murder and Renders a Verdict That She Suicided.

VINCENNES, Ind., Dec 22. The coroner rendered a verdict in the case of the tragic death of Miss Stanfield in Martin County, to the effect that she committed suicide by shooting. The preliminary trial of Charles Archer, charged with her death, was held, and yesterday he was liberated. He testified that he was with her the night before her death and that she took his revolver and hid it. He asked her why she did so and she said she was going to commit suicide. The next morning (Saturday) he saw her walking along the road toward a church. He hastened toward her. She turned on him and pulled out the revolver and told him if he came any further she would shoot herself. He had ruined her and would not marry her and she was going to die. She placed the revolver to her breast and fired, the ball entering her heart. Archer then gave the alarm. The testimony of the physicians who held the postmortem; was that she could not have inflicted the wound on herself; that she must have been sitting down when shot. General dissatisfaction was felt at the coroner’s verdict, and another warrant was issued for Archer’s arrest, but it is rumored that he has fled the country.

The Dunkirk Observer Journal (Dunkirk, New York) Dec 22, 1887

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John Lynch, who several years ago belonged to the Archer gang of desperadoes, who terrorized southern Indiana, is dead. He was the last of the crowd to pass away.

Fort Wayne News (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Dec 19, 1894

image from wildtexasart.com

image from wildtexasart.com

Old Hatreds Cause Many Deaths in Indiana Feud: Date Back to Year 1882 Shoals, Ind.

Oct. 4 — Another life has been forfeited and the sixth member of the Archer family of Southern Martin County, has “died with his boots on” as a result of a family feud that has raged there for several years, it was revealed here, following the fatal shooting from ambush of Clyde Archer nineteen recently.

For years Hoosiers have been wont to look with pity, if not disdain, on the family feuds which members of warring families of the Bluegrass State. But apparently in Indiana’s backyard a family feud has been raging for years between the Archers and Stanfield families which has resulted in several deaths.

Clyde Archer met his death Tuesday, August 15. About a year previous young Archer had killed his man at French Lick, Ind., when he stabbed Roy Stanfield, a neighbor, who accused Archer of stealing some money. He was acquitted in court on a plea of self-defense.

Row is of Old Standing.

The two families had harbored ill feelings against each other for many years following the killing of Annabel Stanfield by Charles Archer, an uncle of Clyde. The older Archer was acquitted of this crime, and a few years later a brother of Clyde was freed of a murder charge.

Back in 1882 Martin Archer was killed by a man named Morley, who was afraid Archer might tell of a larceny job in which the murderer, his victim and John B. Bunch were implicated. This killing aroused the ire of the Archer family, the member of which swore vengeance.

The Archers, accompanied by John Lynch, went in search of Marley and, being unable to find him, discovered Bunch. When Bunch declined to reveal the hiding place of Marley the Archers bound him took him to Saltpeter Cave in Orange County, Ind. a lonely spot near the home of Tom Archer.

Here they again demanded of Bunch that he tell where Marley was hiding. As Bunch repeated his statement that he did not know the whereabouts of Marley the Archers shot him to death and left his body in the cave several days.

Later they removed the corpse, placed it upon a pile of brush that had been saturated with coal oil, and burned it. Then a tree was felled and placed over the ashes to prevent discovery of the crime.

Confesses to Crime.

Fours years later, Lynch, conscience-stricken, confessed to the crime. Following the confession Thomas Archer, sixty-five, and Martin Archer, fifty, brothers, were arrested. Then John Archer, thirty, was taken into custody in connection with the grewsome murder.

All three were placed in jail at Shoals, Sam Archer, father of John, and another member of the murder band, was still at large.

At midnight, March 9, 1886, a band of armed, masked men visited the Shoals jail, removed the three Archers and hanged them to trees in the courthouse yard. Their bodies were permitted to hang there until 11 o’clock the next morning.

A short time later Sam Archer was apprehended, tried, convicted and sentenced to be hanged. The execution took place July 9, 1886 in the presence of what was termed a “circus day” crowd assembled about the scaffold.

All that saved Lynch from being a victim of the executions of the mob that hanged the three Archers was the fact that he was confined in the Daviess County Jail.

Since that time the hatred between the two families has grown apace, and, members of each family are on guard always for an outbreak of the feud.

Olean Evening Times (Olean, New York) Oct 6, 1922

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