Posts Tagged ‘Locofocos’

The Convert’s Experience

October 21, 2011


The following song was composed and sung by JOSEPH MORGRIDGE, Esp. of Sangerville, at the Mass Convention recently held in this city, to the great delight of all present.

The Convert’s Experience.

To leave the dear Locos, and from them to part,
And risk their displeasure, affected my heart,
But yet I in truth, and all candor could say
‘Twas best to elect Frelinghuysen and Clay.

I followed my party through thick and through thin,
To the vortex of ruin, and almost fell in,
But now they no longer, shall lead me astray,
For I will support Frelinghuysen and Clay.

They promised me office, and offered me gold, —
And many a falsehood, to me, they have told,
To lead me along in their favorite way —
Afraid I would join Frelinghuysen and Clay. —

They told me Mechanics and Farmers would thrive
Free trade be extended, and commerce revive,
If they, awhile longer, in office could stay,
To put down the Whigs — Frelinghuysen and Clay.

They wished me to tarry, and not on them frown,
‘Till Polk was elected — the tariff put down;
But if, after that, I no longer would stay,
O, then I might join Frelinghuysen and Clay.

They promised the nation a currency sure,
To keep both together, the rich and the poor,
Down, down with the Banks, every Loco did say,
But never elect Frelinghuysen and Clay.

They told me their secret, I always must keep,
Or, like Morgan*, yet I, might have cause to weep,
But I heeded no threats, and turned from them away,
Resolved to support Frelinghuysen and Clay.

This promise, with others they gravely did make;
That I, of the spoils, should quite largely partake,
But I feared, they, like Tyler, their trust would betray,
So I left them, to join Frelinghuysen and Clay.

Thus all their exertions, my mind to deceive,
Were fruitless and vain; for I could but believe,
That I should have cause, to be proud of the day,
That I left them, to join Frelinghuysen and Clay.

Free trade, Polk and Dallas, I will not go for,
To pay debts for Texas, and buy our her war,
But I’ll work, and I’ll sing, and proudly I’ll say:
I helped to elect Frelinghuysen and Clay.

Let profligate Rulers, be swept by the board;
Our nation, once more, to good health be restored,
And I never will turn for one moment away
From freedom’s true friends — Frelinghuysen and Clay.

The sound of rejoicing is heard on the gale,
The Whigs are triumphant — the Locos look pale,
Their faces grow long, as the field they survey,
Nobly won by the Whigs, Frelinghuysen and Clay.

*The Anti-Mason.

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine) Aug 27, 1844


The flag born by the Whigs from Bluehill had the following inscription.



Our country and our country’s cause
Our constitution and our laws
Fro these we hope, for these we pray
For these we’ll vote for Henry Clay.

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine) Aug 27, 1844

Songs for Henry Clay

October 19, 2011

Image from Elektratig blog

The Workingmen’s Song.

Times won’t be right its plain to see,
Till Tyler runs his race,
But then we’ll have a better man
To put into his place;
For now we’ll rouse with might and main,
And work, and work, away;
We’ll work, and work, and work, and work,
And put in HENRY CLAY,


For now we’ll rouse with might and main,
And work, and work away;
We’ll work, and work, and work, and work,
and put in HENRY CLAY.

The Farmers want good times again
To sell their wheat and pork,
And so to put in HENRY CLAY,
They’re going right to work;
They’ll plough, and sow, and reap, and mow,
And thresh, and thresh away;
They’ll thresh, and thresh, and thresh, and thresh,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll plough and sow, etc., etc.

The Laboring Men they want more work
And higher wages too,
And so they’ll go for HENRY CLAY,
With better times in view;
They’ll saw, and chop, and grub, and dig,
And shovel, and shovel away;
And shovel, and shovel, and shovel, and shovel,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll saw, and chop, etc., etc.

The Weavers too will go to work,
They’ll make us all the Cloth we want,
If they can have fair play;
They’ll reel, and spool, and warp, and wind,
And weave, and weave away;
They’ll weave, and weave, and weave, and weave,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll reel and spool, etc., etc.

We want no Clothing Ready made,
From England or from France;
We’ve Tailors here who know their trade,
They ought to have a chance;
They’ll cut, and baste, and hem, and press,
And stitch, and stitch away;
They’ll stitch, and stitch, and stitch, and stitch,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll cut and baste, etc., etc.

The Coopers know  when Farmers thrive,
Their trade is always best,
And so they’ll go with one accord
For Harry of the West.
They’ll dress, and raise, and truss, and hoop,
And hoop, and hoop away;
They’ll hoop, and hoop, and hoop, and hoop,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll dress, and raise, etc., etc.

The Hatters do not want to see
Their kettles standing dry,
And so they’ll go for HENRY CLAY,
And then the Fur will fly,
They’ll nap, and block, and color, and bind,
And finish, and finish away;
They’ll finish, and finish, and finish, and finish,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll nap and block, etc., etc.

Shoemakers too, with a right good will,
Will join the working throng,
And what they do for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll do both neat and strong;
They’ll cut, and crimp, and last, and stitch,
And peg and ball away —
They’ll ball, and ball, and ball, and ball,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll cut and crimp, etc., etc.

The Blacksmiths too ‘ll roll up their sleeves,
Their sledges they wilt swing,
And at the name of HENRY CLAY,
They’ll make their anvils ring,
They’ll blow, and strike, and forge, and weld,
And hammer, and hammer away;
They’ll hammer, & hammer, & hammer & hammer,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll blow, and strike, etc., etc.

The Tanners too will lend a hand,
When skinning time begins;
They are a hardy noble band,
And live by tanning skins;
They’ll bait the Softs, and break the Hards,
And flesh and curry away;
They’ll curry, and curry, and curry, and curry,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll bait the softs, etc., etc.

The Potters too are all for CLAY,
For ’tis in CLAY they work;
And all they want is ready pay,
To buy their bread and pork;
They’ll glaze their pots and fire their kilns,
And burn, and burn away —
They’ll burn, and burn, and burn, and burn,
To vote for HENRY CLAY.

The Carpenters, a noble band,
Will then have work to do —
New Barns and Houses through the land,
They’ll raise both strong and new —
They’ll line and score, and scribe and bore,
And brace and build away —
And build, and build, and build, and build,
And vote for HENRY CLAY,
They’ll line and score, etc., etc.

And thus we’ll work, and thus we’ll sing,
Till Tyler’s race is run;
And then we’ll have to fill his place,
Kentucky’s favorite son;
For now we’ll rouse with might and main,
And work, and work away;
We’ll work, and work, and work, and work,
And put in HENRY CLAY,
For now we’ll rouse, etc., etc.

The Ohio Repository (Canton, Ohio) Mar 7, 1844

For the Ohio Repository.

Our Harry Is Coming.
Air — “The Campbels are Coming.

Our Harry is coming, oh Matty beware!
Our Harry is coming, oh Locos take care!
Our Harry is coming, the gallant and free,
He’s coming, he’s coming, oh Matty beware!

Columbia’s shout of ecstacy,
The glorious shouts ring far and free;
Thundering abroad — sublime if rude,
A Nation’s noble gratitude,
Our Harry is coming, &c.

He comes — but in pacific pride;
No battle-band begirts his side,
No hoarse war-drum booms on the wind —
But all is peace and love combined,
Our Harry is coming, &c.

He comes the sacred oath to swear,
Then seated in that awful chair;
Higher than throne, — like Washington —
The laurels on his brow he’s won,
Our Harry is coming, &c.

Our Country’s sav’d — new honors lent,
When CLAY, the People’s President,
Will then to right the helm of state,
And the Republic renovate.
Our Harry is coming, &c.

Canton, March, 1844.   AMELLS.

The Ohio Repository (Canton, Ohio) Mar 14, 1844

The Mill Boy of the Slashes.
Tune — ‘Washing Day,’ or ‘Lucy Long.’

Cheer up, my lads, we’re on the way,
Press onward for the prize;
For at the name of HENRY CLAY,
What glorious hopes arise.

Then hast the day, then clear the way,
As on our hero dashes;
Away! Away! for HARRY CLAY,
“The Mill Boy of the Slashes.”

From East to West — from North to South,
The mails bring cheering news;
The Softs are all down in the mouth;
The Hards have got the blues.

Then haste the day, etc.

Look out, my boys, the Locos know
That truth with  us is found;
and yet with lies they try to show,
That they are gaining ground;

Then hast the day, etc.

Our foes with wonder and with shame,
Now on their forces call;
Then spread abroad our leader’s fame,
Let cliques and cabals fall.

Then haste the day, etc.

The nation’s hope is on him set;
His name’s on every tongue;
Around the land in councils met,
His noble deeds are sung.

Then haste the day, etc.

These stubborn Lokies feel the rod;
Van Buren’s in a fright,
And poor Hard money crawfish To?,
Had rather run than fight.

Then haste the day, etc.

The Ohio Repository (Canton, Ohio) Apr 11, 1844

Ex-Speaker Polk of Tennessee.
TUNE — Dandy Jim of Caroline

Come listen Whigs and Locos all,
Your kind attention here I call,
And mark the burthen of the glee,
Ex-Speaker Polk of Tennessee —
But hark! the People rising say,
He’s not the man to conquer Clay,
This is the substance of their rhyme,
“Clay first, Clay last, Clay all the time.”

Polk’s choice occasioned some surprise,
Good Democrats rolled up their eyes,
Our Candidate, pary, who is he?
Why James *R. Polk of Tennessee —
But hark! &c.

But soon their vast excitement o’er,
They see, what ne’er was seen before,
The best selection that could be,
Ex-Speaker Polk of Tennessee —
But hark! &c.

And then commences nous verrons
To make enthusiasm strong,
Uphold; ye Loco clique, says he,
Ex-Speaker Polk of Tennessee —
But hark! &c.

Fall down before a better man
Than even little Matty Van,
Buchanan too must bow the knee
To Ex-Speaker Polk of Tennessee —
But hark! &c.

Now, not content with this display,
They steal John Tyler’s protege,
Annexing Texas, as you see,
To James K. Polk of Tennessee —
But hark! &c.

Though now a Champion of Free Trade,
Once pon a time a vote you made,
To tax our coffee and our tea,
Ex-Speaker Polk of Tennessee —
But hark! &c.

When last you took the field with Jones,
You heard the People’s angry tones,
A more indignant note you’ll hear,
Before November’s ides appear —
For hark! the People rising say,
Their highest hope is Harry Clay,
This is the substance of their rhyme,
“Clay first, Clay last, Clay all the time.”


*So was the name blazoned on the Loco Foco banners when first announced.

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine) Jun 20, 1844

Something Rich — Truth by Accident.

Locofocoism does not seem to florish well in poetry, as the muses have been so long engaged in the worthy and truthful cause of the patriotic Whigs, that when compelled to do service for Locofocoism will indirectly sift in the truth. —

We were greatly amused last evening in looking over a song in the Democrat, that will be generally circulated this morning. We hope our friends will secure a copy as a poetical and political curiosity. It is decidedly rich, and we think the editor of the Democrat must have had no little grass in his boots to have admitted the truth telling little witch!

Here is the song and the reader will please read the italicised letters first.

For the Democrat.

TUNE. — Old Rosin the Bow.

Come all ye young Hickories rally!
Let’s shoulder to shoulder unite,
Against the coon forces we’ll sally,
Young Hickory” leads in the fight.


Young Hickory leads in the fight, (Repeat.)
Against the coon forces we’ll rally,
“Young Hickory” leads in the fight.

We’ll raise up our Hickory poles, hearties,
In Honor of Tennessee’s son,
Let us show him that firmly each heart is
Leagued together to use up the coon,


Leagued together to use up the coon, (repeat)
Let us show him that each heart is
Leagued together to use up the coon.

The feds of their strength loud and bragging,
Renewing of ’40 the trash,
In November the coons we’ll be flogging,
Until he shall fly from the lash.


Mark his hide with each blow that you deal him
Place the licks on his carcase with skill,
Hurrah! then, e’en “Huysen” can’t heal him,
Amen, with a hearty good will.

Polk and Dallas inscribed on our banners,
Shall to victory marshal our way;
Be up then — let feds shout hozannas,
Defeated they’ll be with their Clay.


Bangor Daily Whig and Courier (Bangor, Maine) Jun 25, 1844

Image from the National Archives website

From the Whig Standard.


In the times of the Revolution;
While yet the land was young;
Heavy the lot of the hardy few,
But the will was stout and strong,
Of those who fought with Washington;
On their fields of fame they died,
All true men, like you men,
Remember them with pride.

At daybreak at old Trenton,
On Monmouth’s sandy plain,
In the swamp of the Yellow Santeo,
On the waves of old Champlain,
Fought the Whigs of the Resolution,
With hearts unchanging still,
And we men — if free men —
So must we fight — we will!

and some of these remain, boys!
Through all that sturdy storm,
Bent, and worn out, and aged,
But hearts still young and warm;
They should know what are true principles,
These men with locks of gray,
They are few men — but true men —
And they vote with us for Clay.

Honor unto the aged,
The old true-hearted brave!
Theirs be a free and pleasant death,
And a free and quiet grave;
And still we’ll protect the principles
For which they toiled so long,
The Whigs of the Revolution
Who fought when the land was young.

From the Whig Standard.

TUNE — Yankee Doodle.

The Locos met at Baltimore,
To make their nominations,
With tempers sour’d, and feeling sore,
And humbled expectations.
But Locofocos keep it up,
Heed not the Whig’s rejoicing,
Don’t yield the day to HENRY CLAY

They felt that VAN, was not the man,
To lead them on to glory,
And should they pass, to LEWIS CASS,
‘Twould end in the same story.
But Locofocos keep it up, &c., &c.

JOHNSON they knew, would never do,
BUCHANAN’s chance was small, sir,
They fear’d each vote, would but denote,
They’d make no choice at all, sir.
But Locofocos keep it up, &c., &c.

Though this they fear’d, they persevered,
Seven times the vote was taken!
On the eighth, for a joke, they started POLK,
Hoping to save their bacon;
Then Locofocos keep it up, &c., &c.

JOHNSON withdrew, BUCHANAN too,
VAN BUREN flew the track, sir,
All own they’re beat, POLK wins the heat,
Though a fourth rate party hack, sir,
But Locofocos keep it up &c.

The Loco’s now were run aground,
To find another man, as
Weak as POLK, but at last they found
His match in GEORGE M. DALLAS,
Then Locofocos keep it up, &c.

Then for POLK and DALLAS go it strong,
Each Locofoco hearty,
With guns, and drums, and noise, and song,
Let’s cheer our drooping party,
Ye Locofocos keep it up, &c.

We’ve done our best pray be content,
We’ve made a nomination,
And POLK and DALLAS we present
For the people’s acceptation.
Then Locofocos keep it up, &c.

John Jones says TYLER was by law
The “second: nominated,
That POLK, being third, he must ‘withdraw,’
‘Or the party’ll be defeated.’
John Jones and Tyler keep it up, &c.

The people thank you, gentlemen,
But its far from their intentions,
To vote for the third and fourth rate men
You’ve named in your conventions!
For loud and long, like thunder strong,
The people’s voice is rising,
And ’twill be given before High Heaven,

South Port American (South Port, Wisconsin) Jun 29, 1844

From the New York Tribune.


He wears no crown upon that brow which gleams in Freedom’s van,
Where every god has set his seal to show the world a man;
Nor bears he in his trusty hand the warrior’s spear and glaive,
Whose harvests are the falling ranks that burden ruin’s grave.

But prouder than the proudest king, whose million vassals bow,
He wears the wreath a Nation’s hand has twined upon his brow;
And peerless o’er his fallen foes with flaming plume and crest,
He shines among a Nation’s stars the brightest and the best.

His name is not a sculptured thing, where old Renown has reared
Her marble in the wilderness, by smoke of battle seared;
But graven on life-leaping hearts where Freedom’s banners wave,
It gleams to bid the tyrant back, and loose the fettered slave.

His deeds are not of blood and wrong, where ruth, with iron hand,
Has yoked the stormy steeds of War, to desolate the land —
But ever in the hour of need, when Danger’s summons came,
He lent the thunder of his word, the halo of his name!

Around the hearths and altars where his country’s gods are shrined,
His heart has yearned for Freedom’s weal, with Freedom’s toil his mind;
And when from other lands oppressed the captive’s wail has rung,
His soul went forth in Freedom’s strength, with Freedom’s fire his tongue.

Above the altar’s of the Greek, and o’er Bolivia’s fane,
His name, “Deliverer,” is stampt upon the broken chain.
And from those old and glorious isles that gem the AEgean sea,
The sons of Spartans hail in song the Champion of the Free.

And now, when age in on his heart, and dimness in his eye,
He wanes not with the fitful lights that darken in the sky,
But prouder still in name and fame, with flaming plume and crest,
He shines among a Nation’s stars the brightest and the best!


Huron Reflector ( Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 4, 1849

Political Fruit

January 26, 2011

Image from Elektratig.

“The Fruit.”

After a year and a half of Locofoco rule, the people of this state can begin to judge the “tree” by the “fruit” it bears. The Madison Express thus classifies it:

State credit is thirty per cent, below par!

The state debt is nearly fifty thousand dollars!

The state tax is so levied as to raise one hundred thousand dollars!

Such a thing as public faith is unknown!

The state has repudiated its solemn contracts!

It has repudiated its own paper, refusing to allow county treasurers to receive it in payment of taxes!

The constitution has been repeatedly trampled upon — oaths of office violated, and laws discarded!

Is it not time for honest men of all parties to “awake and save the state?” What reliance have the people for the future? What guarantee against further outrage?

Honest voters of all parties! to the polls!

Let your votes speak in thunder tones in rebuke of the present foul and corrupt dynasty!

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Oct 24, 1849

Image from Son of the South.

Locofoco Defalcations.

While the Locofocos are assailing Gen. Taylor and the Whig party so bitterly, it may be well enough to remind them of their own delinquencies occasionally, in times past as well as present, by referring to the history of their corrupt practices, and to refresh the recollections of the people upon these matters, that they may see with what grace the president can be arraigned for fraud by such men. For this purpose we publish below a partial list of moneys stolen in the pure days of the “Democracy” by Locofoco office holders. We are not able to do our sanctimonious and censorious friends justice, as we have not a complete list of these public robbers, nor of the amount stolen. But we have enough to show the public with what indecent presumption, charges against Gen. Taylor and the Whig party, come from a party whose chosen agents have been guilty of such enormities as the following array of names and figures are “premonitory symptoms” of:

This amount, “respectable” as it is, does not include the sums stolen by Harris and Boyd, a couple of gentlemen who carried operations on as large a scale as any of their colleagues in rascality. But the pretty little sum of THREE MILLIONS ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTEEN THOUSAND DOLLARS will answer the object we have view, so far as the old Locofoco plunders are concerned. The annexed list will show that Locofocoism now is just what it was ten or twelve years ago. If they had stopped their peculations upon the public treasury after having abstracted these three millions of dollars and upwards, they would have given some evidence of a disposition to reform; and we would not have been disposed to “invade the sanctity of private life,” — as old father Ritchie styles these references to Locofoco defaulters — be calling public attention to them. But when we see them at their old game again, and witness their furious personal attacks upon one of the purest minded men that ever filled the presidential chair, we cannot help holding the mirror up to their faces, that they may “see themselves as others see them.” We will now annex their recent “financial operations,” in the way of leg treasuryism. All will admit that they bid fair to do honor to their illustrious predecessors.

But it is said that there is yet in the hands of Locofoco ex-land officers, not yet accounted for, nearly a MILLION OF DOLLARS belonging to the government. This may all be honestly paid over, or it may all or one half be stolen. Time only will determine which. At any rate, the people have been robbed of nearly or quite HALF A MILLION DOLLARS, under the beautiful operations of the sub treasury law. If six months have brought to light that large sum, it can easily be ciphered out what four years will reveal. According to our arithmetic, it cannot be less than four millions of dollars.

But we will wait awhile and see.

[Auburn Daily Adv.

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Oct 10, 1849

Image from Legends of America.

Illinois — Locofoco “Fruits.”

Thus speaks the Chicago Democrat, the editor of which, “Long JOHN WENTWORTH,” a “Democratic” member of congress, will be taken as good authority in the premises:

“Our state is bankrupt. As to her principal, she makes no pretensions. She cannot, even, pay her interest. And the larger the state, the greater the resources, the more numerous her population, the greater her disgrace in not paying her state debts.”

With the exception of a year or two, Illinois has been under the control of the “Democratic” party from the time of its origination as a state, and, for its population, has usually given that party a stronger vote than any other western state. There, Locofocoism has had full, undisputed sway. With barely sufficient opposition to keep the party together, it has gone on from one destructive measure to another, until now, according to the confession of one of its “sachems,” the state is not only bankrupt, but is even unable to pay the interest of her indebtedness! And this, too, while she possesses a soil and climate equal to any in the world, an industrious agricultural population, and natural and artificial commercial advantages superior to most of the other western states!

What is it that has inflicted so severe a curse upon our sister state, and already made her a “by-word and a reproach?” There can be but one answer — UNCONTROLLED LOCOFOCO LEGISLATION! Locofocoism is the gangrene which has been for years eating to her very vitals. And so long as she remains the patient of “quack doctors,” so long will the disease continue to grow worse and worse. Her only salvation depends upon the use of the great Whig specific. Where is there to be found a Whig state with a bankrupt treasury? Where one which does not “flourish as a green bay tree?”

The same causes which have worked so much mischief in Illinois are producing like efforts in Wisconsin. Already has our expenditures greatly and unnecessarily increased, our taxes doubled, our treasury plundered, our legislative sessions uselessly protracted, our constitution trampled under foot, our public interests trifled with, our good name tarnished, and our growth and development as a state seriously retarded. Is it not time for our people to pause and reflect? Why will they longer jeopard everything essential to the real interests of the state, for the mere honor of placing political impostors in power?

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Oct 10, 1849

Forty-Niner Profile: Thaddeus B. Sturges

March 23, 2010

Thaddeus B. Sturges was one of the many men from Ohio who headed to California during the Gold Rush. He was the son of Lewis Burr Sturges, who was first married to Kezia Taylor Stiles, daughter of Ezra Stiles. Lewis later married Charlotte Belden/Belding, who I believe was the mother of Thaddeus.

Evidently, when Thaddeus Sturges left for the gold country, his wife, Eudosia Beach,  must have gone to live with  their daughter, Mrs. James Sidney Wilcox, in Utica, New York, where in 1859, she died. It appears they had 5 children: sons, Mahlon, Lewis and Thaddeus, and daughters, Eudosia and Marcia.

Thaddeus Burr Sturges was NOT one of the lucky ones. He did not make his fortune in gold. He died  penniless in California, like so many others.

View of Norwalk, Ohio - 1840's

From Historical Collections of Ohio, By Henry Howe – Vol. II – ©1888:

Norwalk in 1846. – Norwalk, the county-seat, named for Norwalk, Conn., is 110 miles north of Columbus and 16 from Sandusky City.  It lies principally on a single street, extending nearly two miles and beautifully shaded by maple trees.  Much taste is evinced in the private dwellings and churches, and in adorning the grounds around them with shrubbery.  As a whole, the town is one of the most neat and pleasant in Ohio.  The view given represents a small portion of the principal street; on the right is shown the courthouse and jail, with a part of the public square, and in the distance is seen the tower of the Norwalk institute.  Norwalk contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist and 1 Catholic church, 9 dry goods, 1 book and 4 grocery stores, 1 bank, 2 newspaper printing offices, 1 flouring mill, 2 foundries, and about 1,800 inhabitants.  The Norwalk institute is an incorporated academy, under the patronage of the Baptists: a large and substantial brick building, three stories in height, is devoted to its purposes; the institution is flourishing, and numbers over 100 pupils, including both sexes.  A female seminary has recently been commenced under auspicious circumstances, and a handsome building erected in the form of a Grecian temple.  About a mile west of the village are some ancient fortifications.

Thaddeus Burr Sturges, Prior to the California Gold Rush

Thaddeus Sturges appears to have taken an active role in helping to build the town of Norwalk:

Huron Reflector, May 4, 1830

Commemorating George Washington’s Birthday: An Oration given by Thaddeus B. Sturges. (LINK)

Thaddeus Sturges reads the Declaration of Independence on the 4th of July:

4th of July.

The fifty sixth anniversary of our National Independence was celebrated at Monroeville on Wednesday last. A large concourse of people assembled at an early hour at the Hotel of H. GRIFFIN — at eleven o’clock, a procession of ladies and gentlemen was formed by Capt. W.B. MATHEWSON, Marshal of the day — among whom were several of  the old Patriots of the Revolution — preceded by a band of music, and moved to a grove, where the necessary platform was erected in good style by the committee of arrangements. The Throne of Grace was addressed by the Rev. F.H. JOHNSON — the Declaration of Independence was audibly read by T.B. STURGES, Esq. — after which C.L. BOALT, Esq. pronounced an Oration in his usual manner of eloquence. The procession then formed, and repaired to H. GRIFFIN’s Hotel, where an excellent dinner was prepared in a booth erected, and where a large company “fared sumptuously.” After the cloth was removed, thirteen select toasts were drank with cheers, music, and the discharge of cannon — then a host of spirited and pointed volunteers — all of which we omit for want of room. The company then parted under good feelings, and there was nothing to mar the harmony of the day.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jul 10, 1832

Huron Reflector – Jun 7, 1836

To the Citizens of Norwalk

YOU are respectfully invited to give your attendance at a meeting to be holden at the Academy, on the evening of Saturday the 12th instant, for the purpose of adopting measures for opening a High School at the Academy for the ensuing year.

It is thought that the amount now paid to the different teachers of our School is amply sufficient to support a Literary Institution, not excelled by any other in the State.
Every citizen, who feels an interest in the education of our youth, is earnestly solicited to attend.

?. Buckingham, P.P. Fusselman,
?. Buckingham, P. Latimer,
Asabel Morse, John Bedford,
Moses Kimball, T.B. Sturges,
?. Sheffield, S. Preston,
?. Jenney, Cyrus Butler,
?. Forsyth, H. Gallup,
?. Morton, W.B. Mathewson,
?.G. Raitt, I. Marshall,
Enos Gilbert, D. Higgins,
?. Benedict, L. Bradley.

Norwalk, Jan. 5, 1833.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jan 8,  1833


The ornamental branches usual for the young Ladies, will be taught in the Female Department if desired, at proportionate prices.

Two quarters will compose a term as usual of 23 weeks. The annual vacation will be in the month of August. Good board can be procured in respectable families, for $1.25 to $1.50 per week. It will be expected that the tuition fees be paid quarterly or half yearly in advance, and that Young Students from abroad have a guardian appointed in the village for the time being.

The Committee would further observe, that the Institution is opened under the patronage of the Ohio Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, upon liberal principles. The objects are to provide an Institution where all classes of persons can receive such an education as will prepare them to enter College, or upon the duties of active life; and so combine manual labor, (for those students who may desire it,) as will both promote health of body and vigor of mind, and at the same time diminish or defray entirely the expense of education, and also cultivate a taste for agricultural and mechanical pursuits. For the above purposes, the use of the building known as the “Norwalk Academy,” has been granted, where a large number of students can be accommodated. It is contemplated, as soon as practical, to procure philosophical apparatus, enlarge the buildings, erect Boarding Houses, rooms, &c. for the accommodation of the students, cultivate a garden, provide in which the students can recreate and employ themselves in inclement weather.

Norwalk is beautifully situated, and is a thriving and remarkably healthy village. It has a moral and an intelligent population. The Protestant Episcopal, Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist Episcopal Churches, have stated preaching, besides occasionally other denominations. — These advantages, combined with the talent and experience of the Principal, the low price of tuition, the assurance that first rate assistants will be employed, and no pains spared to render the institution worthy, it is hoped, will secure that support, which an intelligent and liberal public are able to bestow.

T.B. STURGES,} Committee.

Norwalk, Oct. 19, 1833.  38tf

The Trustees at present, are Henry O. Sheldon, James Crabbs, Samuel Pennywell, Gershom Pierce, Ellzey Hedges, Sylvenus B. Day, Samuel Treat, Benjamin Cogswell, Benjamin Summers, Durin H. Tuttle, Julius House, Stanton Sholes, Edward S. Hamlin, Lemuel Powers, Platt Benedict, Thaddeus B. Sturges, Timothy Baker, Obadiah Jenney, Henry Buckingham, and William Gallup.

Editors in the north part of the State and in Michigan, friendly to the above Institution, will confer a favor by giving the above an insertion or two.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Nov 5,  1833

History of north central Ohio : embracing Richland, Ashland, Wayne, Medina, Lorain, Huron and Knox Counties Volume 1
By William A. Duff
Historical Publishing Company, Topeka-Indianapolis 1931

**Thaddeus B. Sturges was listed as a trustee of the Academy. pg 125

Norwalk Academy was another early established institution which contributed materially to the educational progress of our state. Among its students were Rutherford B. Hayes, who became president of the United States; General James B. McPherson, Civil War commander, who was killed in the fighting before Atlanta; and Charles Foster, who became governor of Ohio and secretary of the treasury in President Benjamin Harrison’s cabinet. A catalogue of the academy March 17, 1829, gives the names of eighty-three young men and sixty young women, total of 143 who had been under instruction there.

Huron Reflector – Sep 2, 1834


The following Resolutions were passed, at the meeting of the Trustees of Norwalk Seminary:

RESOLVED, That while we lament the loss of the Norwalk Seminary, with the Library, Apparatus, and Cabinet, we deem it our duty, instead of brooding over the calamity, to make vigorous and speedy efforts to repair it, by erecting an edifice upon an enlarged plan, in view of applying for a College Charter….

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 15,  1836


1837: Thaddeus Sturges purchases several pieces of land. This is only one of the land purchase records. I think there were four or five of them, all purchased at the same time.


While Thaddeus Sturges‘ father, Lewis B. Sturges began his political career as a Federalist, Thaddeus appears to have started out as a Republican, later switching  to Democrat, specifically, a Loco Foco.

For the Huron Reflector.
United we stand — divided we fall,

A sentiment containing a most important truth, and peculiarly applicable to us all, who are opposed to the misrule of General Jackson and his administration.
A Convention was held at Norwalk last Saturday, composed of 52 Delegates from different townships in the county — after due notice having been given to all — a number greater than probably can be convened on any future occasion. — There was little or no division as to Senator. Doctor Tilden had nearly all the votes. There was more difference of opinion as to Representative; but our deliberations, after a harmonious and friendly consultation resulted in a decided majority in favor of Moors Farwell of Portland. Several of the Delegates, among whom, was the writer of this communication, would have been more gratified in their personal feelings, had some other favorite of theirs been put in nomination. Yet for one, I fully acquiesce in the decision of the majority, and my best judgment is to support Mr. Farwell; for I cannot possibly find a substantial objection to this Gentleman, either as a capable man, or as a man of the most perfect integrity — As to talents, he is highly respectable.
Let us my friends, on this occasion, give up minor objections — prove, that as brethren, we are cordial in a righteous cause — divest ourselves of every personal, selfish motive; let our enemies know that Clay men can be united, and let us have for our motto — our Pole Star and directory, “united we stand — divided we fall” — and then we may be assured that victory is ours. If we shall not be so united, it is in vain to disguise the fact that defeat will be our deserved reward.

A Member of the Convention.

Norwalk, Sept. 17, 1832.

Huron Reflector – Sep 18, 1832

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Republican Convention – Clip 2

For the Huron Reflector.
Messrs. Preston & Co.

You will please withdraw my name as a candidate for Representative for the ensuing election. Permit me to take this opportunity of returning my thanks to those who have generously proffered me their aid; of saying to those who have felt it their duty to oppose my nominations, that I fully appreciate the laudable motives by which they were governed; and of expressing to all my cheerful acquiescence in the decision that has been made, and trust that the coming canvass will only be distinguished by mutual concession, good will, and unanimity. Having a common interest to promote, it is to be hoped that we shall go to the polls with harmony and concord, determined to sacrifice all personal considerations and sectional feelings, and unite in one common effort to promote the general good of the county,

Yours Respectfully,


Norwalk, September 17th 1832.

The Editor of the Clarion will please note the above withdrawal. — EDITORS.

Huron Reflector (Noralk, Ohio) Sep 18, 1832

Huron Reflector Oct 1832

We omitted to notice last week, the result of the criminal trials which were decided at the term of the Court of Common Pleas of this county, which terminated on the 20th ult. after a laborious session of two weeks — present, Hon. David Higgins President, and his associates.

State of Ohio, vs. William H. Harrison. Horse stealing — T.B. Sturges Esq. prosecuting Attorney for State, L.S. Beecher and John Bedford, Esqrs. for defence. Verdict, guilty — Prisoner sentenced to Penitentiary for 10 years.

Same, vs. Nehemiah Higby. Horse stealing — T.B. Sturges Esq. pros. Att’y for State, C.L. Boalt and John Bedfore, Esqrs for defence. Verdict, guilty — Prisoner sentenced to Penitentiary for four years.

Same, vs. Abraham Inman. Horse stealing — T.B. Sturges Esq. pros. Att’y. Prisoner plead guilty, and was sentenced to penitentiary for three years.

Same, vs. John Smith. Assault with intent to commit a rape — T.B. Sturges Esq. pros. Att’y for State, M’Laughlin and Bedford, for defense. Verdict, guilty — Prisoner sentenced to Penitentiary for seven years.

Same, vs. Wm. R. Roberts. Burglary and larceny — T.B. Sturges Esq. for State, O. Parish and C.L. Boalt, Esq. for defence. Verdict, guilty of larceny, and not guilty of burglary — Prisoner sentenced to be confined to Jail for 6 days.

Same, vs. John Crusen jr. Assault and battery — T.B. Sturges Esq. for State, Francis D. Parish for defense. Verdict, guilty — Prisoner sentenced to pay a fine of five dollars and costs of prosecution.

Same, vs. Rachael Morris. Murder — T.B. Sturges and A. Coffinbury, Esqrs. for State, O. Parish, P.R. Hopkins and J. Bedford Esqrs. for defence. This case occupied the Court for three days in the investigation, but the Jury returned not guilty — quite a nuber of other Indictments are yet pending, and were not tried for want of time.

THADDEUS B. STURGES, Attorney and Counsellor at Law, intending a journey to the State of New York, and will probably be absent about four weeks, informs his old employers and others, that his father, LEWIS B. STURGES, Attorney at Law, will attend to their business, and will advise and direct them in his absence.

Norwalk, Jan 16, 1833.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jan 22,  1833

Huron Reflector – Oct 1833

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Huron Reflector – July 1833

Milan, Sept. 14th, 1833.


An unusual excitement exists in this section of the county, respecting the election of Prosecuting Attorney; and it is believed that those who have been most active in producing this excitement are actuated by the most envious feelings towards Mr. Sturges, the present incumbent; and a base desire to destroy his well earned and fast increasing popularity. There are those, undoubtedly, who have been busily engaged, of late, in different parts of the county, in circulating reports calculated to cast a shade over the character of Mr. Sturges; but happily for him and his friends, they have nothing to fear from an examination of his conduct, if fairly made, and he is certainly too well known to sustain any injury from the many shafts of envy, which are and have been hurled at his character and reputation. He stands as high as any member of the bar for talents, and his character, for integrity and correct moral deportment, has never been questioned. He is no upstart nor adventurer; but bears a name which has always entitled him to a rank among the first, as a public man in this county; and which will remain unsullied, until degraded by some other person than himself.

For the Huron Reflector.

We trust that Mr. Sturges or his friends will not think it necessary, at present, to notice particularly a dishonorable attack, lately, implicating his fair character in a neighboring paper. Although we presume who is its author, yet we care not who he is. The intention of that publication is apparent to any man of sense — it is to create a personal altercation, and to divert the public mind from the merits of the contest between him and Mr. Root. The unbiased public opinion must be well known, as respects the claims of these two gentlemen. The decision is submitted to the candid electors of the County of Huron. This is communicated without the knowledge of Mr. Sturges.


Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 17,  1833

Thaddeus and Lewis Sturges 1835 Candidates

In 1835, both Thaddeus and his father Lewis, campaigned for elective offices. This campaign was particularly contentious, in part, I think,  because these two men were from the same family. The campaign commentary in the The Huron Reflector was quite brutal. Of course, that brutality held true for the later campaigns as well, being Thaddeus was a Democrat / Locofoco, and the Huron Reflector was a Whig/Republican paper. However, that is not to say that the mudslinging was one-sided; it was just as bad coming from the other side. In fact, during one election cycle, there was almost literally a “cat and mouse”  fight between the papers (Huron Reflector and The Experiment) regarding their respective candidates, one of which was Thaddeus Sturges.  The political flames were signed “cat” on one side, and “mouse” on the other.

Huron Reflector Aug 4, 1840

*     *     *

Huron Reflector – Sep 8, 1840


There was a Locofoco meeting at the Court House on Tuesday evening last. E.M. Stone and T.B. Sturges were the principal speakers. The former too ground against a national Bank, the distribution of the Land money and also against the present Tariff law. He said he was opposed to the distribution of the Land money, and to a Tariff, because these measures were calculated to REDUCE THE TAXES OF THE PEOPLE. He would not give his support to any measure of this kind, because he had no taxes to pay, — and if any measure was adopted, which would have the effect of reducing the present high rates of taxes it would be of no benefit to him. The tax payers of Huron county can make their own comments.

Mr. Sturges‘s remarks were principally confined to the subject of the Tariff. He made a statement, which we have every reason to believe he knew to be false at the time, to wit — that the manufacturers of Lowell, Mass., had realized a clear profit of 33 1/3 per cent, on the amount of capital invested in manufacturing the last year.

It is perhaps unnecessary for us to say that their profits have not averaged seven per cent.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 5,  1844

Locofoco Mass Meeting.

The Locofoco mass meeting for Huron county, that has been advertised in the Experiment for several weeks past, came off at this place on Saturday last. It was a very meagre affair. —

From the exertions made to get up a large meeting, we certainly expected to see a large crowd, but were disappointed. We are informed by those who counted the Locos as they marched to the Court-House, that the number was 165. Probably there were in the Court-House, including Whigs, 250 persons — not more.

After the Convention was organized, the following individuals were nominated as candidates for county officers, viz: — for Auditor, Lorenzo D. Conger; for Commissioner, Daniel Sowers; for Surveyor, Ert Mesnard; and for Coroner, a Dr. Gibson.

The Convention was then addressed by T.B. Sturges and E.M. Stone.

The remarks of Mr. Sturges were uncommonly rich, rare and edifying to the hosts of the “unterrified” there assembled. The burden of his song was in unfolding to the admiring eyes of the democracy, the peculiar beauties and unparalleled advantages of that El Dorado of a Locofoco’s hopes — the magnificent Republic of Texas — the fertility of which, he told them was so great, that one acre there was worth ten of the best land in Ohio! The little “neophyte” worked himself into such raptures upon this subject, that one would have thought he had received a regular sergeant’s commission, and was beating for volunteers among his Locofoco friends to follow those of them who have gone before to the ‘Republic of the Lone Star.’

And then as to the debt of $15,000,000 that was nothing. He had made a computation, and found that it would only amount to about 7 cents per acre. Who would not consider it a cheap bargain to buy five new States, — independent States — for seven cents an acre! Ah! then you go into it as a mere matter of speculation. Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio are already in the Union, and it would be a horrible violation of the Constitution to assume their debts, and let the National Government reimburse itself out of the proceeds of the public lands which the Government now holds in trust for these very States, — but to assume the debt of a foreign State — a State at war with a Government with which we are at peace, — that is perfectly right and constitutional, we would get the country for seven cents an acre!

About this point the orator was seized with a peculiar regard for the Tariff, and reasoned in this wise: If Texas is not annexed, the whole army of the nation cannot prevent smuggling along the whole line of our southwestern border! We are somewhat surprised at this tack of the gentleman’s argument; but in his new born admiration of the Tariff, he forgot to tell how much the case would be improved, either in this or in a military point of view, by changing the present boundary for the undefined and undefinable limits of the “vast Republic of Texas.” —

This matter requires a little explanation. Will he furnish it on some future occasion? He expatiated at some length upon the depredations, (present or prospective?) upon our revenue from this source, and then appealing to those special friends of the Tariff, the Locofocos, exclaimed — “reject Texas, and you reject me (unreadable).

“Gratiano speaks an infinite deal of nothing [unreadable 3 words] all Venice. His reasons are as two grains of wheat in two bushels of chaff: you shall seek all day ere you find them; and when you have them they are not worth the search.”

The next attempt was to excite some sympathy in behalf of “the statesman, the hero, the patriot Dorr.” The effort appeared ill-timed, and but little interest for the hero of Chepachet was excited. The orator depicted the sufferings of this apostle of liberty, — said Rhode Island had always been a colony of Great Britain, and her star ought not to be placed with the old thirteen. This nice pink of Federalism closed with the following traitorous sentiment. “LAW OR NO LAW, ORDER OR NO ORDER, THE PRISON DOORS OF DORR MUST AND SHALL BE BATTERED DOWN.”

We supposed the Quixotic gentleman had caught a fresh ‘inspiration’ from the progressive school in the east, in advance of his brethren. —

We did not expect to see this base and unholy sentiment of mobocracy responded to by even a Locofoco assembly — but so it was. It needs no comment.

Through the disgusting details of the rest of his speech, we have no desire to follow him. If he can derive comfort from such honor, let him enjoy it.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Aug 27,  1844

The Tariff — High Prices of Goods.

We understand that Thaddeus B. Sturges and Ezra M. Stone, are in the habit of stating in their speeches in different parts of the country, that all kinds of goods are higher now in consequence of the Tariff, than they were before the present Tariff Law was enacted. When T.B. Sturges, or any other Locofoco stump speaker makes a statement of this kind, he knows he is uttering a barefaced falsehood. In order to nail this lie to the counter we publish the following certificate, signed by several of the leading merchants of our village. We will only add — that if any merchant alleges that his goods are higher, now than formerly, in consequence of the enactment of the present Tariff, we would caution every person against purchasing of him, unless he is anxious to be cheated.


We the undersigned, Merchants of Norwalk, Huron county, Ohio, do hereby certify that since the Tariff of 1842 went into effect, goods have been cheaper than in any two years since we have been in business.

We also further certify, that foreign goods are as cheap this fall as we have ever known them.


Norwalk, September 26, 1844.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Oct 1, 1844

Huron Reflector – Sep 12, 1848


In the 1840’s, Thaddeus B. Sturges seems to have tried his hand at being a businessman:

The Experiment – Apr 6, 1842


The Experiment – Mar 2, 1842

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The Experiment – Jul 31, 1844

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Thaddeus B. Sturges was also involved in the Temperance Movement:

Temperance Crusaders (Image from

Sons of Temperance Celebration.

Agreeably to the notices which have been published in the Huron and Erie papers, the Order of the Sons of Temperance, in the two counties, celebrated the day by a Mass Convention at this place. Unfortunately, the weather proved extremely rainy and disagreeable. Notwithstanding, the Sons (who love cold water) assembled in large numbers, and with them, also, an equal concourse of the cold water ladies.

About 11 o’clock, A.M., the Procession, which had formed on the public square, proceeded to the Grove selected at the west end of the place, conducted by the Bellevue Band, and attended also by the Milan Brass Band. The Procession presented a splendid appearance and afforded to all a vivid illustration of the moral force which the Temperance cause has acquired among us.

The arrangements reflected honor upon the Marshal, S. PENNEWILL, Esq., and his Assistants. Over five hundred ladies, from a single point, formed into the Procession, and it is supposed that an equal number of ladies proceeded from other directions. The total number of persons present, at the Grove, is estimated at about three thousand, of whom, two thirds were Sons, Rechabites, Cadets and Ladies.

The exercises at the Grove were announced by the President of the day, S.F. TAYLOR, Esq., of Milan. Prayer was offered by Rev. WM. L. HARRIS*, of this place. The Declaration of Independence was read by T.B. STURGES, Esq., also of this place, who prefaced it with some appropriate and eloquent remarks. The meeting was then addressed by the Orator of hte day, I.J. ALLEN, Esq., of Mansfield, in a speech of much interest.

NOTE: Rev. Harris was educated at the Norwalk Seminary, mentioned  previously in this post.

The violence of the rain caused an interruption of his address, and at the close of the exercises, the meeting was adjourned to the Court House. Owing to the inclemency of the weather, most of those from abroad were obliged to return; but the Court House was thronged with those who remained. M. ALLEN resumed his remarks, and in a brilliant and powerful address, reviewed the history of National Intemperance. He traced its destroying agency in the fall of successive Empires, from Nineveh to Rome, and showed the appalling influence which it has exerted on the destiny of former nations. He exhibited the intimate connection which exists between national liberty and national intelligence and virtue; and he proved that moral and educational associations were the best conservators of the Republic.

His address embraced a variety of important and deeply interesting views, and has left a profound impression on all who heard it. At the close, some Resolutions were presented by T.B. Sturges, Esq., which were adopted, and the meeting adjourned.

Notwithstanding the adverse weather, this demonstration cannot fail to produce a favorable effect on the prosperity of the Order in this section. There are now about twenty Divisions in the two counties, most of which have not yet seen their first anniversary, and we believe one only has witnessed its second. In this State, about 16,000 have joined the Order during the past year, and nearly 100,000, throughout the Union. It now includes over 250,000 members.

Huron Reflector (Huron, Ohio) Jul 11, 1848

Based on his son, Mahlon Sturges’ biographical sketch, Thaddeus B. Sturges’ financial problems coincided with rush for California Gold. In 1849, Thaddeus would have been about 48 years old,  which was older than the average gold seeker; but probably with nothing left to lose, he headed for the gold country.

Buckeyes Catch the Gold Fever: A Letter From the Plains

T.B. Sturges arrives in Gold Country: A Letter Received

Mahlon B. Sturges was one of Thaddeus’ sons. He also was a miner, seemingly out of financial necessity, and his story is almost as sad as his fathers. The following biography can be found at this link:  Alameda County California Biographies – 1883

MAHLON BEACH STURGES.—Was born in Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio, February 26, 1830, and is the son of Thaddeus B. Sturges—at one time District Attorney of that county for a number of years, a graduate of Yale College, and a pioneer of 1849 to California—who died in Placerville, in 1851. The subject of our sketch having received his early education in the common school of his native place, and finishing at a private school at Marcellus, Onondaga County, New York, at the age of eighteen prepared to go to college, but owing to the financial embarrassment of his father this course was abandoned, and he took to commercial pursuits. Obtaining the position of book-keeper in the Franklin House, Cleveland, Ohio, he there remained two years, when he changed to the Durham House, and held a like position there until the intelligence of his father’s death caused him to resign and proceed to California, to do which he was obliged to raise money by an insurance on his life, which has long ego been refunded. Coming by way of Panama, our subject arrived in San Francisco in March, 1852, and immediately on arrival secured a ticket for Sacramento, which left him penniless. On gaining that town he found it submerged. Mr. Sturges proceeded to the mines, in company with the late William B. Mastick of Oakland and Judge Carey of San Francisco. On arriving at Michigan Bar, where he found his brother, he engaged in mining as an occupation (Mr. Mastick and Mr. Carey continued on to the mountains) until the fall of that year, when he embarked in the mercantile business. Having proceeded to Sacramento to purchase goods, as ill-fate would have it, his newly-bought stock was entirely consumed in the great fire of that season. Broke in purse, he was by no means so in spirit, therefore he once more faced the mocking world, and proceeded to the mountains, by way of Marysville. Arriving at Rabbit Creek—a place now called La Porte, in Plumas County—he cooked for a company of miners that winter. He next worked for *ages for about one year, when he took up claims in company with J. M. Perry and George Stowe, both of Illinois. After three years’ toil he then sold his interest to his partners, who afterwards took out $64,000 worth of dust in three weeks, and in four years they took out over $300,000. Mr. Sturges now took up a claim for himself adjoining, and “struck it rich,” but owing to a change of the adjoining claim it swung him off, and he lost all. Once more his pocket was at ” bed-rock.” Undeterred, he proceeded to Jamison City, Plumas County, and conducted a hotel for James Kitts, where he remained until the fall of 1856; then moving to Mariposa County, he re-embarked in mining operations for one winter, but, the season being dry, and not meeting with much success, he footed it to Stockton, whence he found his way to San Francisco. He now accepted a position as steerage steward on board the steamer Sonora, then commanded by Captain Bobbie, in which he made several trips to Panama: He now returned to the Bay City, married, and went to the mines at La Porte, but soon moved to Richmond Hill, working for wages at anything that offered; Mrs. Sturges, in the first year, making on her own account $1,800. Our subject now changed his habitation to Sawpit Flat, where, purchasing a claim, he commenced working it, while his wife carried on the laundry business, at four dollars a dozen, clearing thereby from thirty to forty dollars per week. At the end of four years he gave up mining, and sold out his claims. At this period he served two terms as a Justice of the Peace and Notary Public under Governor • Low’s administration. Mr. Sturges next purchased the water rights of Onion Valley Creek, consisting of eight miles of ditches, which supplied the mines of Sawpit Flat and Richmond Hill with water. Two weeks after purchasing, the miners of Sawpit Flat struck rich pay, which made his purchase very valuable. In one year he made enough to pay for his purchase and leave a handsome balance. He continued in this undertaking until 1867, when he sold out on account of ill-health. He removed to San Francisco; and there he was engaged for a year in keeping a lodging-house, when, disposing of it in 1869,.he paid a visit to his former home in the Eastern States for the purpose. of securing a patent on an improved gas-burner he had invented. His intention was to settle in the Eastern States, but, owing to the great climatic changes between heat and cold, he returned to California in July, 1870, and purchased his present farm of fifty acres, situated one and a half miles from Washington Corners, on the main road to Centreville, on which he has made many improvements, being engaged in general farming and stock-raising, devoting much of his time to the rearing of thoroughbred short-horn cattle, a number of his raising having taken premiums at the different fairs throughout the State. Married in San Francisco, April 22, 186o, Miss Elizabeth Kane, a native of Philadelphia, of Irish parents; no issue.

A few snippets for Thaddeus Sturges’ father, Lewis Burr Sturges:

Lewis B. Sturges – 1832


Lewis Sturges Dies 1844

Although it states there will be an obituary notice next week, I checked the paper and couldn’t find one.

BURR Surname Trivia: Lewis BURR Sturges, and therefore, Thaddues BURR Sturges, are distantly related to Aaron BURR, by way of a common ancestor named Jehue BURR.

A General History of the Burr Family by Charles Burr Todd – 1902 – Google Book LINK In this book, Lewis B. Sturges is listed as an executor of a will for Thaddeus Burr. His father, I believe, also Thaddeus Burr, was married to Abigail Sturges.  There are other Sturges’ mentioned as well. These families seemed to  marry quite a bit. There was also a Sturges Lewis mentioned, although I don’t know exactly how he is connected.

The Poetic Presidential Campaign of Zachary Taylor

November 30, 2009

Zachary Taylor

From the Ohio State Journal


BY J. GREINER — TUNE,Uncle Ned.” [original song LYRICS]

There lives an old soldier, there never was a bolder,
On the Mississippi, down below;
His name is Old Zack, and he’s upon the track,
For President, in Ohio.


The Locofoco leaders look blue, they do,
So go it with a rush, boys, go’
For old Rough and Ready, we know everybody
Wants President, in Ohio.

With a long strong pull, pull together, altogether,
United as one man go;
With hearts true as steel, put your shoulders to the wheel,
For Old Zack in Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders, &c.

Tho’ Cass broke his sword on a stump, and he ‘swor’d,’
(As some say he did long ago;)
The story wont pass — all ‘gas,’ Mr. Cass,
It wont do in Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders &c.

Let Cass run his chances — we think “circumstances
Will prevent his attendance,” you know;
Old Zack fights to win — he’s good looking, he’ll come in,
With a shout from Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders, &c.

Poor Cass, a man of doubt, wires in and wires out —
Both this way and that way he’ll go;
But candidate Cass, like a snake in the grass,
You can’t hide in Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders, &c.

Hang your banners on the wall, Whigs, Democrats and all,
For Old Rough and Ready we go;
For he’s an honest man — elect him boys, we can,
And we’ll do it in Ohio.
Chorus — The Locofoco leaders, &c.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jun 27, 1848


Composed by J. Greiner, Esq., of Columbus, Ohio, and dedicated to the Detroit Rough and Ready Glee Club, and sung by them at the Washtenaw County Convention, July 4th.


Come kindle your watch-fire every true Whig,
No longer stand watching the weather,
In heart and in hand, united we’ll stand,
Sink, swim, live or die, altogether.
Then rally, “Whigs rally” from hill-top and valley,
Your Banners unfurl to the sky.

Old Zack’s on the track, will you stand at his back,
All you in his favor say “Ay,” (that’s it.)
Stand up to the rack, ye friend of Old Zack,
Ye Whigs that will never say die.

Shall we in the hour of danger shrink back,
Surrender Old Zack, never! no —
Who never turned back of his and to a friend,
Nor back of his coat to a foe.
We’ll give ’em a little more grape “Capt. Bragg,”
His enemies proudly defy.

Old Zack’s on the track, &c.

Alas! poor Cass, our noise and confusion,
His sensitive soul will confound.
The sword he ran into the old hollow stump,
He soon will run into the ground.
The Court of France may have taught him to dance,
To cut a pigeon-wing high.

Old Zack’s on the track, &c.

When Old Zack is snug in the Presidential Chair,
Then we shall enjoy the fun,
He never will “GO IN” for “BURNING THE BARN,”
But Lord, how the RATS they will run.
Tho’ poor Matty Van is a badly used man,
His chances are all in my eye.

Old Zack’s on the track, &c.

Then saddle the Nags, the track is all ready,
No matter how many may come.
We’ll bet “Old Whitey” will distance the field,
We know that his rider is “SOME.”
Then down with the dust, and fork up the dough,
No longer stand parleying by.


Old Zack’s on the track, will you stand at his back,
All you in favor, say “Aye,” OLD ZACK, (that’s it.)
Never fly from the track, ye friends of Old Zack,
Ye Whigs that never say die.

N.B. The audience answer “Aye,” in the Chorus.”

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Aug 1, 1848

From the Library of Congress website, an explanation of the above image:

SUMMARY:  In a ring a large bull, wearing a ribbon marked “The Rough & Ready” between its horns, faces five matadors. The bull represents Zachary Taylor, nicknamed “Old Rough and Ready.” The matadors are prominent Whigs, who hold capes expressing their varied expectations of the candidate. The matadors are (from left to right): Senator John J. Crittenden holding a “Wilmot [Proviso]” cape; New York editor James Watson Webb, who states, “We desire you to have–” [written on cape] “No Veto Power.” An unidentified man (possibly Congressman John M. Botts) says, “We will have–” [on cape] “A National Bank.” Daniel Webster insists, “We must have–” [on cape] “A High Tariff!” An unidentified man standing behind Webster exclaims, “I hope that we won’t be Bulled!” In the background are stands crowded with spectators, above which flies a flag “U. S.”


From the Winchester (Ia.) Orthopolitan.



TUNE — “OLD GRANITE STATE.” [original song LYRICS]

We are coming, we are coming!
To the battle just begun,
We’ve a true and tried commander,
For ’tis Taylor leads us on;
He who fought so bravely for us,
On the eighth and ninth of May,
And amid the fearful carnage
On the hights of Monterey.
We are all for Taylor.
We are all for Taylor.
We’re for Fillmore and for Taylor.
For the honest and the true.

He who never has surrendered
Though the foe stood four to one,
Is the brave and gallant Taylor,
Who will nobly lead us on;
And the ides of next November
Will record another name,
In the highest nich of glory,
On the brightest scroll of fame.
We are all for Taylor, &c.

Though our foes may count by legions,
We will never shun the fray,
But will bravely march to battle,
And are sure to win the day;
For ’tis Rough and Ready leads us
Who has never known defeat,
And his word is every “ONWARD,”
For he knows not a retreat.
We are all for Taylor, &c.

Where the battle rages thickest
Will our gallant chief be found,
And his cheering voice be ringing
To encourage all around;
Every danger nobly scorning,
He will boldly lead the van,
To a Buena Vista greeting
For the man of Michigan.
We are all for Taylor, &c.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Aug 8, 1848


AIR — Who’ll be King but Charlie. [Original song LYRICS]

The news comes in, on every hand,
From mountain top to ocean,
To stir the heart and rouse the land,
And keep the ball in motion.
With banners flowing and bosoms glowing,
And ranks all true and steady,
A nation’s voice proclaims our choice,
Hurrah for Rough and Ready!
With banners flowing and bosoms glowing,
Come, Southrons and Northrons, we’re all agoing
To join the throng and shout the song,
Hurrah for Rough and Ready!

The Western lads are all alive,
See how the prairie blazes!
And rock and hill fling back the cheer
The distant frontier raises.
With banners flowing, &c.

The boys of Maine will try again
What hearts and hands can do, sir,
And there’s the star, that never sets,
She blazes brightly too, sir.
With banners flowing, &c.

The ladies all are on our side,
And urge us to our duty,
And where’s the cause that ever failed,
When backed by truth and beauty?
With banners flowing, &c.

Then here’s to him, the brave old man,
The soul of truth and honor,
He leads us in our country’s name,
God’s blessing be upon her.
With banners flowing, &c.

Then freemen, up, to all you love,
Be firm and true and steady,
And every man resolve to stand
Like men by Rough and Ready.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 5, 1848

From the Ohio State Journal.

One of the Old Zack Songs.

TUNE — “O look ye there.”

O all ye pouting, doubting Whigs,
Who go about as mourners,
Come wipe the tear-drops from your eyes,
Stop croaking on the corners.

O come along, with shout and song,
And “go it” while you’re able,
We’ll put Old Zack in the White House, boys,
“Old Whitey” in the White House stable.

Ah me! to hear these croakers croak,
O, ’tis a “sin to Moses!”
They snuffle, they “can’t go Old Zack,”
And then they wipe their noses.

O come along, &c.

Cheer up! cheer up! ye fearful Whigs,
And on your harness buckle;
At doubting Whigs the devil laughs,
The Locofocos chuckle.

O come along, &c.

The Locos swore that Harry Clay
Made pledges far too many;
The rascals now abuse Old Zack,
Because he don’t make any.

O come along, &c.

The Taylor platform’s broad enough
To hold this mighty nation;
‘Tis built of Whig materials all,
And has a firm foundation.

O come along, &c.

The Locos tried at Baltimore,
To fix a platform bigger;
They set a “dead-fall,” and for bait
Stuck Cass upon the trigger.

O come along, &c.

The sly old fox of Kinderhook,
He eyes the trap with wonder;
He thought ‘twould do for catching rats,
But “foxes” wouldn’t go under.

O come along, &c.

Tho’ Cass has lived all his six lives
In office, for the trimmings,
Yet Old Zack curries the longest pole,
And he’ll knock all the “‘SIMMONS.”

O come along, &c.

Nine Taylors to make a single man,
We always used to muster;
Take nine such Taylors as Old Zack,
And wouldn’t he be a buster!

O come along, &c.

Then come along with shout and song,
And “go it” strong, we’re able,
W’ell put Old Zack in the White House, boys,
Old Whitey in the White House stable.

O come along &c.

P.S. — Tho’ chicken thieves abuse Old Zack,
They’ll “catch it” if they’re taken,
For tho’ Joe Bennett stole the hog,
He didn’t save his bacon.

O come along, &c.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 12, 1848


(Changed from the N.Y. Tribune.)

“Haul down the flag! — all’s over;
We have done what men could do,
Unbroken through adversity,
A tried and gallant crew;
So it has been with Truth and Right
In every age and clime.
Beaten, — borne down by the numbers, —
And conquered —– for a time.”

Such — when the fight was ending,
And our boldest men turned pale;
For the stoutest hearts had learned to fear
Under that driving gale;
When our ships were drifting helplessly
Upon the heaving tide,
And the good Kentucky liner
Poured in her last broadside —

Such, were our thoughts when beaten;
But how else should it be?
False flags and foreign bottoms
Gathered from every sea,
Freebooters of all nations
That sail the salt sea brine;
Thank God! there wasn’t one of them
Fought in the old Whig Line!

In the rough and bitter weather
And the angry tempest’s frown,
Few Whig ships were left together,
When the dismal sun went down,
Repairing the disasters
Of the storm and battle’s wreck;
But we still hear distant cheering
When we listen from the deck.

None know — so thick the night is,
What ships yet live or drown;
And the Constitution’s color
Are at half-mast, union down;
But the old ship heaves a rocket
Through the darkness for a sign,
And from the whole scattered squadron
See the dancing signals shine!

For the years are rolling over,
And the time has come again;
We have another fight to fight,
Another field to win,
The LAST field — for the country;
If but once more we fail;
Hoist your last rags of canvas,
And TRUST the favoring gale!

We were not always beaten;
Think of the times of yore!
Shake out the ancient ensign
We conquered with before!
The Flag of the Revolution
Flying as first it flew;
Up to the highest topmast!
Send up the Buff and Blue!

With shout for our new Commander,
Roll out that larboard gun,
Signal the beat to quarters,
There are fields yet to be won;
And while he nobly leads us —
While we with him conquering strive,
Nine Cheers for Admiral Taylor,
The bravest man alive!

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 19, 1848

From the Rough and Ready Songster.


Twas in the trench at Vera Cruz,
A group of soldiers lay,
Weary and worn with working
At the guns the live long day.
Their faces were begrimmed with sand,
And soot from shot and shell
Exploding in the crumbling earth —
For fast the missiles fell.

Yet cheerly they chatted,
For their hearts with hope beat high,
They knew the hour of victory
Was surely drawing nigh.
There came a war-worn soldier,
To mingle with the rest;
They bade him welcome to their cheer,
And gave him of the best.

He’d served with General Taylor,
And they asked him of the man,
Who first and last had led the way
To victory in the van —
On the winding Rio Grande
On the eighth and ninth of May,
And the storm of Monterey.

“I knew him first,” the soldier said,
“Among the Everglades,
When we gave the savage red-skins
Our bayonets and our blades.
I think I hear his cheerful voice:
‘On column!’ Steady! steady
So hardy and so prompt was he,
We called him Rough and Ready.

“He rode upon an old white horse;
And wore a brown surtout —
But, oftener, when the ground was deep,
He trudged with us on foot.
The man from whose canteen he drank
Was envied and though lucky;
He had the brave and kind good heart
The honored old Kentucky.

“By wounds outworn, I left the field;
But when a new campaign
Against another foe commenced,
I joined the ranks again.
‘Twas fun alive, boys, once again
To hear the sabre’s clank,
To see old Rough and Ready ride
His white horse on our flank.

“At Palo Alto comrades, there
He gave us work to do,
And o’er La Palma’s sulphury smoke
His flag triumphant flew.
When from the fire his aid-de-camp
Would have the chief retire,
Old Rough and Ready merely said,
‘We’ll ride a little nigher.’

“You should have seen the brave old boy
In the streets of Monterey,
When the cannon swept the plaza,
How he sternly stood at bay.
When shell, and grape, and cannon ball
On their deadly errand went —
The general seemed a man of steel,
And fire his element.

“And if a wounded soldier,
In the streets of Monterey,
Or friend or foe, looked up to him
Imploring, whence he lay,
He stooped to wipe the drops of pain
That dimmed the marble brow,
Or proffered from his own canteen
A drink — I see him now!

“At Red Buena Vista
My part I could not bear —
But they tell me that the brown surtout
And the old white horse were there.
And well do I believe it;
For the foe stood four to one —
And without old Rough and Ready
How had the fight been won?

“I’ve worn the sergeant’s chevron,
And I may wear it yet —
But old Rough and Ready tells me
I shall wear the epaulet;
But in the ranks or out of them,
To him I’ll still prove steady,
And long as I’ve a tongue to talk,
Speak out for Rough and Ready!

So spake the war-worn soldier
To his comrades as they lay
Beneath the breast-work, where they’d served
The guns the live-long day.
And their sleepiness and weariness
It fairly chased away,
When the Rio Grande’s hero
Spoke the man from Monterey.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 26, 1848

A New Taylor Man.

Mr. Willis Hall, the Attorney, has gone over to Van Buren, but Mr. Willis, the Poet, has come over to Gen. Taylor. The exchange is a very good one for our side. We could expect no less from our old coadjutor and assistant, than he should follow the lead of the Mirror, in going for our candidate for the Presidency. The song that we publish from the Boston Atlas, by Mr. Willis, is decidedly the best Taylor song that has yet been published, and is worthy the reputation of the author.
[N.Y. Mirror.


TUNE: — “Dandy Jim of Caroline.” [original song LYRICS]

Come Whigs! come brothers — one and all!
Flock to the “Rough and Ready” call!
Come stand up close and hear our song,
And follow it up with chorus strong!


Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can —
Hero, sage, and kindly man!
In council great as in deadly fray,
But a plain old fellow for every day.

Now, where has been for many a year,
This will so firm — this head so clear?
Such men, for Fame, will oceans swim!
Zack chose that Fame should come to him!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Zack’s coat is loose — his manner’s “rough” —
But, near him, hearts bow fast enough;
And the old great coat will do to wear!
Tho’ a bullet hole shows here and there!*
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

To faithful guard a weary post —
At any odds to fight a host —
To spare the weak — to keep his word —
To hold his own by pen or sword.
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

When Hull’s surrender laid us low,
Fort Harrison next met the foe;
Hope saw the onset in despair —
She didn’t know old Zack was there!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Worth twenty lives, the risk’d renown,
The desp’rate stake, to save Fort Brown!
But Palo Alto clear’d the track,
And through Resaca went Old Zack!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

By ruthless storm, at Monterey,
More proudly might have gone the day —
But wife and child stood by the foe,
And Taylor let the glory go!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

But Polk began a rat to smell; —
Zack serv’d his country quite too well!
To his “high horse” they “hollered whoe!”
But couldn’t stop “old whitey” so!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Supplies cut off — “boys” all away —
In doors, they thought, he’d have to stay,
And now Polk’s passport friend might call,
And laugh at Zack behind his wall.
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Down came Santa Ana, five to one,
With thanks to Polk, expecting fun!
Buena Vista wasn’t far,
Zack let him do his laughing “thar!”
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Hard was the foe that day to drive —
One new recruit to veterans five!
But when it grew too tough, they say,
Old spy-glass came and turn’d the day!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Buena Vista’s star is bright!
But where will fall its purest light!
On Zack’s last order, sad and low —
Bring in the wounded, friend and foe!”
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

A heart with victory softer grown —
A head that knaves soon let alone —
A hand no foe drove ever back —
And a soul all truth has glorious Zack!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor can.

Now if you’d like to know the school
Where Presidents best learn to rule —
Zack’s life is just the very one
God chose to train a Washington!
Toe the mark, ’tis Taylor’s can —
Hero, sage, and kindly man!
In council great, as in deadly fray —
But a plain old fellow for every day.

*NOTE. — It was mentioned in one account of the battle of Buena Vista, that Gen. Taylor’s grey great coat had two bullet-holes through it, when he took it off after the action.
[Boston Atlas.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Oct 31, 1848

From the Newark Daily Advertiser.



Night-shadows fell cold at the closing of day,
Where the morrow should see valor’s contest with numbers;
The bivouaked armies in hostile array
Sank to rest, while the sentries kept watch o’er their slumbers.
‘Neath the stars few to fight the proud foe in his might,
While loved hearts afar, quailed with fear at the sight;
But the soldier reposed, with the dreams of the brave
That the Stars and the Stripes should triumphantly wave.

The drum and the bugle aroused them at morn
And they sprang to their arms for the contest of glory;
Their chieftain that flag, long defeatless, had borne,
With a fame that shall ne’er be forgotten in story.
Like the waves of the main swept their horse o’er the plain,
While red grew each hill and ravine with the slain;
But they saw through the battle cloud’s darkness, the brave,
That star flag, though torn, still triumphantly wave.

O’er wearied they sank on their weapons to rest
When the night-cloud again on their valor descended,
Mid comrades the noblest, the bravest and best
Who slept their last sleep where their courage contended.
But when broke the day, O! where — where were they —
The proud legions of night? — in their fear fled away!
Then gladly they saw that star-flag o’er the brave,
In the sheen of the morning triumphantly wave.

All hail to the Hero who valiantly led
First and foremost the rank of his country’s defenders!
For now we have railed, and made him our head,
First in peace to proclaim him who never surrenders.
The laurel wreath fair from his brow none can tear,
But still greener shall bloom in the President’s chair;
And the nation, rewarding the honest and brave,
Shall behold, its star-banner triumphantly wave.

O! the Ides of November will tell them a tale
In a voice that shall echo like Waterloo’s thunder;
And autumn winds mournfully whistle and wail
A sad dirge for officials who fatten on plunder.
Corruption’s dark blight far shall flee from HIS sight
Who asked for no favors yet feared not the fight;
And as Buena Vista beheld o’er the brave,
That Star-flag o’er us shall triumphantly wave.

NEWARK, Oct. 11, 1848.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Nov 7, 1848

[Written for the Dalem Taylor Glee Club.]


TUNE — “O, carry me back to Old Virginia. [original lyrics and music]

These stirring time — these stirring times —
We’ve worked both night and day,
With rousing speeches and merry rhymes,
Our toil has been but play.
And now we’ve whipped both Cass and Van,
We need not work any more —
Oh row them up the old Salt river,
And set them on the shore.
Oh row them up, &c.

Now the women all, both great and small,
Have gone for honest Zack;
And every married Taylor man
Has a Taylor wife at his back.
While the maidens fair, they all declare,
Their brightest smiles are for
The gallant youth, who love the truth,
And Cass and Van abhor.
Oh row them up, &c.

See in their State, the damsels wait,
On the man they delight to honor;
There’s Flora Day, so far away,
Our blessings rest upon her;
And Delia Ware, so fresh and fair,
Did her hero worship prove;
While Louisa Anna has shown she can a
Fine old veteran love.
Oh row them up, &c.

Miss Carolina she is as fine a
Girl as walks the earth,
And Georgia, too, she is true blue,
And does credit to her birth;
But of all my land, Miss Rhody Island,
Has made it clear to sight,
That Providence smiles on woman’s wiles,
When she uses them aright.
Oh row them up, &c.

We give our hand to Mary Land,
For she’s a real lady;
But Miss. S. Sippi is too tippy,
To vote for Rough and Ready.
Miss Souri and Virginia,
(Now is it not too shocking?)
Say –‘No, we will not let you in,
So prithee ‘stop that knocking.”
So row them up, &c.

Each Taylor man has done what he can,
And worked with right good will,
With thought and sense and eloquence,
That to head and heart appeal,
Yet ’tis but human that every woman
Should in our cause assist;
And all must own, that behind the throne,
Is a power than none can resist.
We’ve rowed them up the old Salt river,
And set them on the shore.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Dec 26, 1848

For the Huron Reflector.



Now the campaign of ’48
Has reached a joyous close!
The Whigs have gained their President,
In spite of all their foes.


And here’s to the Old Keystone State!
For she has nobly done;
And home protection she shall have
Without the advalorem;
Without the advalorem, boys,
Without the advalorem;
And home protection she shall have
Without the advalorem.

The Loco lads unfurled their flag,
With “Cass and Butler too;”
But ‘gainst Old Zack they could not stand,
Old Zack the brave and true.

The leaders thought that all was safe
As in the days of yore;
But the Whigs unfurled a nobler flag,
With “Taylor and Fillmore.”

Now Mat’s retired to private life,
And Butler is no more;
The craft that bore old Cass away,
Has reached Salt River’s shore.


And here’s to the great Empire State,
She has done nobly too;
And out of members thirty-four,
She give us thirty two.
She gives us thirty-two my boys,
She gives us thirty-two;
And out of members thirty-four,
She gives us thirty-two.

The shores are bad, the River rough,
And oh, how hard they toil!
The Locofoco leaders now
For help cry out “Free Soil!”

Ah! doughfaces, hold down your heads,
Your Cass is fairly beat,
By that Free Soil for which he said
We could not legislate.

Call not for shame, upon that name,
Or raise your idle bark?
For when the question was brought up,
You didn’t toe the mark.

That Free Soil robe you have put on,
Will never stand the dye,
‘Tis like the morning’s gossamers
That with the zephyrs fly.

You now may put up tongue and pen;
There’s nothing you can do,
Our Territories come in free
Before next fifty-two!

Old Zack, you’re now our President,
The Whigs fell wondrous nice;
But ere you start from Baton Rouge,
I’ll give you some advice.


And here’s to the New England States!
I know they Slavery hate;
But Free Soil traps could not catch them
With Matty for their bait.
With Matty for their bait, my boys,
With Matty for their bait,
But Free Soil traps could not catch them,
With Matty for their bait.

Now when you go to Washington,
Forget all past abuse;
[But never rest until you’re cleared
Tom Benton’s buzzard roost!

If office-seekers should come round,
Give Jamie Polk a share,
For he has labored wondrous hard
To put you in the Chair.

And as respects your Cabinet,
I have one word to say;
Let your first choice be first in worth,
Our glorious HARRY CLAY.

When legislation gets on smart,
And Jack Calhoun looks sour;
Then Zack, this last advice respect,
Don’t use the Veto power.


Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Dec 26, 1848

From the New-York Tribune.

“So Say we All.”

The other day a  trot came off — ’twas Suffolk versus Polk —
I railwayed to the trotting course, along with many folk;
I staked my cash on “Jemmy K.”  they told me he would win,
But then, too soon I found, alas! that I was taken in.
To Saratoga then I went — to dance I had a will.
And asked a damsel that I saw to dance in the quadrille;
She said me yes — confound the girl, I’d dearly like to choke her,
For she knew how — but I did not — to tumble thro’ the Polka;
Music struck up, and we struck out — oh! ’twas a thing of course;
I lost my BALANCE, as I did when betting on the horse;
And now I hear another Polk will run another race
Upon the Presidential course, against the old “white face.”
But on my life, I swear to you, that General Lewis Cass
Can’t get the man who backed the horse to LOSE UPON THE ASS.


Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 12, 1848

Lewis Cass

When the Locofocos tell us how Gen. Cass behaved on surrendering himself to the British, they take a very unfair advantage of us. We cannot point them to old Rough and Ready’s behavour at a surrender. — Prentice.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Sep 5, 1848


In the book, Lewis Cass and the Politics of Moderation (Google Books LINK) pg. 13: More about the surrender.

Margaret Taylor (Image from

The President elect is a joker. At a tavern in Maryland, while he was waiting for the Baltimore train, among others who introduced themselves was one of the obiquitous Smith family. On hearing the name, Gen. Taylor remarked, with a merry twinkling of the eye —

“That’s no name at all.”

“Why, General,” replied Mr. Smith, “you should have no objection to the name, Mrs. Taylor was a Smith.”

“Yes,” added he promptly, “but I made her change her name, and I advise you to do so too.”

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Apr 3, 1849

Home of Zachary Taylor, "Springfield," Brownsboro Road

Correspondence of the New York Express.

Old Zack at Home.

WASHINGTON, March, 27, 1849.

The President is one of the most humorous and campanionable bodies of the metropolis. — He satisfies everybody here, which is more than anybody else does, and amuses even those who are disappointed. He enjoys himself much, I should think, but whether he does or not, everybody is at home where he is.

Upon the reception days the ladies are first cared for and served. He offers an arm to one, a seat to another, tells a third where his daughter and niece are to be found, and has the faculty of entertaining a dozen at a time. When the ladies are all attended to, he has a kind word for the gentlemen, and a dozen for little children, if any are around him. The more formal visitors address him as “Mr. President;” the less formal as “General Taylor,” which he seems rather to prefer.

There are no servants or attendants about him, and when he wants to see any of his household he goes to them rather than have them come to him. “Excuse me for introducing myself,” said a gentleman the other day. “No excuse is necessary, sir. Here, if anywhere, the people have a right to come without an introduction.”

“I have been a soldier for forty years,” said an old Marylander to him the other day, “but not so successful as you, General Taylor.”

“Only,” said old Zack in reply, “because you had not so many opportunities to win success.”

Old men, young children and ladies, seem to be the favorite companions of the President. For the first he has the respect and care due to old age, for the second, the love of a patriot, and for the last, the gallantry of a soldier and a well bred Southern man.

Truth seems to be with him the highest standard of politeness, and he will not seem what he does not feel and what he is not at heart.

The other day having visited Mrs. John Quincy Adams, and Mrs. Madison, he rode up hill and down dale in pursuit of Mrs. Alexander Hamilton. It was long before he found her, (having recently changed her lodgings,) but he went from one end of the city to the other, and seemed to enjoy the interview mightily.

Indeed the practice of the President is to learn all he can of the past, and from men who knew most of the early Presidents and the early history of the Government. Washington’s farewell address he has treasured up  within his heart of hearts, and Washington’s life and Washington’s example, is the mirror of his own life. “What do you propose,” says a friend to him now and then. “What Washington did,” and he always has a word or incident to illustrate what he means.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) May 8, 1849

Death of the President.

This even, so solemn and important in its character, so sudden and startling in its announcement, has thrown the mantle of unspeakable sorrow over the nation. But sixteen months and a few days had elapsed since ZACHARY TAYLOR assumed the Presidential office, to the period of his death, yet in that brief interval, he had enthroned himself in the affections and confidence of the people, with a power possessed by none of his predecessors save Washington.

Like him, he was “first in war,” leading the armies of the Republic in a perilous contest over doubtful battlefields, every one of which by his prowess was converted into a field of victory. Like him, he was “first in peace,” conducting the difficult and delicate relations of our Government with foreign powers and so perintending its domestic concerns at a period of extraordinary perplexity and trouble, in a manner to promote the general peace and prosperity, and to compel the admiration and gratitude of all nations abroad and all parties at home. In less than five years, he had risen from a station of comparative obscurity, and by the force of his military and civil acts, the wisdom of his public policy, and the virtues of his private character, he had placed himself in advance of all the living men of the nation, “first in the hearts of his countrymen.

He had served his race with the zeal of a Philanthropist, his country with the valor of a Hero, and the devotion of a Patriot, and his God with the fidelity of a Christian. To translate the voice of this great public bereavement, words are weak —

To pronounce his eulogy, they are needless.

Let his last words be his only epitaph, “I am prepared — I have endeared to do my duty.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jul 16, 1850


The following brief sketch of Gen. TAYLOR’s career we take from the Inquirer. The events of his life within the last four years are too familiar to the public, to need a more extended recapitulation. The renown of the Mexican campaign has added a page to the history of the country which will be repeated for ages, and the name of Taylor will be mentioned whenever courage, exalted patriotism and public worth are spoken of:

Gen. Taylor was born in Orange county, Va., in 1790 [24 Nov 1784]. His father, Col. Taylor, served in the war of the revolution, and in 1789 emigrated from Virginia to Kentucky, where he bore a conspicuous part in the labors and struggles of the early settlers. In May, 1808, Zachary Taylor was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the 7th Regiment of U.S. Infantry. In 1812 he was captain, and placed in command of Fort Harrison on the Wabash. When the war with Great Britain commenced, the fort was attacked by 400 Indians, and for his successful defence of it, he was brevetted major. After that war, he received the rank of colonel and during the Black-Hawk war in 1832, distinguished himself at the battle of Bad-axe, whice resulted in the capture of Black-Hawk and the Prophet.

In 1836, he was ordered to Florida in command of a separate column, and in December, 1837, fought at the battle of Okee-cho-bee, which resulted in the total defeat of a large body of the Indians. In May, 1845, Texas was annexed to the Union, and in the August following, Gen. Taylor, then in command of the first department of the army, proceeded with a portion of his troops to Corpus Christi. On the 11th of March, 1846, he took up his line of march for the Rio Grande, where he arrived on the 28th. On the 12th of April he was summoned by the Mexican General to evacuate his post on the river, which he refused to do.

On the 1st of May he left his entrenchments, opposite Matamoras, to open the communication with point Isabel. On the 8th of May, on his return to relieve Fort Brown, which was bombarded by the Mexicans, he was encountered by 6000 of the enemy at Palo Alto, whom he defeated. His own force consisted of two thousand one hundred men. The next day, the 9th, he again met them at Resaca de la Palmo, and after a hard-fought battle, routed them with slaughter, and took possession of Matamoras. These two signal victories, obtained with such disparity of force, produced an enthusiastic admiration of Gen. Taylor, and of his gallant companions in arms.

On the 21st and 22d of September he assaulted Monterey, a fortified city in Mexico, which, after a desperate resistance, capitulated. On the 22d of February, 1847, with a force consisting of five thousand men, (General Wool being second in command,) he encountered the Mexicans at Buena Vista, under Santa Anna, twenty thousand strong, and totally defeated them.

On the 14th February, 1849, on an examination of the electoral votes for President and Vice President, he was declared duly elected President of the United States, and was inaugurated on the 4th [5th] of March following. He thus occupied the office of Chief Magistrate a few days more than sixteen months.

Tioga Eagle (Wellsboro, Pennsylvania) Jul 17, 1850

NOTE: The above article gives a good, brief, biographical summary, but some of the dates are off, which I have noted, and there are also several typos/spelling errors, which I left in.


Zachary Taylor Memorial on Find-A-Grave

Forgotten Presidents

Absquatulators! Whigs vs. Locofocos

November 14, 2009

From the O.S. Journal.

Inverse “Absquatulation” — The Tables Turned — The Ass Standing to Hay, but wouldn’t eat!

The scene in the Senate, yesterday afternoon, on the passage of the bill to amend the Congressional Districting law, was “rich” (as the Senator from Hamilton would say) beyond anything that has been witnessed this session. The majority proceeded with the business before them very orderly, and with no seeming haste, offering to the minority full swing at the bill. In the first place, it will be remembered, the State Printer discovered that the copy of the bill laid on the table of Senators, was a “forgery.” This astute discovery being exposed, what was next to be done? There was a bill — it was no forgery — should they stand up to the rack “fodder or no fodder,” or should they “absquatulate.” —

Unfortunately, they had passed a law during the session of 1842-‘3, when running over with patriotism at the outrageous conduct of the Whigs, which might be a little troublesome should they attempt that Constitutional remedy, so they began casting about for a substitute. They could play Dummy! — So they opened their mouths and proclaimed aloud that they couldn’t talk! — they would walk up to the rack, but they wouldn’t touch that bundle of hay, the vile thing — their “democratic” stomachs revolted at being obliged to eat their own trash — no! they would starve first! — they felt indignant! — and if the majority would stuff them, they would stand mute, their mouths sealed, and if all their friends would do the same thing, it would be some time before the majority got the bundle of hay eaten — that it would! — (Here the scene changed — the open mouths were shut — and there sat the Senators, the one from Hamilton and the one from Richland taking the lead, playing “absquatulation” on an inverse rule. They would not speak, not they — the majority might whisk the bundle of hay under their noses, but they wouldn’t open their mouths, if they died for it!)

At this point of the proceedings, a new act in the drama was being enacted by the majority. The first part had been broad farce — that which was to follow, was clearly tragi-comical. Mr. Kelley, from Franklin, rose, and began reading the proceedings of “an unprecedentedly large  meeting of citizens from different portions of Ohio, convened at the Market-house in Columbus, on the evening of Tuesday, August 11th, 1842,” to express their opinion of absquatulation in the abstract and in the concrete — of “absquatulaton” direct, and of “absquatulaton” inverse.

At this meeting presided as Chairman, “the Hon. DAVID T. DISNEY, of Hamilton county.” Mr. K. read the patriotic remarks of the Hon. Chairman, on taking the Chair, in explanation of the objects of the meeting. “This is no matter of party interest,” said the eloquent chairman — “it is above and beyond mere party — it is one which appeals to the heart and judgment of every man — it is an assault upon your Constitution — it is a dissolution of your Government.”

During the reading of the very moving remarks of the chairman, the muscles of the Senator from Hamilton were observed to twitch. The scene was “rich, racy, to use his own favorite expression.

It was supposed too that some slight recollection of the provisions of the Constitution was flitting across the minds of the dumb members, just at this time, wherein it is provided — that “each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, and punish its members for disorderly behavior.” There was a rule compelling the members to think of absquatulation direct, that is, resigning, when they would no longer be members. But then it occurred to the logical mind of the member from Richland, that it was not “disorderly” to refuse to talk. He seemed to think that “disorder” consisted in kicking up a fuss generally, like the member from Hamilton in the lower House — taking off your coat, rolling up your sleeves, and kicking up your heels. And “absquatulation” inverse, was not “absquatulation” direct — for though the mind might be absent, the body was there. They could count their bodies, but they couldn’t count their noes, for they wouldn’t open their mouths, Constitution or no Constitution!

Well — there say the Dummys. Mr. Kelley proceeded with the reading of the proceedings. He had got through with the pathetic speech of the Chairman, and he came next to the preamble of the Resolutions. From this he read — “And, whereas, the power to repeal the bill about to be passed, was boldly claimed upon the floor of the Senate, by one of the Senators who aided in this revolutionary attempt, AND THAT POWER NEVER DENIED, it is now too late to claim that if the law was odious to the People, still would it be saddled upon them for the next ten years”!!!

At the reading of this, the lips of the Dummys dropped, and it was supposed they would open their mouths. But this bill does not follow out the remedy above conceded — it does not repeal, it only AMENDS! Of course, said the Senator of Hamilton to himself, I admit the doctrine of Repeal — ain’t I going for repeal of the Bank Law? To be sure I am — and if these Whigs would only go for Repeal, I would be with ’em but not to amend! No, no — repeal, destroy, break down, but never amend and build up!

— In this state of suspense the bill was gone through with, and put on its passage in the Senate. The time had arrived for seeing how many intended to play “absquatulation” in dumb show. The Constitution requires a quorum of two-thirds to do business. The question was put — a sufficient number, under a sense of duty imposed by their oaths while members, answered to their names to make a quorum, and the bill passed. Thus ended “absquatulation” inversed — and so ended this game of wickeness and folly. We have not heard this morning from the Dummys, whether they have recovered their speech or not. The bill has yet to pass the House.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Mar 18, 1845


Alfred Kelley

Alfred Kelley: His Life and Work

by the Hon. James L. Bates 1888 (Read it online HERE)

Locofoco “Absquatulation.”

Our readers will learn, by perusing the proceedings of the State Legislature, that the Locofoco members of the Senate arrested the proceedings of that body on the 14th instant, by absenting themselves from the Senate chamber while the Apportionment Bill was under consideration in that body. This high-handed act was committed by every Locofoco member of the Senate, with the exception of Messrs. Archbold and Spindler, thus leaving the Senate without a quorum for the transaction of further business. A call of the Senate took place, and the proper officer sent for the absentees, who announced that he could find but two of them, and that they refused to return to the Senate. The reason the “Absquatulators” assign for the course they have pursued, is, that the majority were about to pass an Apportionment Bill which contained a provision for dividing the county of Hamilton into two districts, which provision they claim to be unconstitutional; and rather than see the constitution violated, they say they were determined to commit the “treasonable” act of breaking up the Legislature, and dissolving the State Government. They well knew that unless the present Legislature passed a law to apportion the members among the several counties of the State, there existed no authority under the constitution for holding another election for members of the Legislature, and that the State Government would be at an end, — and yet they deliberately vacated their seats.

We are somewhat anxious to know what our neighbors of the Experiment will say to this “treasonable” act of his Locofoco brethren. —

When the Whig Senators resigned, at the extra session in 1842, for the purpose of preventing the passage of the bill to divide the State into Congressional Districts, no person was louder or more bitter in his denunciations of those who felt it their duty to defeat that unjust measure in the only constitutional manner that was left to them, than the editor of the Experiment. Their resignations, too, only had the effect of postponing the apportionment bill until the next session of the Legislature, and the people then had ample time to elect their Congressmen before they were required to assemble at the national capital. But now, the absence of the Locofoco Senators, if persisted in, will prevent an organization of the State Government next winter — leave the office of Auditor of State vacant — defeat, among other important measures, the passage of the bill making appropriations for the support of the State Government for the ensuing year — and leave the affairs of our State in confusion.

The Statesman and other Locofoco papers, uphold and approve the course pursued by the refractory Senators, and we have no doubt our neighbor will be found following in the footsteps of his illustrious leader — Sam Medary.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Feb 22, 1848


Samuel Medary

For more on Samuel Medary:

Historical Collections Relating to Gwynedd (Pennsylvania)
By Howard M. Jenkins
Second Edition 1897

Scroll down a bit HERE.

The Legislature.

This body adjourned sine die on Friday last, having been in session about eleven weeks, during which time a large amount of business has been accomplished. The session was prolonged somewhat in consequence of the factious course pursued by the fifteen Locofoco “Absquatulaors.”

The bill dividing the State into Legislative districts for the ensuing four years, which caused so much squirming among the Locofoco, became a law in spite of the fifteen Locofoco Senators who fled from the Senate at the bidding of Sam Medary, and issued their decrees from “No. 18.” We learn from the Cleveland Herald, that the following is the mudus operandi by which the bill was passed into a law:

The Senatorial Absquatulators and their party associates in the House who had signed and sealed a contract to back up the revolution, were completely out-generaled in the final action on the apportionment bill, and by one of the quietest as well as most worthy men in the house.

The House some time previous passed the Senate Apportionment Bill with amendments. It was sent to the Senate for concurrence. The Senate disagreed. The House insisted on its amendments — then moved a reconsideration, and receded from some of its amendments. — The bill was again sent to the Senate. The Senate were about to take the vote upon the question of concurring with the remaining House amendments, when the absquatulation took place. Peaceful and legal measures were employed to bring the recreants back to duty, and these failing, the Whigs of the House “did up the job in a hurry.”

In pursuance to a preconcerted arrangement, when the Locos in the House were somewhat off their guard, Mr. Park, of Lorain, rose and offered a resolution, which he sent to the chair. Now Mr. P. is a philanthropist as well as a Solon, and a portion of his business this session as well as the previous one, had been to get the Legislature to allow a cripple among his constituents by the name of Coppins, to peddle without license. Of course when Mr. P. offered his resolution the Locos thought it must pertain to the Coppins project, and paid no attention to it. What made them still more off their guard was the fact that the Speaker was not in the Chair, but it was occupied at the time by Dr. Truesdale, of Trumbull. The resolution was read rather rapidly, the Whigs voting  Aye, and the Locos two or three of them saying No, and it was declared carried before the opposition collected themselves enough to ask for a division of the question, to call the ayes and nays, or to absquatulate!

When they finally came to their senses, they found that the resolution declared that the House receded from all the amendments of the House to the Apportionment Bill, which the Senate had not concurred in, and that the bill was a law!

Uncle Toby says “our army swore terribly in Flanders,” but that swearing we are told, was not a priming to the oaths of Ohio Locofocoism at the successful maneuvre of Mr. Park, of Lorain. Absquatulation at once fizzled out! and the Legislators who had sneaked to the tavern, sneaked back to the Senate Chamber! —

Farmer Park had blocked the Revolution!

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Feb 29, 1848

The Revolution — The Great Day.

Thanks to the vigilance of our city authorities or to some other cause, no violence has yet been perpetrated, no wrong has been done, no hen roost has been robbed, no watchful mother goose had been untimely torn from her callow offspring.

Rain, that stern and relentless enemy of popular movements, sat in early in the morning, and has fallen during the whole day; and powder and patriotism have alike suffered under the influence of its rigid conversatism. The advances of the Revolutionary army have been made under cover of their umbrellas; and have given no alarm and done no damage.

The plan of taking possession of the vacant public buildings at Franklinton, organizing there a provisional government, and making that place the capital of the State of Locodom, which was projected yesterday, has, as we are informed, been abandoned, at least until the weather changes.

— O.S. Jour.


The agony is over. The long talked of Convention of the disorganizing, revolutionary Democracy has met and separated. The great cloud which arose with so much bluster, has spent itself in wind, and now is not even so large as Tom Thumb’s hand. The great bull-frogs of the party; as John Brough and others of acknowledged parts, hopped about a little, with an occasional boo-o-boo, marked with the melancholy languor which distinguishes the moanings of a dying calf. The reptile tribe, who have been for years winding their coils tighter and tighter about the consumption-stricken carcass of Locofocoism, as Sam Medary and his abettors, moving sluggishly in their slimy beds, emitting now and then a hiss which only served to make the little polliwogs of the Democratic family, wiggle their little tails like mad. Yes, the agony is over, and the sun shines as brightly as ever, the stars twinkle at night, without any apparent diminution of lustre, the earth rolls along in her orbit, and thank fortune the constitution still stands! Law and order reigns, and the evil day — the day of anarchy and blood, if not altogether abolished, is at least far away.

Cleveland Herald.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) May 23, 1848


Below is an excerpt that gives some context to the above news articles. To read more, click the link below.

Volume 38 OHIO HISTORY: The Scholarly Journal of the Ohio Historical Society

Party Politics in Ohio, 1840-1850 (continued)
by Edgar Allan Holt



The first Ohio State Constitution provided that the General Assembly should apportion representation among the several counties in proportion to population.

The controversy over the constitutionality of the act passed by the Whig Legislature on February 18, 1848, in accordance with this provision of the State Constitution, became so bitter that it convulsed the State for two years; interrupted legislative procedure for weeks; led to a realignment of parties and to the election of Salmon P. Chase to the United States Senate.

Before the State elections were held in October, 1847, attention had been called by Whig papers to the need of a fair districting of the State, on the ground that the Democrats had been able to control the General Assembly, previously, by gerrymandering. The issue assumed additional importance because upon the 1848-1849 Legislature depended the election of a successor to William Allen to the United States Senate. The Hamilton Intelligencer favored dividing the State into single member districts; and the Clermont Courier recalled how the Democrats in 1839-1840 had united Clermont, Brown, and Clinton Counties in order to overcome Whig majorities.

Reapportionment had not figured in the campaign of 1847, and the Democratic leaders, therefore, were all the more surprised, when on January 12, 1848, an apportionment measure was introduced by the Whigs in the Senate, providing among other things, for the division of Hamilton County into two electoral districts and assigning two senators and five representatives to the whole County as before. This measure the Democrats denounced as unfair, unjust and unconstitutional, and centered their fire on the proposed division of Hamilton County.

Rats in the House That Jack Built

January 20, 2009
Rat in the House that Jack Built

Rat in the House that Jack Built

The Arkansas delegation in Congress are singular fellows — singular, because Van Buren member of Congress, and yet quite honest. We have already amused our readers by sundry extracts from the blunt denunciations of the corruptions of the party to which they belong, which have fallen from the lips of Senator Sevier and Representative Yell. — The latter gentleman has been again applying the lash to his delinquent friends. Some proposition of the party being before the House, proposing the expenditure of several hundred thousand dollars, Mr. Yell broke out into the following exclamation, “is this the time,” said he, “for us to think of useless taxation, and useless expenditure? What is our condition? AN EMPTY TREASURY — A NATIONAL DEBT — A VILIFIED CREDIT!” Verily, here is a yell for you! The picture of the national degradation brought upon the country by the empiricism of Van Buren, is drawn with a pencil light! But hear Yell yet a while longer. Hear him describe his fellows of the House — the real Simon Pure hard-money-Loco-foco-Democratic-people-loving-money-hating, “cats and rats” of Van Burenism and their masters, who have kept them sleek and plump by good feeding!


“Mr. Speaker, it is not to be denied that there are in this House cats and rats — I certainly do not intend to offer any term reproach or discourtesy to any gentleman, when I make use of such epithets — who have for years been struggling, and often with too much success, to clutch the malt, and carry it away from the House that Jack built. The fact has been known to all — the late and present Executive have both been aware of the fact — and if I have any language of censure or of reproach to add, it must be found in a well grounded complaint that they have not drawn the offending rats from their hiding places, dismissed them from their confidence, and held them up to public reprobation.” — Journal and Register.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) July 17, 1838

The House That Jack Built

Other Political Uses From Wikipedia:

  • Thomas Jefferson, prior to serving as President, first used it to criticize the broad construction approach of the “necessary and proper” clause of the U.S. Constitution with respect to a bill to grant a federal charter to a mining company. The term was used to suggest that the expansion of federal powers under these arguments would give the federal government infinite powers. “Congress are authorized to defend the nation. Ships are necessary for defense; copper is necessary for ships; mines, necessary for copper; a company necessary to work the mines; and who can doubt this reasoning who has ever played at ‘This is the House that Jack Built’? Under such a process of filiation of necessities the sweeping clause makes clean work.”
  • One of the “Political Miscellanies” associated with the Rolliad, an 18th century British satire, was “This Is the House That George Built”, referring to George Nugent Grenville, Marquess of Buckingham, who had briefly supported William Pitt the Younger into government before resigning from office. The parody is attributed to Joseph Richardson.