Posts Tagged ‘Food Shortages’

WWI: No One Need Be Hungry

March 12, 2010

MORE POTATOES — LESS FLOUR.

Set Aside Week to Encourage Use of More Potatoes in Place of Flour.

This is Something New.

Use of more potatoes and less flour is the aim of national potato week, set aside by the government as October 22 to 27. The home economics department at Iowa State college suggests the substitution of potatoes for part of the flour in various cake recipes, such as the following, will help:

Chocolate Potato Cake.

1-3 c butter [I am not sure if they mean 1/3 c or ?]
1 c sugar
2 eggs
1/2 tsp cinnamon
1/4 tsp nutmeg
1/4 tsp ground cloves
1 c flour
2 tsp baking powder
2 squares chocolate (melted)
1/2 c mashed potatoes
1/4 c milk
1 tsp vanilla

Cream butter, add sugar and mix well. Add egg yolks well beaten and continue mixing till creamy. Add the cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, flour and baking powder which have been mixed and sifted together. Add the melted chocolate, hot mashed potato, milk and vanilla. Beat well. Add the stiffly beaten egg white. Pour into two layer cake pans which have been lined with waxed paper. Bake in a moderate oven for 30 minutes.

The Carroll Herald – Oct 24, 1917

A Wheatless Recipe

Try this for the next wheatless day. They call it spider corn bread:

1-1/2 cups corn meal
2 cups sour milk
1 teaspoon soda
1 teaspoon salt
2 eggs
2 tablespoons butter

Mix the dry ingredients. Add the eggs well beaten and the milk. Place the butter in a frying pan, melt it, and grease the pan well. Heat the pan and turn in the mixture. Place in a hot oven and cook 20 minutes.

This serves six people.

This recipe is one out of 61 recipes contained in “The Cornmeal Book,” which The Milwaukee Sentinel Information Bureau will send you FREE.*

Enclose a 2-cent stamp for return postage on the book, and send the coupon to THE MILWAUKEE SENTINEL INFORMATION BUREAU, FREDERIC J. HASKIN, DIRECTOR, WASHINGTON, D.C.

The Milwaukee Sentinel – Dec 18, 1917

*Probably no longer available.

Washington. Sept. 8. — Have you tried “fifty-fifty biscuits” — Uncle Sam’s latest idea for saving wheat flour in hot bread? You use two cups of corn meal, soy beans which can be home ground, finely crushed peanuts, or rice flour to two cups of white flour. Or you can use one cup of corn meal and one cup of ground soy beans or crushed peanuts with the wheat product.

You can make “fifty-fifty” muffins with 1 1/2 cups of cooked and mashed sweet potatoes or Irish potatoes or cooked cereal or ground soy beans, to an equal amount of flour.

Then there are “fifty-fifty” recipes for wafers and for corn-meal cookies.

Milwaukee Journal - Dec 23, 1917

How to make all these “fifty-fifties” as well as home methods for entire corn-meal gems and yeast breads and rolls made in part of finely crushed peanuts, sweet or Irish potatoes, soy-bean meal which can be made at home by grinding soy beans in a handmill, rice, corn meal or cooked cereals, are described in detail in United States department of agriculture circular No. A 91. “Partial Substitutes for Wheat in Bread Making.” Here is a sample recipe — the one for “fifty-fifty” biscuits as worked out by Hannah L. Wessling, specialist, in home demonstration work:

“Fifty-Fifty Biscuits.”

Two cups corn meal, ground soy beans or finely ground peanuts, rice flour or other substitute.
Two cups white flour
Four teaspoons baking powder.
Two teaspoons salt.
Four tablespoons shortening.
Liquid sufficient to mix to proper consistency (1 to 1 1/2 cups).

Sift together the flour, meal, salt and baking powder twice. Have the shortening as cold as possible and cut it into the mixture with a knife, finally rubbing it in with the hands. Mix quickly with the cold liquid (milk, skim milk or water) forming a fairly soft dough which can be rolled on the board. Turn onto a floured board; roll into a sheet not over one-half inch thick; cut into rounds; place these in lightly floured biscuit tins (or shallow pans), and bake 10 to 12 minutes in a rather hot oven. If peanuts are used, the roasted and shelled nuts should be finely crushed with a rolling pin.

In making the flour and peanut biscuits the flour and other dry ingredients should be sifted together twice and then mixed thoroughly with the crushed peanuts.

The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida) – Sep 8, 1917

Pumpkin Pone (Image from http://www.stabroeknews.com)

These next two recipes actually sound pretty good. In regards to the Pumpkin Pone, I ran across a couple of  recipes online, and they include coconut and spices etc., so a bit more fancy than this war-time version.

Milwaukee Journal - Dec 23, 1917

Let’s Eat More Cornmeal

Following is a third series of cornmeal recipes suggested by the home economics department of Iowa State college, which is advocating the use of more cornmeal to conserve the flour supply of the country:

Rice and Cornmeal Gem.

1 c cornmeal,
1 tsp salt,
1 tbsp flour,
6 tbsp raw rice (1 1/2 c cooked),
1 egg,
1 tbsp fat,
4 tbsp baking powder,
Milk to make batter.

[No instructions for what to do with the ingredients, so I guess they assume everyone can figure it out? Back in the day, I suppose that might have been the case.]

Cornmeal and Pumpkin Pone.

1 qt well cooked pumpkin,
1 c cornmeal,
2 c sweet milk,
1 tbsp salt,
1 c sugar,
1 tsp soda.

Stir the cornmeal into the hot pumpkin; then add milk, salt and sugar. Add enough more cornmeal to make the mixture stiff enough that it will hold its shape when dropped from the spoon. Then stir in soda (dissolved in boiling water). Bake an hour and a half or longer. The longer it bakes the sweeter it seems.

The Carroll Herald – Jun 6, 1917

Don’t forget the children!

Every child can help. No one need be hungry.

You Aren’t Really Gonna Throw That Slice of Bread in the Trash, Are You?

March 10, 2010

The Pittsburg Press (Sep. 2, 1917) has a whole “cookbook” section in the paper, along with recipes,  nutritional charts and tons of articles about not wasting food etc.

It also includes the following letter from Herbert Hoover:

Here are two articles lecturing the reader about wasting milk and bread:

ONE-HALF CUP OF MILK.

Half a cup of milk — whole, skimmed, or sour — a seemingly trifling matter — hardly worth the trouble to keep or use.

In many households quite a little milk is wasted — left uncovered in glasses — regarded as useless because the cream has been skimmed off — allowed to sour — poured down the sink or thrown out.

Now, if every home — there are 20,000,000 of them — should waste one the average one-half cup daily, it would mean a waste of 2,500,000 quarts daily — 912,500,000 quarts a year — the total product of more than 400,000 cows.

It takes a lot of grass and grain to make that much mild and an army of people to produce and deliver it.

But, every household doesn’t waste a half cup of milk a day? Well, say that one-half cup is wasted in only one out of a hundred homes. Still intolerable — when milk is so nutritious — when skim milk can be used in making nutritious soups and cereal dishes — when sour milk can be used in bread making or for cottage cheese.

A SLICE OF BREAD.

A single slice of bread seems an unimportant thing. In many households one or more slices of bread daily are thrown away and not used for human food. Sometimes stale quarter, or half, loaves are thrown out.

Yet one good-sized slice of bread — such as a child likes to cut — weighs an ounce. It contains almost three-fourths of an ounce of flour.

If every one of the country’s 20,000,000 homes wastes on average only one such slice of bread a day, the country is throwing away daily over 14,000,000 ounces of flour — over 875,000 pounds, or enough flour for over a million one-pound loaves a day. For a full year at this rate there would be a wasted of over 319,000,000 loaves.

As it takes 4 1/2 bushels of wheat to make a barrel of ordinary flour this waste would represent the flour from over 7,000,000 bushels of wheat.

Fourteen and nine-tenths bushels of wheat on the average are raised per year. It would take the fruit of some 470,000 acres just to provide a single slice of bread to be wasted daily in every home.

To produce this much flour calls for an army of farmers, railway men, flour-mill people. To get the flour to the consumer calls for many freight cars and the use of many tons of coal.

But some one says, a full slice of bread is not wasted in every home. Very well — make it a daily slice for every four or every 10 or every 30 homes — make it a weekly or monthly slice in every home — or make the wanted slice thinner. The waste of flour involved is still appalling — altogether too great to be tolerated when wheat is scarce.

Any waste of bread is inexcusable when there are so many ways of using stale bread to cook delicious dishes.

Since you now feel too guilty to waste any milk or bread, here are a couple of the recipes from same “cookbook” section of the paper:

CREAMED SALMON IN CHAFING DISH.

Three large tablespoonfuls of butter; melt; stir in a large tablespoonful of flour and one-half teaspoonful of dry mustard; 1 cup of milk; stir until a thick gravy; then stir into this 1 cup of flaked salmon; season well with salt, pepper and paprika; one-fourth teaspoonful of tabasco sauce, and, the last thing, pour into this one-half cup of catsup; serve on hot toast or on toasted crackers.

Nut and Cheese Loaf (Image from http://whatdidyoueat.typepad.com)

NUT AND CHEESE ROAST.

1 cupful grated cheese.
1 cupful chopped English walnuts.
1 cupful bread crumbs.
2 tablespoonfuls chopped onion.
1 tablespoon butter.
Juice of half a lemon.
Salt and pepper.

Cook the onion in the butter and a little water until it is tender. Mix the other ingredients and moisten with water, using the water in which the onion has been cooked. Pour into a shallow baking dish and brown in the oven.

The Pittsburgh Press – Sep 2, 1917