Posts Tagged ‘California’

“Don’t Come Here!” – Unemployment East and West

June 5, 2010

No Jobs In California.

Those in search of jobs should not seek employment in California, for they are likely to be disappointed, according to the warning just sent out. Lewis O. Whip, formerly of this county, who is now at San Diego, Cal., sent to The News a newspaper clipping which sets forth this warning. He states that, “the Eastern people are called tenderfeet out here in California.” The California Commission of immigration and Housing has just concluded an exhaustive investigation of conditions of unemployed in that state. It found there are now in the state thousands of more men than jobs, hence this warning to outsiders seeking jobs to stay away.

The News (Frederick, Maryland) Dec 29,  1914


NEW YORK, Oct. 17. — Shun New York! That is the warning flashed broadcast by Walter Lincoln Sears, newly appointed superintendent of the Municipal Employment Bureau, which opened its doors for business the first time a couple of days ago.

“New York is the worst place in the world for the man seeking employment now,” said Sears today. “I don’t like to be pessimistic, nor do I like to overstate things, but by all the signs, I fear this is going to be ‘some’ winter. If there is anything that can be done to keep the unemployed away from here it should be done. Already the number of men out of work exceeds the supply of jobs by thousands and the result is only too plain. There is going to be lots of suffering. Keep out of New York. That’s my advice to job hunters.”

Sears is hard at work rounding his department into shape so that some real good can be done this winter. The municipal free employment bureau was authorized in an ordinance which was signed May 4 by Mayor Mitchell.

A twice-a-month labor letter, in which local conditions are fully reported, is one  of the innovations planned by Sears. Sears came here from Boston in September. He was in charge of the state employment bureau there for eight years.


The municipal bureau here consists of fourteen clerks. Its offices are located at Lafayette and Leonard streets, where the floor space of 3000 square feet is occupied.

The bureau which will be maintained out of general taxes collected by the city, aims to reduce unemployment by giving free service to both employes and workers and by studying the labor market in such a manner that the worker can be sent on his way to employment as soon as a vacancy occurs.

“After all, the labor supply is an interstate proposition,” said Sears. “The federal government should take a hand and organize a national employment bureau. There are several bills before Congress, but they are unnecessary. Legislation is not needed. The department of Labor can start the venture if the funds are appropriated.”

Superintendent Sears said no municipality can do more than relieve the unemployed problem, since the industrial difficulties are nationwide. However, it is possible to do away with much waste of time and money by having the city bureau, he declared.

It has been charged that private employment offices in the city waged a desperate opposition to the new municipal bureau. The reason for this was obvious. The municipal bureau nearly put the private offices out of business. It really did that in a great many cases.

A majority of the private offices, it has been known, were simply “grafting” places. Laborers were bled for their savings by fake employment agents. Even in the best of the private bureaus, such high rates are charged that the laborers realize but little from their jobs.

Sears declared the opposition of the private bureaus had no effect for the reason that the municipal bureau fills a long felt want. It is a popular institution and the people won’t stand for seeing private interests block it, he said.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Oct 18, 1914

**Someone should have informed Mr. Sears that “taxpayer funded” is NOT free;  the taxpayers pay for it.

Was Anna Glud Really a Drummer Boy?

May 17, 2010

Wanderlust? Pride? Vanity? Sex?

Why Girls Turn “Men”

Mrs. Anna Glud of Oakland, Calif., at the outbreak of the Civil War, donned the uniform of a Union drummer boy and marched away to the front.

For more than two years she saw active service where the fight was thickest and amid the cannon’s roar beat out upon her drum the rally call which once turned near defeat to victory and stemmed the tide of battle.


Mrs. Glud is now 68 and kept secret her experience as the boy drummer, “Tom Hunley,” for almost 50 years.

General Grant, though, was “let in” on it while the war was still in progress.

The general was inspecting “Tom Hunley’s” regiment and, seeing the diminutive “drummer boy,” ordered “him” mustered out as too young for service.

Mrs. Glud’s father interceded at this juncture and told Grant that his daughter was motherless and that he could not bear to leave her home alone.

The general swore himself to secrecy and ordered “Tom” to be retained.

Said the former “drummer boy” reminiscing:

“During all the time that I was in the army many remarked that I looked more like a girl than a boy. But not one soldier actually found it out.


“Father and I kept so constantly together that I was always protected. Had I not had his assistance at all times, I doubt that I could have stood the rigors of a soldier’s life.
“Why, in a battle near Davisville, where 7000 Confederates and Northerners were killed, our little body of men literally had to climb over the bodies of dead soldiers in order to fight our way out. My little feet were red with blood. And when we were mustered out in the fall of 1864 there were but 17 members of our company left.”

After the war “Tom Hunley” and her father settled down on a farm in Indiana. But the rigors of the conflict proved too much for the father, who followed his wife and four sons into the Beyond six months later.

Then “Tom Hunley” became Anna once more and never since has she changed the attire of her sex.

Other women, too, have put on masculine guise in time of war.

Patriotism moved them to such tactics, but more often they entered service to be near loved ones.

Modesto Evening News (Modesto, California) Sep 6, 1924

This article is almost the same as the one above, but it names her father as Jeremiah Hunley:


OAKLAND, Cal. — For 58 years Mrs. Anna Glud, of this city, has nursed a romantic secret.

And then, on her 68th birthday, with a family group about her, the white haired old lady revealed the amazing story of how, at the outbreak of the civil war, she had cut her hair, donned the uniform of a Union fighter and gone to the war as Tom Hunley a drummer boy.

That she had not previously bared her secret was due partially to the fact that her family had been divided on the war issues and she waited for time to heal the wounds; partially because of a somewhat natural reluctance.

But she did not wish the secret to go to the grave with her and so the story of Tom Hunley came to light.

Two persons had known her secret — Jermiah Hunley, her father and Gen. Grant, in whose charge her father had placed her.

The Hunley’s lived in a “border” state. Two sons went with the Union forces and two with the Confederate. Then the father was called.

Father Cuts Hair.

The prospect of leaving his little girl among strangers, unprotected and uncared for, was too much, so he dressed her in the uniform of a drummer boy, cut off her hair, told her to always remember her name was “Tom,” and joined the regiment.

For two years “Tom” Hunley and “his” father served with the Union forces in the bloodiest battles of the civil war. Never once was the identity of the little “drummer boy” suspected. There came a day, however, when Jeremiah was forced to reveal the secret of his daughter’s masquerade. General Grant inspected the regiment and seeing the diminutive “drummer boy” decided “he” was too young for active service, and ordered “him” mustered out. Thereupon Jermiah told him the story of the motherless little girl. The General swore himself to secrecy and ordered “Tom” Hunley’s retention in the service.

Reminiscing, the former “Tom” Hunley said: “During all that time though many remarked that I looked more like a girl than a boy, not one soldier discovered that I was a girl. Father and I kept together so constantly that I was always protected. Had I not had his assistance at all times, I doubt that I could have stood the rigors of a soldier’s life during those two dreadful years.

Feet Red With Blood.

“Why, in a battle near Davisville, when 7000 confederates and northerners were killed, our little body of men literally had to climb over the bodies of dead soldiers in order to fight our way out. My little feet were red with blood. And when we were mustered out in the fall of 1864 there were but 17 members of our company left.”

The war over, Jermiah and “Tom” Hunley settled down in Indiana. But the rigors of war were too much for the father and in six months time he followed his wife and four sons into the Beyond, leaving his little girl, now re-attired in the dress of her sex, to continue life under the guidance of newly-made friends.

Twenty years later, General Grant died without having revealed the secret of “Tom” Hunley, and a secret it has remained until recently when Mrs. Glud revealed it.

Logansport Pharos Tribune (Logansport, Indiana) Apr 11, 1921

The above clipping ran in the following papers, as well as others:

Logansport Pharos Tribune (Logansport, Indiana) Aug 18, 1922
Iowa City Press Citizen (Iowa City, Iowa) Aug 26, 1922

Mansfield News (Mansfield, Ohio) Aug 19, 1922


United News Staff Correspondent

Oakland, Cal., June 1 — Tom Hundley, the drummer who thumped away bravely while bullets whined on a dozen battlefield of the Civil war, was a girl.

After keeping her secret for 63 years, Mrs. Annie Glud celebrated Memorial day by pulling a battered old drum from its khaki case and casting aside the mystery with which she concealed the exploits of her early years.

Mrs. Glud was the “Tom” who enlisted at the age of 10 and who served for nearly three years in the trouble-laden days of the sixties. Only General Grant and the girl’s father knew the truth.

Erect and with a sparkle of excitement in eyes that still need no spectacles to aid them, Mrs. Glud strapped her beloved drum to her waist and beat again, but not so vigorously, the old battle rhythms.

There is a spot of fading red in the center of that drum. It has been there for more than a half-century.

“Tom” and the company were before Richmond. In a shot skirmish with the Confederates the bugler fell. The “drummer boy” caught the dying lad and propped him against the drum head as life passed. A few days later “Tom” was mustered out of service.

Tanned, and with lines that seemed out of place in a youngster’s face, “Tom” became Annie Hudley again and went back to pig-tailed girlhood.

“How did it feel to be in battle?”

Mrs. Glude asked, repeating a question. “Well, I remember that I used to get mad, real mad when the bullets whistled by.”

Mrs. Glud had two brothers in the Confederate army and four who wore the blue of the north. she herself was with her father, who, acting as a scout through territory well known to him, led the Union armies on quick dashes against the enemy. Father and daughter were always together. “Tom” would follow closely behind the guide as they pressed ahead on forced marches.

Sixty years had dimmed the memory of many of those exploits, but in hesitating words that leave no room for doubt, Mrs. Glud speaks of night bivouacs under the open sky, of violence and death, and of the torture of a family divided against itself.

“There is no glamor in war,” she said. “It brings only unhappiness.”

The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida) – Jun 1, 1925

Oakland Woman Fought As Drummer Boy in ’61

A drummer “boy” who marched with the Union forces in 1862 paraded again yesterday to the stirring notes of martial music, this time at the head of a party that rode a float entered by the Ladies of the Lyon Relief Corps.

The drummer “boy” was Mrs. Annie Glud, 416 East Fifteenth street, who, at the age of 10, enlisted with the Union forces as a drummer boy under the name of Tom Hundley. Only General U.S. Grant and Mrs. Glud’s father knew that “Tom” was a girl. And it was not until 1921, when Mrs. Glud celebrated her sixtyeighth birthday, fifty-eight years after she enlisted, that the secret leaked out.

The war to “Tom Hundley” was not merely a great adventure. Two of her brothers were in the Confederate forces, and two others fought on the side of the North.
Gettysburg and the battle at Richmond just before General Robert E. Lee surrendered were two of the bloodiest battles in which the drummer “boy” participated.
Mrs. Glud still owns the drum which she carried during the hectic days of the sixties. It is her proudest possession, she says.

Although the drummer “boy” has marched in so many Decoration and Armistice Day parades that she has almost lost count of them, she never tires of taking part. They bring back, she says, the stirring experiences of the Civil War.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Nov 12, 1927

American Heroines


“Tom” Hunley

IN 1862 there was enlisted in the Union forces engaged in the Civil war a drummer boy named Tom Hunley. He was a frail little fellow, whom the soldiers often teased with looking more like a girl than a boy. But his father, Jeremiah Hunley, enlisted in the same regiment, kept Tom close at his side and protected him not only from the taunts but even from the friendship of their comrades in arms. And for three years little Tom drummed the Northern troops along their weary marches and into desperate battle, and only two people, his own father and General Grant, ever knew that he was no drummer boy, but a little girl!

Tom’s father carried the secret to his grave a few years after the close of the war. And General Grant told none. So that is was not until 60 years after her heroic deeds that the drummer boy herself, then a white-haired old lady, Mrs. Anna Glud of Oakland, Calif., told the strange story.

Jeremiah Hunley and his five motherless children lived in a border state. When the Civil war opened, two sons joined up with the Union side, two with the Confederates. Then the father was called. Afraid to leave his only remaining child, Anna, then ten years old, alone, friendless in a contested territory, he cut off her hair, dressed her in boy’s clothes, told her to answer to the name “Tom” and set off to join the Union army. For two years “Tom” gallantly accompanied her father.

Then, on day, General Grant inspected his troops. He was particularly struck with the diminutive drummer boy, decided she was too small for action, and ordered her mustered out and sent home to her mother! There was only one thing for her father to do. As soon as he could gain a private hearing with the general he explained that the drummer boy was no boy but his own daughter, and laid before him the circumstances which had prompted the deception. He begged that he might be allowed to keep her with him. And General Grant straightway shook the little drummer boy’s hand, swore himself to keep her secret, and ordered her retained in the service.

Thus it was not until the end of the war that little Anna Hunley returned to the dress and life that befitted a little girl.

The Nashua Reporter (Nashua, Iowa) Dec 7, 1932

Title: Tom Hundley, the drummer boy: or, A secret that General Grant kept. A drama of 1861
Author: Mrs. Annie Hundley
Publisher: Published by the author, 1899 (Google Book LINK)

You can read Annie’s book online. The first part of it is basically a play script, followed by a narrative of her life. What came to mind when I started reading it, was the play, The Drummer Boy of Shiloh that was all the rage in the late 1800’s.  I wonder if that is what inspired her to write her story. The whole book is only 44 pages, so it is a really quick read, although, in my opinion reads like a dime-store historical fiction/romance novel.

I wonder if the play mentioned below, is the one from her book:

WOMEN, GIRLS ’61-’65.

The Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War, ’61-’65, met at 2 o’clock Wednesday afternoon. The sick were reported no better and the sick committee asked to visit them.

A rising vote of thanks was extended to Sister Glud, the author of the play put on Saturday night at the Auditorium. The workers will hold their annual birthday party on the third Wednesday in November. Songs and recitations by various members of the workers composed the program for the afternoon’s entertainment. The meeting closed with community singing.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Oct 24, 1920

GIRLS OF ’61-’65

On Wednesday, March 30, the third anniversary of the Girls of ’61-’65 was celebrated in Memorial hall. A chicken dinner was served in the banquet room to members, comrades and a number of invited guests. A table was reserved and decorated for those having birthdays this month. Mrs. Anna Glud and Mrs. Mary Morrin furnished two delicious birthday cakes for this table.

After dinner all adjourned to the hall and listened to the program of the afternoon. Comrade Stern, a visitor from Wisconsin, gave an interesting talk, taking for his subject “A Lincoln Monument.” He expressed surprise that a city the size of Oakland should not have some memorial to Lincoln. He congratulated the Girls on taking the initiative for the work, by giving an entertainment at the Auditorium on March 26.

An original poem written in honor of the day was read by Comrade Brinkerhoff. Another pleasing reading entitled “Old Chromos” was given by Comrade Eastman. Mrs. Fannie Ward Miller took over the program and read a description of Lincoln written fifty years ago by Governor Ogelsby as an introduction to Lincoln’s Gettyburg address.

Another enjoyable number was the singing of Mrs. Florence Sewell, accompanied by Miss Randolph. Mrs. Sewell sang “Mignon” and as encore gave “Silver Threads Among the Gold” and “Clover Leaf.” A piano and violin solo was given by the Misses Cook and Kolmodin. Mrs. Blake Alverson, who is 84 years old, was present and spoke to the girls and for the first time since the days of ’61 was not able to sing, but recited an old song, the rage in the days of the Civil War.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Apr 3, 1921


Once applicant was received at the meeting of the Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War last Wednesday afternoon in Memorial hall. Captain Viola Murphy presided.

Captain Murphy read “The Childhood History of Mrs. Anna Glud,” telling of her home and surroundings and her experiences as a drummer boy in the Civil War.

Comrade Garfield, Spanish War veteran, spoke on one of the leading topics of the day. Comrade William Crowhurst announced that at the convention of the grand lodge of Odd Fellows at Pasadena recently over 1600 were present and the main subject discussed was “Home and Mother.”

Comrade Scupham introduced Comrade Smith who was for four years in naval service. Captain Clara Wood of Division 5, of Sacramento recited “Starry Flag of Ours.” Mrs. Anna Jordan favored with a piano selection. The order accepted an invitation from Col. Wyman Circle, G.A.R., to attend a picnic.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Jul 26, 1924

G.A.R. Auxiliary To Give Dinner For Post on 15th

Plans were completed for the dinner to be given the men September 15 by Colonel John B. Wyman Cirle No. 22, Ladies of the G.A.R., Tuesday afternoon. Dinner will be served at noon, to which comrades and their wives are invited.

At the meeting one applicant was initiated and two applications received.

Louise Noack, chairman of the home committee, thanked the committee for aiding in the decoration of the float for the Dons of Peralta parade. Anna Glud was thanked for her drum beating in the parade.

About a hundred members attended the Bay District Association of the Lady Maccabees Tuesday evening the women being entertained by Golden Poppy Hive No. 1016.

A banquet followed.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Sep 12, 1925


A rising vote of thanks was given to Mrs. Anna Glud at the meeting of the Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War, Wednesday afternoon in Memorial hall for a large decorated cake. Harry Williams was thanked for floral gifts.

Clinton Dodge and T. Thompson spoke on the Anita Whitney case. Captain Viola Murphy presided.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Oct 31, 1925

G.A.R. Women Visit at County Home With Gifts

Because of the inclement weather last Saturday only a small group of members of the Women and Girls Workers of the Civil War and Col. John B. Wyman Circle No. 22, Ladies of the G.A.R. visited the County Home. The Assembly hall at the home was packed with men and women waiting to welcome the visitors.

A short program was given under the direction of Anna Glud and May David. Mrs. Glud recited “The Drummer Boy in the Civil War,” and gave taps, assisted by Mrs. Ada Rowe at the piano.

Candy and fruit was distributed, and many magazines presented. Greetings were expressed for a merry Christmas and happy New Year.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Dec 26, 1925

Lyon Corps Entertains

Lyon Relief Corps No. 6, G.A.R., entertained the department president of the W.R.C. and staff at luncheon Wednesday at the Hotel Oakland. Honored guests were Emma J. Alexander, department president; Rosa B. Sturtevant, department senior vice president; Kate Humphreys, department counselor, and Carrie Bartlett, first member of the executive board.

At the regular meeting of the corps held in the Veterans’ Memorial building, Alice Harrington presided. Many relief calls were reported and flowers were sent sick members. Mrs. Anna Glud was reported seriously ill.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Feb 9, 1929

Mountain View Cemetery (Image from Find-A-Grave)

Corps Sponsors Club for Juniors

Lyon Corps, auxiliary to the G.A.R., in compliance with the request of the national organization, has endorsed the suggestion that the corps sponsor a junior club. Any loyal girl between the ages of 8 and 16, is eligible to membership.

At the meeting Wednesday, a fitting tribute to the late Mrs. Anna Glud, written by Comrade G.A. Blank, was read by Department Senior Vice President Rosa B. Sturtevant.

The corps voted to accept the invitation of Oakland Post No. 5, American Legion, to attend a patriotic program in the Veterans’ building next Tuesday.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Feb 16, 1929

Annie Glud seems to have been a woman of many interests and talents:

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, ANNIE GLUD, a citizen of the United States, residing in Oakland, county of Alameda, State of California, have invented an Improvement in Fuel Saving Appliances for Grates; and I hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the same.

Patent number: 538511
Filing date: Feb 12, 1895
Issue date: Apr 1895

GOOGLE LINK to the complete patent.


Mrs. Annie Glud Says That She Has Discovered Rich Treasures in the Shasta Mountains.

With her own hands, Mrs. Annie Glud, wife of an Oakland, Cal., sailor, has uncovered a vein of gold in the heart of the Shasta mountains.

It was by merest accident that the hidden wealth was revealed to her, and she has kept the secret for nearly a year. A serious illness prevented her from delving further for the gold. Now she has regained her health, and is ready to start for the claim, which is registered under her own name in the United States land office, at Redding, Cal. Twelve miles from there, in the Shasta mountains, is Stillwater creek, running through the gulch where Mrs. Glud and her husband has pre-empted a quarter section of land.

“One day last October,” she said, “I was strolling down the gulch and was attracted by some shining particles mixed in the black, sandy loam. The thought struck me that they were gold. I thought, if gold is was, I would not dare tell the story of the discovery, fearing some one would ‘jump’ the claim.

“I had heard of panning gold, but there were no mining utensile on the ranch. Finally I decided to try my hand. I went to the cabin, got a tin wash basin, and, crawling to the creek, scooped up a pan of the dirt. After twisting and turning that old wash basin my eyes were delighted with the sight of glittering particles of gold.

“As soon as I was assured the gold was real, I made up my mind that I would own a claim and turn miner. I quietly found out what was necessary to be done and then I staked off a claim 600×500 feet and went to Redding, where I filed on it.”

Then came Mrs. Glud’s serious illness, that stopped further developments temporarily.

“I am going to my mine very soon. You would be surprised at the number of women that want to go with me. Why, this is a Klondike craze in miniature. But I am going to be very careful in the selection of my company, I shall accept no one who cannot meet her own expenses.”

Kansas City journal (Kansas City, Mo.)Aug 25, 1897


Mine Is Discovered at Sixth and Franklin.

Gold has been found on Franklin street. There is excitement in the neighborhood and plans are being evolved to tunnel under some of the houses.

Mrs. Annie Glud of 804 Franklin street is the discoverer of the gold mine at the corner of Sixth and Franklin streets. She has the nuggets and fine gold to show that the mine exists.

Two days ago the electric light men had trouble with Mrs. Mary Kelly over the placing of a pole in front of her house at Sixth and Franklin streets. During the night Mrs. Kelly was outwitted and the men dug the hole and placed the pole. Mrs. Glud happened along while the work was in progress, and she secured a small valise full of dirt taken from the hole. She knows how to mine. The next day she panned the dirt and it netted her $5.25 in gold.

A committee waited on President John A. Britton of the Oakland Gas, Light and Heat Company and told him of the find. Mr. Britton was surprised to hear that his workmen had struck a gold mine.

Yesterday several people called on Mrs. Glud to secure information on the subject. Mrs. Glud said, “Yes, it is true that I made the find. I’ve go the gold.”

Mrs. Glud is now trying to make arrangements with Mrs. Kelley to tunnel under the latter’s house in pursuit of gold. She wants to prospect for the gold.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Apr 12, 1901

These clippings are just a small sample of all the real estate dealings I ran across in the Oakland Tribune, which involved Anna Glud.


Notice is hereby given that in accordance with the terms and under the authority of a certain deed of trust, dated September 29, 1898, duly executed and delivered by Annie Glud and Paul C. Glud, her husband, of the City of Oakland, County of Alameda and State of California… [default on real property at Center and Fourteenth St]

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) May 28,  1901

June 1904


October 1904


May 1908



The one above is interesting because the transaction involves her son, Charles T. Hunley and his wife.

This headline is a bit misleading! After reading about Anna the “drummer boy,” I thought this was going to be about her once again posing as a male, but it is something much less interesting.



Mrs. Anna Glud of 804 Franklin street, who styles herself a private detective, made application to the Board of Police and Fire Commissioners this morning to be appointed matron of the City Prison, vice Mrs. Reed, deceased. The board met to pass the salary warrants for the next month. The application was referred to Chief of Police Hodgkins for a report.

Mrs. Glud had the recommendation of Ex-Mayor Barstow and other prominent members of the community, but inadvertently she appears to have used the same application made two years ago to be appointed matron of the County Jail.

The application had been originally addressed to the Board of Supervisors and Sheriff John Bishop. Whether the old application will prejudice her case or not is a matter for the board to determine.

The discovery was made by Secretary Walter Fawcett, who noticed the name of E.E. Baunce, deceased, in the petition for appointment.

The original application bears the date of December 27, 1902. This date and the name of the Supervisors and that of Sheriff Bishop was turned under.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) May 31, 1904


Three more young boys have left their homes in this city and their anxious parents have asked the police to locate them. Mrs. A.B. Burbank of 1361 Thirteenth street reports that Everett Dolan, fourteen years of age, has disappeared. Everett is light complexioned and when he was last seen wore a dark coat and a soft hat.

George Marshall, a messenger, fourteen years of age, has left his home at 15 Eighth street. Young Marshall has been living with Mrs. Glud at the above address. Mrs. Glud called at the police station this morning and stated that she had been caring for the lad for some time and she asked that the police arrest him and place him in jail for a short time, so that he would learn not to run away. The third boy who ran away yesterday was Willie Sparks of 878 Lydia street.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Oct 11, 1906

I think the Oakland area is lucky the City Council did NOT choose the name suggested by Anna Glud:


“City and County of California” is the new suggestion of Mrs. A. Glud, of 1062 Oak street, for a name for the proposed consolidated city of Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley. Mrs. Glud sent her suggestion to the City Council, and it was referred by that body last night to the public improvement committee. Mrs. Glud believes that her suggestion for a name is a fitting one.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) May 21, 1907

Image from flickr - by Tom Spauling


OAKLAND, July 20. — A.E. Williams, a real estate agent with offices in the First National Bank building, is under arrest here on a charge of felony preferred by Mrs. Anna Glud. Williams is accused of having mulcted many victims of thousands of dollars by means of a fake prospectus and he sale of worthless stock in a fraudulent mining scheme.

The investigation resulting in the apprehension of Williams was made by H.W. Gray of the State Mining Bureau. According to Gray, Williams has cleaned up about $15,000 in his dealings with con???ing school teachers and others.

In a prospectus which was seized as evidence Williams calls himself secretary of the Calaveras Consolidated Mining Company, whose capitalization is named as being 16,000,000 shares.

Several weeks ago Mrs. Glud called on Captain of Inspectors W.J. Petersen. With her in this transaction were Alice Gerkle of Portland, Ore., Eleanor Hilbeard and Byron Hilbeard of Portland and Bertha Nitch and Charles Huntlee of Oakland.

Mrs. Glud says that she and the others owned 160 acres of mining land in Calavera county and that Williams offered to take it in exchange for 30,000 shares in his company, claiming that ultimately she and those associated with her would realize a fortune by the transaction.

Then, Mrs. Glud says, she “signed something,” and subsequently discovered that she had deeded the land to a Mrs. Lillian Martin, who has sold the property to a Mrs. Gleason for $7000.

Later she says she learned that the “shares” she held were worthless, and that the “Calaveras Consolidated Mining Company” did not own any land in Calavera county.

Modesto News (Modesto, California) Jul 20, 1911

Anna Glud even had an extremely green thumb!

“You can’t grow a calla lily in California over three feet in height,” contended a St. Louis woman. Mrs. A. Glud of 1120 Oak street, Oakland, promptly challenged this assertion, and offered to give her St. Louis friend tangible proof that calla lillies, like other flowers, grow at their best in sunny California. In her garden in Oakland Mrs. Glud has grown a calla lily plant, two of the stalks of which are five feet three inches in height, while the giant leaves are 22 inches long. These stalks grew in 22 days.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Jun 18, 1913

I wonder where Anna got this bear, and how she knew who carved it? I tried to find an image of it online, but had no luck. I would be curious to know if this Cinnamon Bear carving is still at the White House or on display somewhere. I did run across an index of Warren Harding’s papers that had her name listed. It would be interesting to read the letter she wrote him.


Presentation to Be Made by Organization of Women and Girls of ’61.

The historic cinnamon bear carved by James Marshall, discoverer of gold in California, from California redwood, is to be presented to Warren G. Harding, President of the United States, as a token of respect from Oakland Chapter of the Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War of ’61 and ’65, it was announced today.

The bear, which was carved by Marshall in ’48, the same year that gold was discovered in this state, has long been the property of Mrs. Annie Glud of Oak street, a pioneer worker of the civil war, who has become nationally famous since her recent disclosure that she served in the war as a “drummer boy,” masquerading in male clothing.

Mrs. Glud recently decided to give the treasured relic to President Harding, but chose rather to give it first to the local organization in order that it might be presented in the name of the organization to the nation’s executive.

Local engravers are preparing two plates for the base of the bear, which will read:

“This cinnamon bear was carved by James Marshall in 1848 with a penknife out of redwood grown in Yosemite valley, California.”

“Presented to President Warren G. Harding, by the Women and Girl Workers of the Civil War of ’61 and ’65 (also served in three wars). Oakland, Cal., June 7, 1921.”

A letter offering the bear to the President was sent some weeks ago and has just been answered by the President, carrying his appreciation of the memento and accepting the gift.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Jun 2, 1921

Census Records for Anna Glud

Finding Anna prior to 1900 has proven to be a bit difficult. Based on information I found on a HUNLEY family tree, I was able to locate her in 1860,  living with someone other than her family, in Gibson County, Indiana,  and listed as age 12, and  a servant. Here are the census records from 1900 forward:

(click to enlarge):

In 1900, Anna and husband, Paul and her son, Charles were living on Franklin St, Oakland, CA. It lists Charles T Hunley as a step-son.

In 1910, Anna, Paul and Charles (listed as son) are living on Oak St., Oakland, CA. I am not sure why Charles is still listed as living with them. He married a woman by the name of Henrietta Drennon,  and had two daughters. He must have married about 1903/1904, because Florence Ann Hunley was born about 1904/1905 and Louise E. Hunley was born in 1907. Notice Louise’s name is on the gravestone with Anna and Paul Glud.

In 1920, Anna and Paul are still living on Oak St., Oakland, CA, but Charles Hunley is no longer listed as living with them.


Paul C. Glud, 3764 Ruby street, Oakland, is retired after nearly 35 years of service as bridgetender at the pier and at the Ferry building.

Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California) Aug 7, 1927

In 1930, Anna had already passed away, but Paul is living on Ruby St. in Oakland, CA, and with him….another Hunley. This time it is a great-nephew (listed as great-uncle) named Arch Hunley, who, according to a family tree online, was the son of Ira, one of Anna’s nephews.

1894 County Directory

Anna is not listed with Paul in 1894,  but Charles T. Hunley is:

City Directory - 1894

So, it would seem Paul and Anna were probably married by that time. She was listed with Paul in 1895, also as matron of the Children’s Home as she is below in 1897:

City Directory - 1897

Anna’s son, Charles T. Hunley,  was a police officer in Oakland. He arrested lots of bad guys, per the news reports. (Prior to that, he was an electrician, and then a motorman for the A O & P E Ry Co.) I don’t know what happened to him; he was last registered to vote in 1922.  His wife was listed as a widow in 1930, worked as a seamstress, and  her daughter, Louise was still living with her. The older daughter, Florence, was shown living with a maternal aunt, Vina McDonald, and her occupation was listed as news writer for a newspaper.


Now, as to my title of this post: Was Anna Glue really a drummer boy in the Civil War?

No doubt, she was a very interesting lady, who seemed to have been willing to try her hand at anything.

She did have four brothers, two of which there seems to be documentation  showing they served in the Civil War, on the side of the Union, so it is possible the other two were the ones who served on the Confederate side.

Regarding her father, Jeremiah, I did not find any proof he served, and it appears others have looked and have not found any either. According to a family tree for this family, Jeremiah may have been married six times! And he may have been married to two of them at the same time. (The family tree linked above is not the one on, but it has some of the information I used for reference.)

Another controversial issue with him is his date of death:

Widows Pension Records Mary E. Densmore
Detail:  Death Dates
Date:     1870 to 1871
Notes:     Thomas R. Hunley his son, told Mrs. Mary Murray who was married to Jeremiah Hunley that his father died in Dec 1863 then later told her April 1864 and that he died in prison. It was later voice in court proceedings that Thomas later said he died in 1870 or 1871, but was later reported to be alive.

From: Fletcher-Ammons, Hunley family tree on

In her book linked above, Anna “Hundley” Glud states that her father knew he was dying, and told her to marry his old friend, Joe Dalton, who turned out to be a drunken wife beater who abused her. According to her story, she had a baby boy, (Charles Thomas Hunley?) and was so afraid for their lives, she took him and ran away. Eventually, she somehow ended up in California, but doesn’t say how she got there, or with whom she made the journey.

So, according to the news stories, Anna managed to hang on to her drum all these years. This is a red flag for me. She ran away from an abusive relationship, with child in arms, and still had her drum?

If she had been married, did she get a divorce before marrying Paul Glud? Did Joe Dalton die? How would she know if she ran away? I suppose that information might be found on her marriage license application for her marriage to Paul.

The accounts of her father, in her book and all the news articles don’t seem to jive with the few facts about him that are available. Clearly, he seemed to have been busy getting hitched and unhitched, while the children apparently were farmed out.  He doesn’t sound like the kind of man who “couldn’t bare to leave his little girl behind.”

In addition, the part of the story where she states that General Grant, once he heard the touching story, let her stay in, just seems too much like a romance to be true. Sure, it could have happened, but why did she wait until everyone involved was dead to tell the story? She seemed to be a lady who liked the attention the story would have brought her.

From the 1873 Memorial Day address (Fitchburg, MA) by General Devons:

That there are imposters and pretenders now, just as there were shirks and deserters during the war, cannot be denied…

The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) May 31, 1873

My intent is not to disparage a good lady’s name. When I ran across the first article about her being a drummer boy, I was excited and had planned to add it to my post on drummer boys. So I started looking for more. After reading a few of the articles, I began to question the authenticity of her story. Obviously, she lived through the Civil War, and live was rough for her in her early years. She was very active in G.A.R. related groups, had brothers who fought in the war, and had access to all kinds of stories about the war. While her “war” story was interesting to read, I think it was just that, a story.

To Readers: Any additional information that might support her story would be welcome.

Dogberry’s History of California

May 4, 2010

For students writing reports on California history, I recommend reading this article carefully before deciding whether or not to use it as a source.  Some of the linked sources might be useful.




Drake Landing in California (Image from Wiki)


California was discovered in 1579 by Sir Francis Drake, an old English sea guerrilla who plundered Spanish galleons and cut throats by the grace of God and her most Gracious Majesty Queen Elizabeth.

Sir Francis, unmindful of harbor regulations, sailed through the heads without a pilot. He landed at North Beach, laid out Montgomery street, then sailed up country and founded San Andreas.

San Andreas is a very nice place. Sir Francis never ‘raised the color’ in California, and so far as the real benefit of his discovery is concerned he might as well have staid home.

Mission Dolores (Image from


From 1579 till the discovery of gold in 1848, California laid an empty yellow blot on the map of North America, and was chiefly famous from its association with Dana‘s ‘Two Years before the Mast.’

The rivers ran undisturbed over tons of treasure. Millions of money laid idle in the flats and gulches. The Digger wandered over these stores of wealth in a miserable but happy state of unprogressiveness.

He fished, hunted, slept and gratified his epicurean tastes with crickets and grass hoppers.

The inhabitants of Castillian descent lived in a sort of vitalized doze.

They were an unhappy people, rejoicing neither in newspapers, mining stocks, trichinia, rinderpest nor cholera.

Ignorant enough to be contented, they cared little whether school kept or not.

As a general thing school did not keep.


In 1847, Commodore Sloat, Commodore Stockton and John C. Fremont captured California.

Fremont, guided by a grizzly, discovered a pass through the Rocky Mountains. Some say Fremont went first through the pass, and others contend that the grizzly did.

Hence the adoption of the bear flag.

Commodore Stockton founded the city bearing his name, situated at tother end of the slough at the head of mud hen navigation.

Fremont founded the Mariposa estate, while Commodore Sloat found nothing, and left in disgust for the East.

Sloat’s example has frequently been followed since.

Shortly afterward ensued the discovery of gold. Everybody rushed to the diggings. Everybody got rich. Everybody in other portions of this sublumunmary sphere who could beg, borrow or steal the means, came to California. They also got rich.

Regarding prosperity the country started at the point where others culminate.

The most fortunate gold hunters were drunken sailors. Men of morality and steady habit were invariably unlucky. Virtue was another name for starvation. Shooting and cutting were almost as common as at present. Hanging was a domestic, not a judicial institution, and was administered for nearly all relapses of honesty.

In addition to the hanging the natural ignorance of mankind regarding the proper method of making light bread, and the proper manner of cooking pork and beans caused the mortality for the first year or two to be very great.

At length a saviour arrived who instructed the people not to commence boiling the salt pork at the same time with their beans.

After this the country became more healthy. Hanging also disappeared as an epidemic, and has not troubled us much since.

In those flush times whisky was four bits per drink.

Whisky is now but one bit per drink.

To the political economist this points unerringly to the fact that the country is but one fourth as prosperous as in ’49’ and ’50.’


In 1854 and 1855 a large proportion of the rich miners either went home or started for home.

A number got as far as the nearest camp, some to Sacramento or Stockton, some to San Francisco, and a few actually went on the steamer.

In every case they spent all their money, and then went back to the mines for more.

But just about this time the mines commenced ‘petering.’

To ‘peter’ is a phrase of California origin and pertains tonon est inventus. The derivation of the phrase is lost in the obscurity of early times, but it probably germinated from some ‘strapped’ miner by the name of Peter.

‘Strapped’ is also a word of California growth, and partakes of the same signification as ‘broke.’

‘Broke’ means ‘panned out.’

‘Panned out’ means ‘gone up the flume.’

‘Gone up the flume’ differs in no wise from ‘gone in.’

‘Gone in’ is to be ‘busted.’

‘Busted’ is not to be able to ‘raise the color.’

Not to be able to ‘raise the color’ is to possess no ‘kale seed.’

Without ‘kale seed’ is to be without ‘nary red.’

Such are a few of the California roots of the phrase ‘to peter,’ and may throw some etymological light on the signification of the term.

Many of these victims of the ‘petering’ of the mines are still resident in the same localities where they ‘struck it’ in ’49.’

‘Struck it’ is a term synonymous with ‘making a raise.’

‘Making a raise’ is identical with ‘making a stake.’

These victims are generally characterized by dungaree pants immoderately worn at the further antipodal extremity, and a lofty contempt for anything less than ‘ounce diggings.’

They are often sorely annoyed by the conduct of the present race of country merchants who refuse them credit and object to wait for money until it comes out of the ‘bed of the river.’


From 1856 to 1866 California has been waiting for foreign capital to develop her resources.

In the mean time the inhabitants of many of the smaller camps, like Cow Bar, Shiriville, Horseopolis, Joshtown, Murderville, and Cat-your-diaphragm-out Flat, have shut up their stores and cabins and left temporarily until the foreign capital emigrates hither from Europe and the East.

Most of them are now rushing around like the Israelites in the wilderness to strike a ‘big thing.’

These rushes are periodical and spasmodical.

They have rushed up to Gold Bluffs, then down to Kern river, then up again to Frazer, then down again to Colorado, then up again to Cariboo, then down again to Arizona, then up again to Idaho and Montana, and lastly down again to Barbacoas.

In ’59’ and ’60’ there was a big side rush to Washoe.

They persist in these rushes despite the advice of the Press which ever tells them that it is better to stay and starve to death at home.

In these various rushes many have through disease, heat, cold, accident, murder and starvation gone to ‘that bourne‘ supposed to be located near the Tropics.

These rushes will continue for the next thirty years. When the forty years are fulfilled and the old generation have rushed completely out, there will be a cessation.


The Chinese have been a great blessing to this State. They have saved the Americans the trouble of working about one-half of their diggings. They were among the first to render the condition of male humanity tolerable by the introduction of females. The collection of the foreign miners tax, to which they liberally contributed has enriched many worthy men.


Quartz is a fine white rock and sometimes holds a great deal of the precious metal. Much gold can be put in quartz and it will retain it so firmly that you may never get it out again. It is difficult to ascertain whether quartz or river mining has proved most efficacious in cleaning men out of their piles gathered from the placers.

Copper ranks next to quartz in importance at least so far as the cleaning out process is concerned.

To be cleaned out it to arrived at the finale of the process of ‘petering.’

Our most learned geologists (some of whom have made this science a study for weeks) say that a belt of copper extends through the entire State.

There are a few paying claims. The remainder only require depth and more assessments.

The proper method of working a quartz or copper mine can best be learned in a broker’s office on Montgomery street.


There is some oil in California, but it requires for its development depth, assessments and foreign capital!

San Francisco 1860 View of Goat Island

Above picture, along with many other awesome ones can be found HERE: San Francisco in the Past in Black and White


San Francisco is the principal town in California. Sacramento comes next in importance, Stockton next, and Dutch Flat next. San Francisco is situated directly opposite Goat Island, and is noted chiefly for its earthquakes and for being General Halleck‘s Thomas Maguire’s and Samuel Brannan‘s stamping ground.

A large portion of the city is built over the water. The early settlers were not aware for several years that there was any land back.

With the exception of Telegraph Hill it has several times been destroyed by fire.

San Francisco is also noted for the number and variety of its local novelists, and the pomp and splendor of its lunch tables. The principal public buildings are the Station House, and the old Bulletin office in Merchant street.

The old Bulletin office is of the ironical style of architecture, and is ornamented outwardly with fresco a’la poster.

San Francisco also boasts an extensive zoological collection at North Beach, and a public gallery of modern and unique statuary at the Willows.

The inhabitants are Cosmopolitan, Mongolian, and Ethiopian. A few small American traders and mechanics still linger in its precincts.

Trade and commerce flourish to some extent in San Francisco, but the principal occupation of the people consists in building new school-houses, growling about high fares on the street railroads, fighting the Moore claim, paying poll taxes, and all sorts of taxes, and getting run over by the Market street cars.

Sacramento by the way is the capital of California, and is noted for its humidity in the rainy season.


California society is generally mixed. The females are generally ‘fast.’ Males ditto. Marriage is expensive and unpopular. Divorces are cheap, and often prove a never-failing relief in time of need.


A brilliant future is in store for California, and the day is not far distant when she may rank next to many other States in the Union.

The Golden Era (San Francisco, California) – Jun 24, 1866

Hoisting the Flag in the Golden State

April 29, 2010

Read about the Bear Flag: Virtual Museum of San Francisco

[From The Californian of November 29th, 1846 — an early number of the American newspaper first published in California — we extract the following verses, written in commemoration of events which culminated in the acquisition of the Golden State.]
For “The Californian.”


Soft o’er the vale of Angeles
The gale of peace was wont to blow,
Till discord raised her direful horn
And filled the vale with sounds of woe.

The blood-stained earth, the warlike bands,
The trembling natives saw with dread;
Dejected labor left her toil,
And Summer’s blithe enjoyments fled.

But soon the avenging sword was sheathed,
And mercy’s voice by Stockton heard;
How pleasant were the days which saw
Security and peace restored.

Ah! think not yet your trials o’er;
From yonder mountain’s hollow side,
The fierce banditti issue forth
When darkness spreads her curtain wide.

With murderous arms and haggard eyes,
The social joys away they fright;
Sad expectation clouds the day,
And sleep forsakes the fearful night.

Now martial troops protect the robbed,
At distance prowl the ruffian band,
Oh, confidence! that dearer guard,
Why hast thou left this luckless land.

We droop and mourn o’er many a joy,
O’er some dear friend to dust consigned;
But every comfort is not fled:
Behold another friend we find.

Lo! Stockton comes to grace the plan,
And friendship claims the precious prize, —
He grants the claims, nor does his heart
The children of the vale despise.


The Golden Era – Jul 13, 1862

USS Levant (Image from


The New York Commercial gives the following extracts from a letter received here from an officer now on board the U.S. ship Levant, who was on board the U.S. frigate Savannah, Commodore Sloat, when that officer took formal possession of California. It affords the most particular account yet published of this conquest.

Commodore John Sloat (Image from wikimedia)

Off Mazatlan, Aug. 10, 1846.}

I wrote you from Monterey on the 6th of July, or shortly after, giving you a detailed account of the occurrences at that place. Fearing, however, that you may not have received it, I forward it to you by this opportunity, which will probably be the last communication you will receive from me, being now homeward bound.

On the 6th of July all was bustle in the cabin of the Savannah; some four or five men were busily employed writing letters, proclamations, &c., preparatory to taking possession of California. It was long after the witching hour of midnight ere I was enabled to catch a troubled repose, as all was to be prepared by six o’clock the following morning, which came as bright and beautiful as a July day of our own favored island. At 6 A.M. Capt. Mervine came on board to receive orders, and at 7 he left with a summons to the military commandant of Monterey to surrender the place forthwith to the arms of the United States, and also a similar summons to the military Governor for the surrender of all California.

At 9 A.M. of the 7th of July the expedition started from the Savannah, composed of the boats off the Savannah, Levant and Cyane, and landed without opposition at the m?le. The force was then marched up a short distance to the custom house, where a concourse of the inhabitants were assembled. Here the marines and men were halted, and the proclamation read to the multitude by Rodman M. Price, Esq., purser of the Cyane, in a loud and distinct manner, which was received with three hearty cheers by those present. The flag of the United States was then hoisted by acting Lieut. Edward Higgings, immediately after which a salute of 21 guns was fired by the Savannah and Cyane.

The custom house was then turned into a barrack for the United States forces, and every thing settled down quietly.

Communications were immediately dispatched to commander Montgomery, of the Portsmouth, at St. Francisco, at which place, and at Zanonia, the United States flag was hoisted on the morning of the 9th; and before ten days had elapsed, the whole of California, North of Monterey, was under the flag of the United States, much to the apparent satisfaction of the people, who hope it will last, knowing how much better they will be off under the Government of the United States.

On the 16 of July Captain Stockton arrived, too late, however, to participate directly in taking possession of California.

On the 29th Commodore Sloat gave up the command to Commodore Stockton, hoisted his flag on board the Levant, and sailed for the United States via Mazatlan and Panama, and we hope to reach the United States in all November.

Daily Sentinel And Gazette (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) Oct 2, 1846

In the above book (Google book LINK,) you can read correspondence from Robert F. Stockton. Here is an excerpt:

Page 18

The New-Orleans Piscayune of the 25th Aug. says:

“From information received at Alvorado, it would appear that the Californians were not taken by the Squadron under Commodore Sloat. But that American citizens located in these Provinces, combined with the disaffected Mexicans, declared themselves independent of the Central Government, and raised the flag of the United States, and declared obedience to their country.”

This version does not appear to be identical with the rumor brought here from Havanna by the Rev. Cutter M’Leon, and next by a vessel from Kingston, Jamaica, whither it was conveyed by the  During, more than a month ago.

This version of the correspondence is confirmed by a Spanish letter to the U.S., written in the city of Mexico on the 8th Aug. It is given as news.

Daily Sentinel And Gazette (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) Sep 10, 1846

Robert F. Stockton

Image from (Google book LINK):

More Colonial Homesteads and Their Stories
By Marion Harland
Publisher    G.P. Putnam’s sons, 1899


An American naval officer, grandson of Richard Stockton (q.v.). He was born at Princeton, N.J., studied for a time at Princeton, and in 1811 became a midshipman in the United States Navy. He joined Commodore Rodgers on the frigate President in 1812, was for a time an aide to the Secretary of the Navy, took part in the defense of Baltimore, and was promoted to be lieutenant in September, 1814.

In 1815 he distinguished himself in the Algerine War on board the Spitfire. He returned to the United States in command of the Erie in 1821, and in the fall of the same year sailed in the Alligator for the African coast, where he negotiated successfully for the land upon which the American Colonization Society founded Liberia (q.v.).

During the early part of the Mexican War he commanded the Pacific Squadron. To his energy, and that of General Fremont, with whom he cooperated, was largely due the success of the American operations on the coast. He captured Los Angeles and San Diego, fought several battles, organized a civil government for California, and installed Fremont as Governor, relinquishing the command to Shubrick in 1847.

He resigned from the navy in 1850, and was a United States Senator from New Jersey in 1851-53. Having resigned in 1853, he was for some time president of the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company.

Consult Life and Speeches of Robert Field Stockton (1856).

The above biography is from the following book:

The New International Encyclopæeia, Volume 18
Editors: Daniel Coit Gilman, Harry Thurston Peck, Frank Moore Colby
Publisher:    Dodd, Mead and company, 1909

Comet Quirls, The Civil War and Mark Twain

April 20, 2010

C.Q. — San Francisco. — It strikes us that you are rather severe and somewhat profane, but as your titular appellation is significant of eccentricity, the following verses may be considered permissible. Still, in the almost unlimited license accorded you, you should not allow yourself to forget that satire, to meet with unqualified acceptance, must not only be keenly pointed but delicately clothed. It is a dangerous weapon at all times, and, even though deftly handled and well thrust, is more provocative of noxious than beneficial effects.

If the convex ellipsis of your orbit should hereafter bring you in contact with “political surfaces,” we implore of you to glide over them more easily and return at once to the “illimitable space” and “nebulous matter” nature has so generously provided for the range and aliment of “opaque bodies.”

For this once, portentous Comet, you are permitted to plow the alluvium of this sublunar sphere, and “flirt dirt” in our eyes without restraint, but we warn you if you ever concuss the North American Continent again, that there will ensue an extensive conflagration (in our grate) and a prodigious “flare up” among the powers that be. Sail in.

General Winfield Scott (Image from



General Scott, went to Europe,
Doughty hero he!
Turned around, came right back,
Nothing that to me.
Many battles, has he fought,
For his country bled;
John Crapeau, put a flea,
In his ear, ’tis said.
Said he, Scott, run right home,
Jonathan advise;
To obey, great John Bull,
Sacre! — or he dies.
Scott came home, out of breath,
Told his little tale;
Jonathan, hamed his horns,
In just like a snail.
Mason went, Slidell too,
What a jolly game;
Uncle Sam, eat his words,
Sabe all the same.
That to me, nothing is,
But I’d like to know;
If the blockade, is a sham,
Is the Government dough?
Washington, soldiers guard,
Precious city that;
Uncle Sam’s, getting poor,
They’re getting fat.
“Shoulder arms!” harmless fun,
March two steps ahead;
Traitors none, march right back,
Stack arms, go to bed.
Full of spunk, every man,
Fiercely they have sparred;
At the South, (in a horn,)
Is’nt it d’n’d hard?
Pen is mightier, than the sword,
That’s why Sumpter fell;
Powder’s foul, ink is good,
Russell catches h_ll.
Brigand Greely, has resigned,
Spills his country’s flag;
Then he tries, to mop it up,
With his Tribune rag.
Abe is sound, Scott is wise,
Everybody’s true;
Wont somebody tell the rest,
What the de’l to do.
600,000 men in arms,
Eager for the fray;
Going to fight, by-and-by,
Yes! — but not to-day.
Forward movement’s been the talk,
For six months or more;
Still they stick, fast as mud,
To Potomac’s shore.
Gasconade, who’s afraid?
Hunky Uncle Sam;
Spend his money, he don’t care,
A continental d__n.

The Golden Era – Jan 26, 1862

Secretary of War (Image from

I am not certain if the following “satire” is the article being referenced above, but the Mercury was a rival paper, and this was printed in the Golden Era, so I think, perhaps it is the correct one.


In the “Table Talk” of the N.Y. Sunday Mercury, “the ignorant and presumptuous civilian who presumes to criticise the manner in which our military affairs are being conducted,” is severely and properly rebuked:

“War is a science that never associates itself with such commonplace objects as frock-coats and stove-pipe hats; in fact, recent observation inclines us to believe that it is almost exclusively composed of brass buttons and conical moustaches, with now and then a shoulder-strap, and a cap shaped like a dislocated thimble. As we have said before, the civilian does very well in his way; but it is simply absurd to imagine that he knows anything about the customs of war. Suppose, for instance, a body of ten thousand Union troops in Virginia should come suddenly upon a rebel battery of three guns and fifty men, what should be done? — With the ignorance peculiar to his class, the civilian would unhesitatingly respond, that the ten thousand Union troops should immediately walk over and take the battery.

Miserable stupidity! Suicidal imbecility! Fiendish abolitionism! That would be a nice way to do it, indeed! Would the fellow have another “On to Richmond?” War is a profound science and requires long study and experience. In such a case, as we have hypotheticated, the only true military plan of proceeding is as follows:

Upon observing the rebel battery of three guns and fifty men, the Union troops must at once retire to their tents, and place pickets in good places to be shot. The regiments must then have an election for colonels, and the commander must write to Secretary Cameron for instructions concerning the treatment of slaves. They must then reconnoitre in force for six days running, retiring back across any river in the neighborhood, and losing as few men as possible. (Mem. Be very particular in this matter — always retire across the river.) The next four months must be occupied with reviews and balloon ascensions, interspersed here and there with reports from the sanitary committee. A reconnoisance in force must next be essayed, to be followed by a return to camp. Everything being now ready, the whole force must advance upon the battery by the most difficult route discoverable, and if the battery is still there, it will be brilliantly captured, provided the fifty rebels have not been reinforced.

The national “situation” is supposed to be worth about two million a day, and may be defined thus: The Army of the Potomac enjoys good health, and reconnoitres in force as often as possible — besides producing one review a week and several balloon ascensions. The Army of Western Virginia also reconnoitres in force often enough to keep its anxious relatives posted in a knowledge of its existence. The Army of the West remains true to the spots that gave it birth. Fortress Monroe, Hatteras Inlet, Fort Pickens and Port Royal are still ours, and our great-grandchildren will probably behold Charleston and Pensacola in our possession.

Such being the “situation,” it becomes civilians to mind their own business, and put their trust in brass buttons. As one of our intelligent contemporaries justly remarks, the advance of the Union troops in Virginia and elsewhere is merely a question of time, though the answer to said question may be a matter of eternity. Let us have patience and wait a few years. This miserable rebellion is destined to be terribly overthrown in the end —


“What is to be will be, as what has been was.”

The Golden Era – Jan 26, 1862



When Davis Jeff takes Washington, and we take New Orleans,
We then will have his cotton, and he will have our beans;
The cotton we will offer up, to John Almighty Bull,
And he will cotton to us close, unmindful of our “wool.”

Pat us on the shoulder,
Cotton to us quick;
Johnny Bull! Johnny Bull!
Your skull is very thick.

We’re kinder marching down that way, our steps are slow and sure,
We may not be as fast as some, but we shall long endure;
Once let us get there, mighty John, we’ll seize on every nig,
And you shall have the lot dear John, at your own honest fig.

Pat us on the shoulder,
Cotton to us quick;
Johnny Bull! Johnny Bull!
You’re going to be sick.

Don’t forget the past, dear John, the past of Bunker Hill,
The past that makes you sorry, John, the past that makes us thrill;
That stuff is in the Union yet, don’t pull hard on the bits,
T’would make us mighty stubborn John, and we should give you fits.

Pat us on the shoulder,
Cotton to us quick;
Johnny Bull! Johnny Bull!
Your skull is very thick.

This civil war among ourselves, is but a canker rash,
Don’t think because of it, dear John, we’re going all to smash;”
We’ll all come round again bimeby, unto that good old tune,
“Yankee Doodle keep it up,” until the day of doom.

Pat us on the shoulder,
Cotton to us quick;
Johnny Bull! Johnny Bull!
You’re going to be sick.

A foolish lover’s quarrel this, it touches not the heart,
In this our deepest bitterness, you cannot make us part;
Don’t come between us, dearest John, unless you wish to see,
The flashing eyes and brawny arms, of our old Liberty.

Pat us on the shoulder,
Cotton to us quick;
Johnny Bull! Johnny Bull!
Your skull is very thick.

Don’t storm and rave because we choose, to stone our harbors in,
The Stars and Stripes you know, dear John, have always war’d to win;
And if you pick a muss with us, we’ll leave you so stone blind,
The British Lion never more, would “whistle down the wind.”

Pat us on the shoulder,
Cotton to us quick;
Johnny Bull! Johnny Bull!
You’re going to be sick. —

Don’t let your love of lucre, John, confound your love of right,
Your spindles may get empty, John, but keep your morals bright;
For Uncle Sam has got a rod, in pickle still for you,
And with it on your back he’ll brank, the red, white and blue.

Pat us on the shoulder,
Cotton to us quick;
Johnny Bull! Johnny Bull!
Your skull is very thick.

You got a touch in ’76, that brought you to your knees,
You got another lick in ’12, that rather made you sneeze;
Don’t touch our Eagle’s tail, dear John, for if you do I know,
You’ll never come to time again, or need a cotton blow.

Pat us on the shoulder,
Cotton to us quick;
Johnny Bull! Johnny Bull!
You know you would be sick.

The Golden Era – Feb 2, 1862



The white-sleeved mowers had slain the grass,
In straight swathes over the hedge it lay;
And the farmer’s daughter — a buxom lass —
Was busy making the hay.

A clashing of hoofs rang down the road,
Shyly she glanced and dropped her head;
Her flaxen tresses in sunshine flowed,
Her cheeks were opaline red.

With covert glances, her bashful eyes
Assaulted the hedge to question my halt;
I pushed through the gap with drawn surprise,
To challenge the modal fault.

“Why do you toil in the fields, my girl?
There are lighter tasks for such slender hands,
This is the labor of brawny churls,
For maidhood are silken bands.”

“My brothers,” she said, “have gone to the wars,
My father is short of harvest men —
I’m fond of the scents of these severed straws,
And winds that flirt in the glen.”

Then thrusting the tines of her shining fork
Deep into the windrow’s fragrant side;
Slowly she passed on her prosal walk,
Wrapped in her duty’s pride.

The clover-heads fell in fragrant showers,
Like hearts they were crushed beneath her feet;
And stooping to kiss them, the sultry hours
Proclaimed the sacrifice n-eet.

War ravels the warp of the social web,
The brothers the brunt of the battle must bear,
And the gentle sisters rise in their stead
The thews of the fathers to spare.

At night, when the cavalry dashed along,
The clover was tented upon the plain;
And the soldiers saw that the sweet and strong,
Were twins in the country’s pain.

The rallying bugles gustily blew,
The rifted flowing of fretted plumes,
To a snowy cluster suddenly grew
In the path of the crimson blooms!

“Inhale the incense of womanly souls,
The pledge,” said the Leader, “of mothers and wives;
Swear to respond when the reveille rolls,”
“We swear,” they cried — “with our lives!”

The riderless horses neighed in the road,
A clangor of spurs swept the hedge to the West;
When the soldiers their steeds again bestrode,
Red tokens were on each breast.

The spur has fallen from many a foot,
Dumb is the tongue of many a mouth;
But the tokens they bore are taking root
In the fields of the flaming South!

When rural maidens the harvests glean,
That the men look to the Nation’s need;
Dismay will come to the foe who shall deem
Its furrows will ever lack seed.

O! the hempen sinews of stalwart sons,
Commingle with maidhood’s silken bands;
And there is no lacking of steady guns
To blazon Freedom’s commands.

The crimson clover is in the mow,
The crop our sabres are cutting is red;
And the swathes they are leaving are worthy, I trow,
For Saxon maidens to spread.

The Golden Era – Nov 23, 1862

Union Flag (Image from


[Conjointly and alternately written.]


A grander flag, a brighter land,
Than ours was never waved or tried;
From traitor heart and traitor hand,
He will redeem them — God.

The stars that gleam amid the blue,
The stripes that stream athwart the white,
Will never know dishonor’s hue,
When flying o’er the Right.

The standard bent will backward spring,
To smite the powers that seek its fall,
And to a craven halt will bring
The foes who spread its pall —

Or lue their vision to behold,
In radiant lines, the memories
That sanctify each graceful fold;
And call them to their knees.

The arm of valor Freedom nerves,
The torch, the spark of Honor flames;
Attack is lost, for it but serves
To garner Union aims!

The glory of our hallowed past,
Resistless flows, from sea to sea,
To guide the brave, who gather fast,
To fight for Liberty.

March on we must, still great, still strong,
To consummate our grand desire;
Despite the mailed host of Wrong
And Rubicon of fire!

Our dead may cumber field and ford,
Our wounded bleed at every door;
But never will we sheathe the sword,
To fight Rebellion more.

Essay us well, who deem us weak,
Our sense of all our blessings test;
The tongue need not of purpose speak —
We sacrifice our best.

Clothed in our righteous cause we fight,
Not for a transient renown;
But that the World may know our might;
Chains fall at Freedom’s frown.

Our past its fields of glory had,
Our cannon thundered Triumph’s peal;
And till it makes the present glad
We ply the naked steel.

O, God, forgive the blood we shed,
To crush the power that claims our life;
We strive to strike Oppression dead
Forever, in this strife.

Scan not the storm to see the wreck,
The staunch old ship will breast it through;
And all the dimmed stars will fleck
The Future’s tranquil blue.

And all mankind in unity,
Will shout their triumph, unto Time
To echo through Eternity;
and make our acts sublime.

Swing wide the doors to tender Peace!
She comes with aspect all serene;
And where the crimson volleys cease
She strews the evergreen.

And thus, for Honor, Justice, God!
Immortal Truth, record the deed!
Our patriots draw their Country’s sword;
And charge for Freedom’s meed.

The Golden Era – Dec 14, 1862

William Andrew Kendall – aka  Comet Quirls:


Title: Mark Twain’s Letters: 1872-1873
Volume 5 of Mark Twain papers, Mark Twain
Authors: Mark Twain, Edgar Marquess Branch, Michael B. Frank, Kenneth M. Sanderson
Editor: Edgar Marquess Branch
Publisher: University of California Press, 1997
pages 8-11
Google Book Preview LINK


More from the same book, excerpted from a letter to Olivia Clemens:

And this from Samuel Clemens:

And this, of which I was unable to find the letters referred to since this book is preview only:

I am curious about the libel reference.


And from the following, record of Comet Quirl’s death:

San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1875-6, Ending June 30, 1876 LINK

As you can see, Comet Quirls died with 55 cents to his name, probably money borrowed or given to him.

Felix Tracy, Jr. – 1855 Travel Diary – Los Angeles to Salt Lake

April 19, 2010

Felix Tracy, Jr.

Image from the Wells Fargo Guided By History blog. (Two Felix Tracy posts on the blog are linked below.)

From Los Angels to Salt Lake.

We have been permitted by Messrs. Adams & Co. to publish the following diary of Mr. Felix Tracy, Jr., during his late journey through from Los Angeles to Salt Lake.

This diary, though brief, will be of value to those who may wish to travel through to Salt Lake by the same route, and it will also give a very correct idea of the country to the general reader. —

The indefatigable and ubiquitous Adams & Co. will soon dispatch messengers through all the principle routes to Salt Lake, for the purpose of ascertaining by direct observation the best route for an Expresr. The enterprise of this firm bids fair to establish the best route for the Pacific Railroad, while Congress is quarrelling about appropriations for engineers to do the same work.

City of the Great Salt Lake.}
To I.O. Woods, Esq., Resident Partner of Adams & Co., of California.

DEAR SIR: — In compliance with your request, I hand you enclosed so much of the Journal of my late trip from Los Angeles to this place as is of public interest, and calculated I think to be of value to the Pacific Emigrant Society, in which, if I remember rightly, you hold a prominent position. I have omitted all of my own speculations on the route, which I will give in a subsequent letter, and confine myself to noting the essentials for emigrants, namely: grass water and wood.

Nov. 25th. — Leaving San Francisco. as you remember, this day per steamer Goliah, at half-past 5 P.M., we reached San Pedro Nov. 28th 8 A.M., which small place of a few houses, and proportionally smaller number of people, is the port of Los Angeles, twenty-five miles inland, to which place I proceeded in Alexander & Banning’s line of coaches, on which our Express matter is carried, and reached Los Angeles the same night, 28th.

Los Angeles - 1850 (Image from

This place is too well known to you to demand description from me, and I content myself with stating a few facts to which I would specially call your attention in the future. One is that corn is said to grow here splendidly and the ears to fill and ripen equal to anything in the older States, a fact, if a fact, which is not known on the bay of San Francisco, or in the mining regions where corn is grown with difficulty. — The raising here of a sufficient supply of maize for the California demand, would enrich the country by keeping thus much of our gold at home.

The culture of grapes and manufacture of wine is destined to become a feature of this part of California, and I confidently predict that, if fostered properly by those having as deep an interest as yourself in the welfare of California, the wine of this section will cause importations to nearly cease, and we shall become large exporters, besides doing a wonderful work in the way of temperance. Drinkers of Sherry and Madeira in San Francisco are probably aware that their best English imported wines are nearly all manufactured in London, from the cheap wines of the Cape of Good Hope. Los Angeles can supply the basis in place of Cape Town, and our ingenious merchants can do the manufacturing, including stamping the boxes and copying the labels.

Dec. 1st. — Left Los Angeles this morning, 10 A.M. Eight miles this side, passed San Gabriel, an old mission, in the vicinity of which is said to be some of the best land in California. The Padres here fenced many of their fields with the cactus.

At noon, we stopped at a placed called Monte, which has about five hundred inhabitants.

Water abundant; land very fertile, one squash vine producing three squashes which weighed four hundred and thirty-nine pounds; and I also saw a corn stalk seventeen and a half feet high.

Saturday, 2d — Staid last night at an old Spaniard’s by the name of Palemeros, who has a fine, large ranch well stocked. A few years since, the Utah tribe of Indians, led by their Chief. Walker, were in the habit of driving off several hundred head of cattle, the Spaniards in this vicinity not being about to resist them.

Distance to-day, thirty-two miles.

Sunday, 3d — For twenty miles it is nearly a desert, without water. Arrived at San Bernardino, this evening. Distance to-day, thirty-two miles.

Monday, 4th — San Bernardino is the Mormon settlement, containing about one thousand inhabitants.

The Mormons have possession of some eight square leagues of land, well watered, which produces well. Timber is scarce, consequently the houses are built of adobes. Within five miles of this place are hot springs, from lukewarm to hot enough to cook an egg.

Tuesday, 5th — Left San Bernardino to-day, at 2 p.m., in company with J.B. Leach, Jas. Williams, Jacob Mozier, and Mr. Pinney. We have four mules. Camped at 6 p.m. Good road and plenty of water. Distance to-day, 12 miles.

Wednesday, 6th — Left camp at half past seven this morning. Crossed the Sierra Nevada at Hunt’s Pass, which is ten miles nearer than by Cajon, and to the south of it, although the latter is much the best for wagons, and, in fact, one thousand dollars would make it a first-rate road. Camped at 6 p.m. — Distance to-day, 28 miles; the last 20 without water, and poor land.

Thursday, 7th — Left camp at half past 7. Distance to-day, 35 miles; water half way, good wagon road, land poor.

Camped at Sugar Loaf, on the Mohave River.

Friday, Dec 8 — Started at 8 o’clock traveled 25 miles northerly, along the Mohave. The soil could be made to produce well by irrigation. Road level and sandy.

Camped at 8 p.m., near a small lake; good grass. Distance to-day, 35 miles. We have seen some alkili.

Saturday, 9 — Left camp at half past 8 a.m. To-day we have traveled 25 miles without water; road good, through a desert. Camped at 4 p.m. Water bad, grass scarce. We passed through a canon [canyon?] three miles long, through a range of low mountains; the ascent was gradual.

Sunday, 10th — Left camp last night at 8 o’clock it being thought best to travel after night on the desert. From Bitter Springs, where we camped last night, to Kingston Springs, where we camped this morning at 11 o’clock, is 40 miles, over a desert; water to be had at a small lake, about half way; road fair. We fed our mules with barley last night and this morning. Started this afternoon, at half past 3 o’clock.

Monday, 11th — Camped this morning at half past 8. all tired and very sleepy. Distance last night, 40 miles; road good, — over a desert. This place is called Mountain Springs; grass is poor, and we here fed the last of our barley. About twenty miles from Bitter Springs, we left the regular emigrant road, and came on to it within four miles of Mountain Springs, saving about forty miles, and avoiding Salt Springs, the Highlander, Resting and Stump Springs. — Left Mountain Springs at half past 11 a.m., and traveled 12 miles to Cottonwood. Road good.

Tuesday, 12th — Left Cottonwood at half past 7 a.m., and camped at 3 p.m., on the Las Vegas. This is a small stream but very rapid, and waters several hundred acres of good land.

Here there is a spring in which a person cannot sink.

It is twenty-five miles over to the Colorado River. Road somewhat uneven but not bad. Distance to-day, twenty miles without water.

Wednesday, 13th — Left Vegas River at half past 1 a.m., and camped at 7 a.m.; good bunch grass but no water, so far, to-day, and we have traveled twenty-three miles. Started again at half past 10 a.m., and camped on Muddy River, at half past 8 p.m. Distance to-day, 27 miles, without water; road uneven, grass good.

Thursday. 14 — This morning five Indians came into camp, and wished to trade for blankets &c; we gave them some tobacco. There is some good land here. The Indians raise corn, wheat, pumpkins &c.

Left camp at 8 a.m., and camped on the Rio Virgin, at 5 p.m. The road to-day has been bad, passing over some very steep hills. An empty wagon would be load enough for four mules. Distance to-day twenty-five miles, without water.

Friday, 15th — Started this morning at 4 o’clock. We have followed the Rio Virgin up to its source. Camped at 6 p.m.; road fair. Distance to-day, 33 miles. The Muddy River empties into the Rio Virgin, and the latter into the Colorado.

Saturday, 16th — The road for the first fifteen miles has been a gradual ascent, and the last ten uneven and bad. No water to-day.

Camped on the Santa Clara River. — Twelve miles below us the Mormons are building a house. The Indians have three corn-fields on this river; twelve acres in all, one of which we are encamped in. There are a few cottonwood trees along the river, which is the first timber we have seen.

Sunday, 17th — Camped at the Mountain Springs, which is also called the Rim of the Basin. The road, to-day, has been bad, being quite rough. Distance, to-day, 35 miles, without water. The land in this vicinity would produce will if there were water to irrigate with.

Monday, 18th — Camped at Iron Springs. Distance to-day, 43 miles. No water, but plenty of ice.

Tuesday, 19th — Arrived at Cedar City, on Coal Creek, this morning; this is the first of the Mormon settlements. Here iron ore is found, and the Mormons expect to manufacture iron in the course of a month. Coal is also found here. This place is surrounded by an adobe wall, ten feet high and from two to three feet thick. There are about one hundred families here, whose farms are three or four miles distant, and are said to produce corn, wheat, oats, barley, &c., the land being irrigated. All the timber found here is a few small cedar trees.

Cedar City, Utah (Image from

From San Bernardino to Cedar City, there is probably not 1000 acres of good land, all in one body; all there is is situated on the Vegas, Muddy and Santa Clara rivers; and there is no timber except a few Cottonwood trees on the Santa Clara. There are no streams that require bridging. The road from the Rim of the Basin to this place is splendid — from the Vegas to the Rim of the Basin, it is quite rough, that is, it is up and down.

We came through with nine mules. Mr. Leach is of the opinion that a wagon and six mules would have come through easier.

You will see by what I have already written, that there are stretches of thirty to fifty miles without water. Four or five artesian wells would probably be all that would be required. We crossed small mountains almost every day, thro’ canons.

If this route should ever become much traveled, it would be difficult to find grass for animals, for the whole country is nearly all a desert, producing nothing but a little sage brush or grease wood.

By next express I will finish copying my diary, but in the meantime would remark, that the road from Cedar City to this place is a very good one about three streams requiring bridges.

Yours truly,


Mountain Democrat, The (Placerville, California) Feb 17,  1855

Mountain Democrat Advertisement 1854

*  *  *  *  *

Image from the Wells Fargo Guided By History blog, where they have two blog posts about Felix Tracy HERE and HERE.

Felix Tracy.
Sacramento & Shasta Cos.

The agent for Wells, Fargo & Co., at Sacramento, was born at Moscow, Livingston County, New York, March 19, 1829. Left New York for California March, 1849, arriving at San Francisco, September 18th of the same year, where he engaged in merchandising until 1850. He then went to the mines, working for a time on the North Fork of the American River; afterwards in the vicinity of Downieville.

In the Summer of 1850 when he entered the employee of Sam. W. Longton’s Express, as Messenger, between Marysville and Downieville, a position full of incident and adventure, a portion of the route being at times only passable by means of snow-shoes, employing and traveling in company with Indians. In June, 1852, he entered the service of Adams & Co. as Messenger between Shasta and Marysville; made one or more trips as Messenger to Portland, Oregon, and also a trip in the same capacity between San Francisco and New York City; upon his return from this trip he entered the San Francisco office as clerk, and shortly after was sent by the company to Salt Lake City to establish an express and stage line between Los Angeles and St. Louis. This was the first express ever carried into Utah Territory.

But in consequence of the failure of Adams & Co., in February, 1855, the enterprise was necessarily abandoned. Mr. Tracy, being left entirely without means by the failure of the company, was so fortunate as to secure the position of Clerk of Quartermaster’s Department under General Steptoe, then in command of the troops then stationed at Salt Lake, and so worked his passage back to California. Arriving in Shasta in July, 1855, he was appointed by the Pacific Express Company their agent at that place, then one of the most flourishing mining towns in this State. Upon the failure of this company, in the Summer of 1857, he entered the service of Wells, Fargo & Co., at Shasta, with which company he has remained until the present time, a period of nearly twenty-one years. Mr. Tracy took charge of the Sacramento office in March, 1868, and is probably the oldest expressman in California, having been engaged in this business, with less than three months’ interim, a period of nearly twenty-seven years.

While living in Shasta, Mr. Tracy served that county two terms as its Treasurer. In Sacramento he occupied the position of School Director for the city two terms, and for three years was President of the Board. Mr. Tracy is respected and trusted by all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance. He has long been a prominent leader in the Presbyterian Church, and last year went as delegated from this State to the General Assembly held at Chicago. Though modest and retiring, Mr. T. is a first-class businessman, and so recognize not only by the firm he has so long and faithfully served, but by all with whom he has done business during his long residence in California.


From the Sacramento Historical Society: (PDF LINK)

Evening Bee
Sacramento, June 12, 1902
TRACY – In this city, June 12, Felix Tracy, a native of New York, aged 72 years, 2 months ans 13 days.

Friends are respectfully invited to attend the funeral Saturday at 10 a.m. from the Fourteenth-Street Presbyterian Church, Fourteenth Street, between O and P. Interment private. Omit flowers.

Sacramento Evening Bee (Sacramento, CA)  Jun 12, 1902


Felix Tracy passed away at his home in this city to-day after a period of failing health of many months duration. Mr. Tracy was one of Sacramento’s most highly respected citizens.

Deceased was one of the oldest express agents in California, his service dating back to the 50s, when he was Wells, Fargo & Co.’s representative in Shasta. He was placed in several important positions by Wells, Fargo & Co, and finally sent to Sacramento, when this was the most important office in the State, it being the distributing point for all the best mining counties.

In those days, Wells, Fargo & Co. carried all the gold dust from the mines and returned the gold coin from the Mint to the miner. In this way they caught a percentage going and coming, and the Company grew to be a wealthy corporation.

It always, however, took good care of its faithful servants. Several years ago, Felix Tracy was tendered retirement on a handsome pension, and could have done so had he listened to the importunities of his employers. However he had quite a snug fortune of his own, and he remained “in the harness” until his physical condition compelled his retirement.

He was strictly temperate in his habits, and an active advocate of temperance in others. More than one young man was reclaimed through his influence. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church and a faithful attendant to its services. He was born in New York State seventy-three years ago. The funeral will take place from the Fourteenth-Street Presbyterian Church Saturday next at 10 a.m.



Well Known in Sacramento, She Was Typical Californian, Known for Deeds Mrs. Martha GARTER TRACY, wife of the late Felix Tracy and mother of Henry W. and Mary F. Tracy, died at the family home at 1706 P Street on Saturday evening.

Mrs. Tracy was an old-time resident of Sacramento, respected and honored wherever known. She was one of the typical women of the early days of California – splendid wives and mothers, to whom California owes as much as she does to the men pioneers. She was a woman of deep religious convictions, full of genuine kindness and charity, sympathetic at heart and keen in intellect. She was author of several excellent short stories, but found her greatest pleasure and devoted almost all of her time to her home.

A leader in the Presbyterian Church on this Coast for many years, she was widely known among the followers of that faith and held in the highest esteem.

With her brother, the late Judge Charles A. GARTER of Red Bluff, Mrs. Tracy came as Miss Garter to California in 1856, joining her father and mother, the late Judge GARTER and wife in Shasta, where Miss Garter was married to Felix Tracy, then connected with Wells, Fargo & Company. Later they came to Sacramento, where Mr. Tracy was the local Manager of Wells, Fargo & Company until his death in 1902.

Sacramento Bee  (Sacramento, CA) Feb 16, 1914


In the summer of 1857, Col. J. B. Crandall established a tri-weekly line of stages between Placerville and Genoa, and carried the “Carson Valley express,” which was managed by Theodore F. Tracy. E. W. Tracy was agent at Placerville, and Smith and Major Ormsby were agents at Genoa. In June of that year, T. F. Tracy, accompanied by J. B. Crandall, Mark Hopkins, J. H. Nevitt, Wm. M. Cary, John M. Dorsey, Theron Foster, C. A. Sumner, and K D. Keiser, passed over the route, and established the following stations between Placerville and Genoa, viz.: Sportman’s Hall, Brockliss Bridge, Silver Creek, and Cary’s Mill. This was called the “Pioneer Stage Line,” and connected at Genoa with the Chorpening wagons to Salt Lake.

Nevada Observer (LINK)

Death of Theodore F. Tracy

Felix Tracy, agent for Wells, Fargo & Co., in this city, received news this morning of the sudden death of his brother, Theodore F. Tracy, of San Francisco, a prominent Republican candidate for State Treasurer. In speaking of his candidacy the Oakland Tribune of a late date gave this brief sketch of him:

He was for nine years a Postoffice Inspector on this coast, and in that capacity acquitted himself with distinguished ability. In the course of his inspection tours throughout the State he made friends wherever he went, and, as a natural consequence, he will add strength to any ticket on which he may be nominated. In addition to his experience in the Postoffice Department he has had a thorough business training, and he held an important position under Wells, Fargo & Co. for many years. Mr. Tracy has resided in San Francisco for the past ten years, and before that was a resident of El Dorado county.

Sacramento Daily Bee (Sacramento, CA) Aug 18, 1886

The Diary of a Forty-Niner

April 16, 2010

Originally, I just planned to stick this at the bottom of another post and provide a link, but then I started reading the book.  It is a quick read, authentic and very entertaining.  I have clipped a few excerpts of the text as examples.

This first clip is from the preface; it gives some background information on the material and the forty-niner who wrote it.


This next excerpt gives a rather humorous description of his jackass:

Next, is the disappearance of two fellow miners, Ristine and Carter, although I am only excerpting two small snippets, so if you want to know more, you will have to read the book:




And no gold mining story would be complete without the mention of gambling:


For those who enjoy romance, there is definitely a little of that with the French woman, Marie:

Evidently, there are several editions of this book, the latest one listed as being published in 2007.

Title:    The Diary of a Forty-Niner
Author:    Chauncey L. Canfield
Publisher:    M. Shepard Co., 1906
Length:    231 pages

Here is the link to the edition I used  in this post: (Google book LINK.)

California Gold Fever: Both Epidemic and Contagious

April 13, 2010

Latest California Items.

AT THE WHARVES. — A stroll along the docks, especially on the East river side, says the True Sun, in the vicinity of the vessels bound for California, will give one an opportunity to witness new scenes of excitement. Groups of persons, going to and returning from the vessels in great excitement, and talking of thousands to be realized within a short time in the new El Dorado, may be seen; and when a vessel is about to depart, a novel scene is presented. The adventurers, with their broad brimmed hats, and with a large pair of boots and gold digging instruments strung on their shoulders, and a revolver in pockets, are hastening on board in high spirits, as though on a short pleasure trip.

EXCLUSIVES. — A meeting of gentlemen of color has been held in this city, and an association formed to go to the gold diggings. Nearly fifty are booked for the region. No whites admitted. [N.Y. Morning Star.

INSANITY AND GOLD. — It is said that two persons at Philadelphia have been put into the Insane Asylum, having lost their wits by the California excitement. The probability is, that if they went mad about gold, they had not much wit to lose.

California Gold furnishes the common coin of conversation now a days. Among the current anecdotes of the day, we have heard one of a young gentleman, who, after a long residence among the gold diggers, (who, it seems, equal Falstaff’s regiment for lack of linen,) had only one article left that had any pretensions to the name of shirt, and this he hired out at the rate of five dollars an evening, for wedding and other festivities.

We are told, also, that the fortunate discoverer of a very large lump of gold, finding it too heavy for immediate transportation, carefully painted it of a dull copper color, to deceive other adventurers, until he should have time to carry it off. — [N.Y. Express.

CAUTION. — They are beginning to talk about eating each other in California. We advise very fat people, therefore, to keep away from there.

NEW YORK, Jan. 31. — Capt. Henriar de Langle, of the French brig of war Jeng, now here, says that he learned from Valparaiso, that there had been brought to these places from California, run into bars, gold to the amount of 9,000,000 francs or $1,800,000.

AN INCIDENT IN GOLD DIGGING. — Dr. Jett, relates one circumstance that came under his observation that is rather ludicrous and show the avarice of those in pursuit of the lucre, even in a land where its abundance knows no limits. A party of some twenty or thirty were exploring a dry ravine that led to a mountain supposed to be rich with the precious ore, when near its base, they came suddenly upon a spot which glittered like the firmament in a clear night, with gold dust and ore, caused by the washings from the mountain. In an instant every man threw himself upon the ground where lay scattered the treasure, and sprawling out his arms and legs, claimed a pre-emption to the surface that he could cover this way. The title was regarded by each as good, and the average yield to the whole party in a very short time was upward of three hundred dollars.

Accounts of newly-acquired fortunes, through the accident of being early on California ground, are everywhere in circulation. We have lately been informed of the following, in addition to those we have already chronicled:

A gentleman by the name of Riley, at present in this city, has in his possession a certificate for $64,000 in gold dust, deposited in the mint at New Orleans.

Mr. Lippet, formerly a teacher in the school of the Brothers Peugnet, in this City, and who went out as a captain in the California Regiment, has written a letter which, at his request, was read to the scholars of the Messrs. Peugnet’s school, among whom he was always a favorite. He states that he is in excellent health, and will return in three or six months, with half a million dollars, in gold.

A merchant in Baltimore, who sent to California a year ago, on a venture, $5000 worth of old store goods, has received the bill of lading from San Francisco for $35,000 in gold dust. [N.Y. Tribune.

We have been furnished with the following extracts from a letter written by Gen. P.F. Smith, at Panama, dated PANAMA, Jan. 7, 1849.

“The situation of affairs in California is really most extraordinary. No accounts we had are exaggerated. — The British Consul tells me he has forwarded 15,000 ounces ($240,000) from this place across the Isthmus; and Lieutenant Wood, of the British navy, commanding the Pandora, now here, says that the truth is beyond the accounts we have heard. These gentlemen also say that hundreds of people from the western coast of South America are embarking for the gold region; and most of the clerks in the commercial places have quit their employments for the same object.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Feb 13, 1849

Prison Brig Euphemia & Store Ship Apollo (Image from

Latest California News.
New York, Feb. 12.

A dispatch, dated Washington Feb. 13, says: The Union of this morning has a letter from Q.L. Folsom, dated San Francisco, Dec. 25th, and addressed to Com. Jones, which says that affairs in California are getting worse as regards order and government. Murders and robberies were of daily occurrence. Within a short time over 20 murders had been perpetrated.

People were making preparation to organize a provisional government. Three men were hung by lynch law.

The gold washings continue to be abundantly productive. All previous accounts are fully realized by this intelligence.

New York, Feb, 14.

The late cold weather in California has prevented the operations of the gold diggers. Quantities of gold are daily being discovered and collected.

Persons had discovered and obtained about $30,000 of pure gold in two days. The accounts formerly received respecting the terrible state of society which existed are confirmed.

The state of affairs is becoming worse and worse: — murders and robberies are of daily occurrence. There had been 15 murders committed within 3 weeks.

Persons and property are believed to be wholly insecure. The perpetrators of the murders and robberies are generally emigrants and soldiers who had deserted from the T.S. service.

Com. Jones says, that a force sufficient to afford effective guard for vessels sailing with gold from California, will require the whole American Navy.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 6, 1849

California Items.

The Indians in the vicinity of the Placer have commenced murdering the whites. Two white men were missing, the body of one of whom, named Hollingsworth, was found, and his arms in possession of a party of Indians. Several murders had been committed in grog-shops at San Francisco.

ROUTES TO CALIFORNIA. — The Quartermaster of the U.S. Army, in his report to Gen. Jessup, upon the routes and facilities for getting to California, lays down six avenues; — 1st, that taken by the author of the report through the South West pass; 2d, through Santa Fe by the Gila; 3d, through Santa Fe by Abiquin, or the Spanish trail; 4th, through Santa Fe and Lonora [ sic-Sonora?], the route of the Mormon battalion; 5th, by the Isthmus of Panama, or through Central America; 6th, by the was of Cape Horn. Preference is given to the Central American over the Isthmian route for small parties while the Horn passage is recommended for the transportation of troops.

Folding Boat (not the one that turns into a house)

A FOLDING HOUSE. — We have heard tell of folding doors and windows, but a folding house is something of a novelty.

“Day, the New York India rubber dealer, has got up a portable house and boat for gold finders. Among the peculiar advantages of this invention for travelers in California, is the facility with which a boat nine feet long by six feet wide, can be converted into a house of eight hundred and eleven feet, sufficiently high to allow persons to stand upright. The mere disconnecting of the sheet of rubber cloth from the cylinders, turns the boat into a comfortable house. The whole weight of one of them is only seventy pounds — and can be packed away in an ordinary trunk. Day says, that should the traveler be detained at Panama, with a large boat of this kind, which can be so arranged as to spread sail a party may embark upon the gentle Pacific, and by coasting along the shore can reach the valley of the Sacramento, and even penetrate to the gold region itself.”

Only think of it now — folding your house up and stowing it away in your trunk; and again converting it into a yacht, and coasting along the Pacific with it.

EMIGRATION TO CALIFORNIA — GOVERNMENT ESCORT. — A company of emigrants for California, who contemplate leaving Fort Smith, Arkansas, in April next, have obtained through Senator Borland, a military escort to Santa Fe. The company will proceed by the valley of the Canadian River to Santa Fe, and Albuquerque and thence by El Passo to San Francisco. Persons with or without families, wishing to emigrate to California, are invited to rendezvous at Fort Smith, where wagons, horses, oxen, and all the supplies necessary for an outfit, can be readily obtained at reasonable prices. Freight and passengers can reach Fort Smith by steamboat. All who desire to join the party should be at Fort Smith by the 1st of April.

CALIFORNIA GOLD MOVEMENTS. — A number of the fifty or sixty ships advertised to sail for California went to sea this forenoon, and next week a large fleet will take its departure,

______ “for the land
Where each atom of sand,
Is into a dollar reducible!
And as onward you travel,
The “coarse kind of gravel”
All turns to doubloons in your crucible.”

N.Y. Tribune.

A NEW CALIFORNIA EXPEDITION. — A lady of this State, well known for her labors in many a philanthropic cause, is about forming a benevolent expedition to California, which cannot but prove of great public benefit in the present unsettled condition of the region. Aided by several gentlemen of wealth and liberality; she proposes to purchase a vessel, to be freighted with every article necessary for the aid and assistance of the sick and disabled, including the frame of a building intended for a hospital. She is now engaged in raising a company of intelligent and respectable females, to accompany her in this mission of charity, each of whom shall contribute something toward the purchase of the vessel and cargo and assist in the humane object of the enterprise. None will be taken who have not attained the age of twenty-five years, and also produce sufficient testimonials of character. A part of the freight is to consist of articles to furnish a store, in which a part of the women may be employed, and in material for clothing, to be made up according to orders on the spot. — Tribune.

SCENES IN NEW YORK. — The Express says the gold fever is both epidemic and contagious in New York city. It says:

The fact is, and it may as well be told right out, without any circumlocution, so that every body may know the worst, this last gold news has unsettled the minds of even the most cautious and careful among us. Nothing else is talked of, thought of, or dreamed of. Gold is in everybody’s mouth, on everybody’s tongue, in everybody’s face.

Everything looks yellow. Walk from the Battery up to Grace Church, and one hears nothing but, ‘when are you off?’ — ‘lend a hundred dollars,’ — ‘work passage’ — ‘Jones went off yesterday,’ — ‘Smith starts tonight — wife provided for,’ — ‘twenty pound lumps — pick axes,’ — ‘shovels,’ — ‘sifters,’ — ‘Jack knives,’ — ‘Sacramento,’ — ‘twenty carets fine,’ — ‘got a letter from Jenkins, yesterday — Jenkins has dug up two millions,’ — ‘the real dust,’ — ‘Cape Horn too tedious,’ — ‘overland,’ — ‘or through that monumental canal just discovered, you know, at the Isthmus,’ — ‘Chihuahua,’ — ‘Santa Fe,’ — ‘Big Fork,’ — ‘Feather River,’ — ‘Sutter’s Fork,’ — ‘brandy,’ — ‘whisky,’ — ‘seidletz powers,’ — ‘bowie knives,’ — ‘revolvers.’

CALIFORNIA OUTDONE. — The Brooklyn Advertiser has the following, which is very neatly told: “A gentleman of this city had a piece of virgin gold presented to him yesterday morning which he would not sell for $5,000. This is what we call a very handsome present. So does Mrs. Gold and the nurse.”

ETYMOLOGY OF CALIFORNIA. — We are informed by Professor Noodlekranz, that California came from two old Indian words — Kali, gold, and forn-a-who, don’t you wish you may get it?

INCIDENTS IN CALIFORNIA. — Extract of a letter from an officer in the Navy to his friend in Washington, dated,
San Francisco, Dec. 28.

“You would be surprised that in this region an enthusiasm could be excited by anything. The gold mines in this neighborhood have stirred up the natives to a galvanic activity. This little village is deluged with gold, and common laborers are refusing to work in the mines for a hundred dollars a day. The stories told, will take it for granted must be all fabulous; but were you to see the vast quantities hawked about the streets for sale, you would look upon the tale of the Arabian Nights as quite a probable narrative. There seems to be no exhausting the vein, which is said to extend over a district as large as Virginia.

To give you some idea of the state of things here, I will mention the price of a few of the necessaries of life. Flour has been selling at $300 per barrel, pork 70 cents per lb., brandy $60 per gallon, and washing $6 to $8 per dozen and most other things in proportion.

The officers are becoming nervous and excited, while the men desert by the dozen.

Young B., of Baltimore, is hard at work making his fortune, and will return in a year or two a rich man. I saw Dr. M., also of Baltimore, and he is also coining money; he is highly popular and esteemed, and I think is the first man in the place.

I trust J. will not take it into his head to emigrate. — Gold hunting is a most dangerous amusement. The morality is really frightful among the diggers, and the poor beggarly-looking creatures returning from the mines have no doubt paid dearly for their peck or two of gold.”

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 6, 1849

The Poor Student’s Soliloquy.

(On the subject of a departure for California.)

To go, or not to go — That is the question,
Whether ’tis better in the mind to gather
The ingots of a shirtless, mental fortune,
Or forthwith pack our raiment and depart
For those tremendous Gold Mines’ to talk, to doubt
No more; and by one act ot say we end
Gold fever, and the thousand natural shocks
Of speculation — ’tis a consumation
Devoutly to be wished. To go — to come
With pockets lined and elbows all ‘ow’d up,
To sink, per chance, more poor — Ay, there’s the rub,
For whether ’tis more likely we be doomed
To swap our ‘fever’ for a yellower kind.
Must give us pause — There’s the respect that makes
The otherwise most resolute to remain
Like paltry donkeys ‘twain two loads of hay!
The Student looked for the morning papers.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 13, 1849

Forty-Niner Profile: Josiah Roop

December 11, 2009

Josiah Roop was the son of Joseph Roop, Jr. and Susan Engle. At the link below is some background on the family. I have excerpted the part about Josiah and his brother Isaac.


The Library chronicle (1947)
Author: University of Pennsylvania. Library. Friends
Volume: 24
Subject: University of Pennsylvania. Library; Bibliography; CHR 1947-1981
Publisher: Philadelphia : Friends of the Library, University of Pennsylvania
Year: 1947

Pages 72-78

The arch-wanderer was Josiah,  and he set the pattern for three of his brothers. His initial step from Ashland took him only to Republic, nine miles east of Tiffin, Ohio, but he left his family there when he joined the Gold Rush and by the Spring of 1852 he owned the Old Dominion House at Shasta. On 8 May 1852 he made his brother Isaac his agent and left for home via Nicaragua to bring out his family. Dysentery overtook him in the Caribbean and he was buried at sea from SS Prometheus 14 June. 8.

Isaac became his executor and successor.  He had arrived by the steamer Oregon in San Francisco 18 March 1850 from Panama. Already he had an interesting past. As a farmer’s son in Carroll County, he had found schooling not easy to come by.

When he moved to Ashland at 1 5 he was not too young to notice Nancy Gardner of Westmoreland County, 10 who studied at Transylvania University. They married at 18 and under her ministrations his mind unfolded, advancing from contentment with frugal devotion to the soil toward a broader knowledge of the world and facility in language. Three children came along, but in 1850 she died of typhoid. Ohio could no longer hold him.

Susan and the two boys were left with grandparents and Isaac was off to join Josiah. Ephraim, next older than Isaac, had a part in the adventure, and Jonas E., prepared by apprenticeship for practice, visited Shasta briefly in 1853, but soon returned for medical schooling, and then teaching, at Cincinnati.

Isaac remained the central figure. 11 He was a miner and merchant at “Oak Bottom” (near Shasta) for a year, kept public house for four months, “lived on Bear River” till March 1852.

He entered the Masonic Fraternity at Sacramento 16 June 1851 and was a charter member and Junior Warden of Western Star Lodge No. 2 at Shasta, whose founder and first Master, Saschel Wood, had brought the charter from Missouri. 12 In a report of 15 June 1852 a phrenologist praised his personality. He was chairman of the Whig party meeting of 1 October 1852 and was their candidate for Shasta County assessor, but was defeated 836-674. He raised a fund for the Washington Monument which added up to $348.65, four times as much per voter as could be done at Placerville. He was one of 15 managers of a “cotillion party.”

In the midst of this flowering activity, 7 August 1852, came word of Josiah‘s death; in December fire swept the town, though the Old Dominion was spared; in March 1853 the store was sold but not the hotel; on 14 June 1853 fire most thoroughly destroyed the city. However Isaac had already published notice of his intent to depart “for four years, leaving 1 July for Salt River on steamer Bigler No. 2.” The fire and loss of the Old Dominion confirmed his plan to begin again elsewhere.


Josiah and his father Joseph, evidently were involved in the running of  this school:

From the Huron Reflector – 1845

Mr. Roop was  politically active:

Another Free Soil Taylor Whig.

JOSIAH ROOP, Esq., a distinguished Whig of Republic Seneca County, was nominated by the Free Soil Van Buren party in his district on the 16th ult. as their candidate for Elector. After reflecting on the matter, he resolved to decline the nomination and states his reasons in a communication to the State Journal, as follows:

I am now no less than ever, an humble advocate for the doctrine of FREEDOM — as well of Soil and [Labor, as of Speech and Thought. In espousing this doctrine, I abated nothing of my devotion to the doctrines of the Whig party, of which I have ever been a member. I am a Whig, as well as a Free Soil man. In looking at the political prospects in a practical point of view, I am persuaded that the most effectual means of preventing the extension of slavery and the increase of the slave power, is by co-operating with that party which presents the most formidable obstacles to such extension and increase. I was in Delaware on Thursday, and listened attentively to the address of Hon. THOMAS CORWIN, and I am constrained to admit that my judgment cannot resist the force of his reasoning. I am persuaded that there is no earthly prospect of the vote of Ohio being given to Messrs. Van Buren and Adams; and there is still less prospect of their being elected, even should they, against all human probability, receive the vote of Ohio. To vote for them, therefore, is equivalent to not voting at all. And this I do not conceive to be the part of patriotism, at a juncture like the present, when the great and important crisis is to be met. I cannot avoid responsibility, by throwing away my vote; and I cannot afford to purchase immunity at that rate, even were I disposed so to do.

The States of this Union being now equally divided as between slaveholding and non-slaveholding, I deem it a matter of vital importance to the latter to secure the Vice Presidency, on whom may devolve the casting vote decisive of the most important questions. There is to my mind no prospect of electing Mr. C.F. Adams to the Vice Presidency by the Electoral Colleges. In default of such election the choice will devolve upon the Senate; and that body, as already constituted, could hardly fail to make choice of Gen. William O. Butler, who is not only himself a slaveholder, but who would be constrained by the force of circumstances, as well as long-cherished sentiments, to vote with the slaveholding interest on all questions in which that interest is involved.

Under these circumstances, I feel it my duty to decline the compliment intended me by placing my name on the Free Soil Ticket; and shall at the proper time, if living and able to get to the polls, bestow my suffrage for ZACHARY TAYLOR and MILLARD FILLMORE; confidently believing that the honor and the welfare of the Republic may be safely entrusted to their hands.


Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Oct 3, 1848

California Items.

A correspondent of the Tiffin Standard on his way to California, (probably Mr. Josiah Roop from Republic, who signs himself “J.R.,” writes from St. Louis under date of April 17th as follows:

“We left Cincinnati on Friday about 1 o’clock P.M. the 13th inst. on board the fine steamer “Belle of the West,” in company with about 120 passengers bound to the El Dorado of Sacramento’s golden sands, among whom were the “Buffalo Mining Company” from Buffalo N.Y. They are a noble set of fellows, 12 in number, and are commanded by Col. Fay, formerly Governor of Camargo, and Dr. McBeth, who is one of the right stripe; also a company from Xenia and Springfield making some 20; and our own dear selves, vis: Mr. Patrick’s two sons of Norwalk, John H. McArdle, Samuel Myers and your humble correspondent. It is computed that there are now at Independence and the different parts in that region, about 5,000 emigrants. It will be the 10th of May before any will dare to start over the plains.”

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) May 8, 1849

Shasta California Mainstreet

Josiah became the postmaster of Shasta City, California:

From the book:

When the Great Spirit Died: The Destruction of the California Indians, 1850-1860
By William B. Secrest
Pg. 122 (Google Book LINK)


Mr. Josiah Roop, formerly of Republic, Seneca Co., died on board the Monumental City, between Chagres and New York. He was on his way home from California, where he had been highly successful. Mr. Roop was post-master at Shasta City. —San. Mir.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jul 13, 1852


josiah roop death 1josiah roop death 2

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 3, Number 432, 10 August 1852


Previous posts mentioning Josiah Roop and his California Gold Rush Adventure:

Buckeyes Catch the Gold Fever

Buckeyes Prevail, Brook the Trail, Send Loved Ones Gold Dust in the Mail

News From the Gold Country: Josiah Roop Writes Home

** I am not related to Josiah Roop, and have only done cursory research on him. If you have additional information and/or corrections, feel free to leave me a comment.

The Vigilantes

December 8, 2009

High Lights of History –    By J. Carroll Mansfield

Lawlessness and Crime Flourished

Frequent Killings

Dishonest Gamblers

Ineffectual Courts

Public Safety Committees

Vigilantes Establish Law and Order

New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania) Jul 28, 1926