Posts Tagged ‘Slavery’

Where Shall The Line Be Drawn?

August 13, 2012

ALL THINGS CONSIDERED

By HOWARD VINCENT O’BRIEN.

PRACTICALLY all the hubbub over the course of events comes down to dispute over where the line shall be drawn between collectivism and individualism.

Men are uncomfortably aware that they are dependent upon the good will and energy of other men for the food they eat and the clothes they wear, but an unquenchable egoism makes them assert stoutly that no one is going to tell them how to run their affairs, that they will not be regimented, that no army of tax-eating bureaucrats is going to lay their fortunes waste.

But no matter how rugged the individual may be, he has no desire to carry his own letters, put out his own fires, or sit up all night with a shotgun, guarding his own strongbox.

Is there any solution for this dilemma?

HATHI TRUST – Digital Library – Prohibiting Poverty

Prohibiting Poverty

Certainly there is a solution, says Prestonia Mann Martin. In her pamplet, “Prohibiting Poverty,” she cuts the knot with the sword of compromise. “The problem has been how to attain safety without losing freedom. The solution,” she says, “lies in a simple compromise between socialism and individualism by applying one to necessaries and the other to luxuries.”

Admitting that as a “plain woman” she understands nothing about money except that it is obviously at the bottom of a system which creates surplus of wealth and prevents its distribution, she proposes a system which will function without money. Meat and potatoes are things, she days; money is only a formula.

Nothing could be simpler than her plan. By it every able-bodied young person would be drafted for economic service at the age of 18, and for eight years would serve without pay in an army of production called the “commons.” These soldiers of peace, attacking what William James called “the moral equivalent of war,” would hew wood, draw water and in general produce the necessities of life for themselves and the rest of the population.

They would not be paid, they could not marry, they would have no vote and — suggests Mrs. Martin — they would not be allowed to drink.

Reward of Toil

This sounds like peonage. But wait! At the age of 26 the toilers would be free, with a livelihood guaranteed for the rest of their days. Having served their term as collectivists, they would become “capitals,” free to engage in any activity that profited or amused them. Life in the “capitals would be just as it is today, except that the necessity of earning one’s daily bread would be removed. A “capital” could go into business (luxury goods or services only), amass a fortune, wear diamonds and own yachts. Or, if he chose, he could lie on his back, playing the mouth organ. No woman would have to marry for a home, because she, too, would be independent.

“The ‘commons’ would constitute, in effect, a colossal insurance company, nation-wide, embracing every citizen without exception, which would issue a guaranteed policy of economic security in favor of every one, its premiums to be paid, not in cash but in work, and its benefits distributed, not in unstable currency but in what is more useful and stable, namely, necessary goods and services.”

Obligatory Labor

To one who objects that this is slavery, the author points out that education is compulsory — with no objections. And she suggests that some day necessary labor will be equally obligatory and accepted as a matter of course.

Beyond doubt the scheme is attractive. Who wouldn’t consent to eight years of labor in exchange for a lifetime free from care? Furthermore, there is no reason to suppose that the plan would not work. Twelve million young people, working together and using the latest machinery, could undoubtedly produce the necessities for 10 times their number. Furthermore, they would probably enjoy the work, as, from all accounts, the young people of Russia enjoy their contribution to Communism. Certainly the youth of 18 would prefer eight years with pick and shovel, with the guarantee of a free future, to four years with books and the assurance of perpetual insecurity.

Will It Be Tried?

The plan is so neat, so absurdly simple, offhand, that nothing like it will be tried in a world that always prefers complexity for the solution of its difficulties. And yet, what is the CCC but a step in this direction? And the CCC seems, on the whole, the most successful of the Roosevelt ventures along new roads.

The plan can hardly be called “practical.” But neither were the plans of Walter the Penniless or — to take a more modern instance — were the plans of John Brown.

Some day Mrs. Martin may have a monument, too.

(Copyright, 1934)

Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York) Jul 21, 1934

Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune (Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin) Apr 17, 1935

*   *   *   *   *

From the Free Republic:  Regarding the friendly relationship and influences between progressives and fabians:

*Read more at the link.

Mentioned in the Free Republic article above: the Ruskin Colony, an unsuccessful utopian community. – See previous post.

A Sharp’s Rifle Sermon

June 10, 2012

Image from NPS – Firearms Used At Fort Smith

A Sharp’s Rifle Sermon.

The Albany Statesman has the following letter from the “Rev. Dr. Screecher” to his friend and brother, “Horace Steely,” dated at the “Parsonage of Church of Holy Rifles.”

Horace Greeley image from Mr. Lincoln and New York

MY DEAR BROTHER: — I preached last Sunday, with great acceptance, from the text “Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature.” The house was full, and I had a good time. Much additional interest was thrown around the service from the fact that a large company of freedom-shriekers, on their way to Kanzas, were present. I combatted the old fashioned notions, and, I think, successfully, that the religion of the New Testament was to bring peace on earth and good will to men. I showed the fallacy of all those teachings of the Apostles which speak of rendering unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s — of being subject to the higher powers, because they were ordained of God, &c., &c. I admitted that there was a time when these injunctions were imperative and binding; but I proved, and, I think, clearly, that theology, like all other sciences, is progressive, and that steam engines and Sharp’s rifles are now the true Evangels. In conformity with this position, I assume that the word translated “preach” should be rendered “shoot,” so that the text, as in my version, would read: “Go ye into all the world and shoot the gospel (from Sharp’s rifles) at every creature.” The more I reflect upon the subject the more I am persuaded that this is the true mode of gospel propagandism.

With Sharp’s rifles, and the bible for wadding, scripture truth can be sent directly home to the hearts of the people, and be inwardly digested by them.

Brother Kill’em (glorious name, how I love it!) has sent one of these missionaries to Kanzas, and many others among the meek and lowly disciples are following his example. The thing takes wonderfully, and it is a capital hit for the Screecher family. My dear brother, it would have done your heart good to have witnessed those Kanzasians listening to the truth as it is in Screecher. With many of them you are acquainted. They have passed through all the phases of Fourierism, Socialism and Free-Loveism up to the sublime heights of Rifleism. —

With their long hair, slouched hats and blouses, they were the true-ideals of the Tribune office. But it is not alone for propagaing the gospel in Kanzas that my people are becoming distinguished. I notice that one member of my church has bet one thousand dollars that he will find and kill the man who three vitriol on his child’s dress for a few days since. —

Thus the work goes on: Let us persevere, and the time will soon come when rifles and bowie-knives will supercede the necessity for Bible truth and Gospel preaching.

Fraternally yours,

W.H. SCHREECHER.

Allen County Democrat (Lima, Ohio) May 24, 1856

From United States History — Bleeding Kansas:

The abolitionist preacher, Henry Ward Beecher, collected funds to arm like-minded settlers (the precision rifles were known as “Beecher’s Bibles”). Fewer Southerners showed interest in settling in Kansas, but proslavery communities were formed at Leavenworth and Atchison.

A Difference

May 11, 2012

A Difference.

John Brown made an unlawful attempt to destroy slavery, which resulted in the killing of a dozen men. He was arrested, tried and hung.

Jefferson Davis made an unlawful attempt to perpetuate slavery, which resulted in the death of a million men. He is in durance vile, but from present indications stands a hundred chances of being the next President to one of being hung. From all of which we gather that it is treason worthy of death to take up arms against slavery, and no treason to take up arms for its perpetuation. —

If Jefferson Davis is not hung, the execution of John Brown was cold and unjustifiable murder.

The Hillsdale Standard (Hillsdale, Michigan) May 22, 1866

*****

More about the above image from Roy Rosenweig Center for History and New Media:

This lithograph, rather than depicting the scene of Jefferson Davis’ arrest, added other symbols to create a more allegorical representation of the Confederate President’s capture by Union soldiers. Davis, wearing a woman’s dress and bonnet, sits in a birdcage suspended from a hangman’s scaffold. Next to the cage, John Brown, clad in a white robe, rises from out of the ground and points accusingly at Davis. Beneath the cage, diminutive figures of African Americans — in costumes familiar from minstrel stage representations of supposed black character “types” — perform a jubilant and mocking dance. Brown became the most famous martyr to the anti-slavery cause in 1859, when he led a small band of armed men in a raid against the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, intending to seize the weapons there and free all slaves in the vicinity. Brown and his associates were captured and hanged for treason.

Source: G. Querner, John Brown Exhibiting His Hangman, lithograph, Cincinnati, 1863.

JEFF. DAVIS.

What the Mother of a Soldier Starved at Anderson Thinks.

From the Cincinnati Commercial, June 1.

EDS. COM. — In your paper of yesterday you say “There is no great eagerness for the hanging of Jeff. Davis. The best public opinion is that he ought to have been permitted to run away, or killed on the spot when captured, and that he should now be set ashore upon the continent of Africa,” etc.

I am the mother of one of the bravest of volunteer soldiers, who served his country during the late war, and died, with the thousands of her sons, at Andersonville, under the treatment of Jeff. Davis.

What I want the Government whom these men served, and for whom they were so cruelly murdered, to assure us, their surviving friends, is that we are not to be insulted by the liability of meeting that murderer face to face in the streets or highways of his native land. I cannot imagine that the Government contemplates inflicting such a torture on its own friends, as this possibility.

Perhaps we had a right to demand his death — perhaps there is not one of us who would not almost have given their own life to have been allowed to take his — perhaps in the history of the world there has never been an instance of a man who has so barbarously treated his prisoners, being, in return, pampered with luxuries and indulgencies, and invited, as it were, to live, by the very polite government for whom our poor boys have been sacrificed.

Is he to have his health carefully considered, who refused to shelter from the cold, the heat and the storm, the sick and dying of our army? — Dying a thousand deaths in this monstrous captivity, without a friend to help them, and we, their nearest and dearest, expected to sit by with complacency and read the reports of this man’s trumpery nerves, published to excite commiseration for his fate?

Should the Government again require volunteer help, what amount does it expect from the families of the thousands who are lying at Andersonville?

Will the press befriend those whom all other powers have deserted?

A BEREAVED MOTHER.

The Hillsdale Standard (Hillsdale, Michigan) Jun 12, 1866

The House that Jeems Built

January 16, 2012

Image from U.S. History ImagesBleeding Kansas

THE HOUSE THAT JEEMS BUILT. —

Kansas with Slavery. — This is the house that Jeems built.

Southern influence and Gold. — This is the malt that lay in the house that Jeems built.

Shannon. — This is the rat that eat the malt that lay in the house that Jeems built.

Walker. — This is the cat that killed the rat that eat the malt that lay in the house that Jeems built.

Lecompton Constitution — This is the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that eat the malt that lay in the house that Jeems built.

Douglas — This is the cow with crumpled horn that tossed the dog, that worried the cat that killed the rat that eat the malt that lay in the house that Jeems built.

Kansas without Slavery — This is the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that eat the malt that lay in the house that Jeems built.

The Union. — This is the man all tattered and torn that married the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that eat the malt that lay in the house that Jeems built.

The American People. — This is the priest all shaven and shorn that married the man all tattered and torn unto the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that eat the malt that lay in the house that Jeems built.

Kansas Crusader for Freedom.

The Berkshire County Eagle (Pittsfield, Massachusetts) Mar 5, 1858

Our Federal Constitution is Good; but…

August 31, 2011

TO LIBERTY PARTY VOTERS.

As Liberty men we love to contemplate the principles which we have embraced, the grounds which constituted the necessity for a distinct political organization, and the reasons why we should remain firm and uncompromising in maintaining the position which we have assumed. In this field of intellectual action we feel at home; strong in the consciousness of pure motives and upright aims; and rejoicingly assured that truth and reason and justice and patriotism and philanthropy are, fully and forever, the patrons and duties of our great enterprise.

But in view of the nearness of an election, (especially and particularly important, of course, as every election was and is and will ever be,) we feel an interest in our cause, in some respects, beyond what we are wont to feel. We know that every election is, more or less, a crisis in the political history and course of a numerous class of voters. A time when their political character and principles are severely tried by every thing in the shape of argument and motive which political opponents and selfish partisan demagogues can employ to influence them.

As freemen, feeling a solemn responsibility for a wise and upright and conscientious use of the elective franchise, and being virtually sworn to such a course, it would sadly belie our principles and our professions if we were to suffer any individual preference, or former party attachment, or any little interest of a local or temporary nature, in any instance, to determine our course at the ballot box.

Ours is the party which recognises, and avows, and strives to maintain in political action, the good old principles of the fathers if this Republic, vis: to act and to vote in reference to those interests which are of a far-reaching and an enduring character; to act and to vote with a view to the good of the whole community; the good of the distant future; the good of posterity; the good of the great human family; and not in reference to the little interests of a narrow locality or an evanescent occasion.

Ours are not principles recently avowed for the first time, nor of a mushroom growth, nor of a character which betokens for them a sickly and short-lived existence. They are principles as old as the nature of man. They are principles constitutionally inherent in human nature; and can never cease to be so, unless the social and moral nature of man is brought to undergo a radical change. They are the grand centre principles of our Declaration of Independence. They are the foundation principles of the American Constitution. Principles, s????y identical with the universal equality, and the inherent nature of the rights of all human beings.

Image from Undoctrination.org

Our Declaration of Independence is good; but for a long course of years, and in a rapidly increasing degree, we have seen its principles disregarded, and virtually annulled, by those at the helm of our political affairs. Our Federal Constitution is good; but long, and shamefully, and sacrilegiously have we seen it perverted, and rendered subservient to purposes which its whole spirit and character do most obviously and heartily abhor. Our representative form of government is good; but, by the provision for slave representation, it has been made permanently, and in an ever increasing degree, an engine for bringing the rights and interests of the many into subjection to the will of the few.  Our Federal Union is good; but, by the constant ascendency and domination of the slave power, the free states have long been becoming, more and more, the abettors and coadjutors in the work of fostering and extending the institution of slavery.

Let us now glance at the past course and present condition of the two great political parties; and notice their bearings and tendency in reference to the prospective or probable success of our favorite enterprise and principles.

We invite your attention, then, to the present position of the (so called) Democratic party. Its history is familiar to those who have been candid enough to read it impartially. All know that it has grown old in a course of subserviency to the slave power. The dictum of that power has been the law of that party; and the extension of that power the great end to which the action of that party has been directed. It was with that party in the ascendency that Louisiana was purchased, with northern money, for the purpose of doubling the slave territory of the Union. It was under the auspices of that party that the infamous Missouri compromise, in favor of slavery, was effected. It was under Democratic rule that the plighted faith of our nation, in more than forty Indian treaties, was wantonly violated for the gratification of slaveholders. The grand national negro hunt in Florida, with the Cuban bloodhounds for our allies, and the crusade against Mexico, will remain through all coming time, way-marks in the history of the past course of that party….

American Freeman (Prairieville, Wisconsin) Sep 18, 1844


DEMOCRACY.

BY JOHN G. WHITTIER.

“All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you do ye even so to them.”
[Mat. vil. 12.

Oh! fairest born of  Love, and Light,
Yet bending brow and eye severe
On all which pains the holy sight,
Or wounds the generous ear:

Beautiful yet thy temples rise,
Though there profaning gifts are thrown;
And fires unkindled of the skies
Are glaring on thy altar-stone.

Still sacred — tho’ thy name be breathed
By those whose hearts thy truth deride,
And garlands, pluck’d from thee, are wreathed
Around the haughty brows of Pride.

Oh! ideal of my boyhood’s time!
The faith in which my father stood,
Even when the sons of Lust and Crime
Had stained thy peaceful courts with blood!

Still to those courts my foot-steps turn,
For through the mists which darken there
I see the flame or Freedom burn —
The Kebla of the patriot’s prayer!

The generous feeling, pure and warm,
Which owns the rights of ALL divine —
The pitying heart — the helping arm —
The prompt, self-sacrifice — are thine.

Beneath thy broad, impartial eye,
How fade the lines of caste and birth!
How equal in their suffering lie
The groaning multitudes of earth.

Still to a stricken brother true,
Whatever clime hath nurtured him;
As stooped to heal the wounded Jew
The worshipper on Gerizim.

By misery unrepelled, unawed
By pomp, or power, thou seest a MAN
In prince or peasant — slave or lord —
Pale priest, or swarthy artisan.

Through all disguise, form, place, or name,
Beneath the flaunting robes of sin,
Through poverty and squalid shame,
Thou lookest on the man within;

On man as man, retaining yet,
Howe’er debased, and soiled, and dim,
The crown upon his forehead set —
The immortal gift of God to him.

And there is reverence in thy look;
For that frail form which mortals wear
The Spirit of the Holiest took,
And veiled His perfect brightness there.

Not from the cold and shallow fount
Of vain philosophy thou art;
He who of old on Syria’s mount
Thrilled, warmed by turns the listener’s heart.

In holy words which cannot die,
In thoughts which angels leaned to know,
Proclaimed thy message from on high —
Thy mission to a world of wo.

That voice’s echo hath not died!
From the blue lake of Gallilee,
And Tabor’s lonely mountain side,
It calls a struggling world to thee.

Thy name and watchward o’er this land
I hear in every breeze that stirs,
And round a thousand altars stand
Thy banded party worshippers.

Not to these altars of a day,
At party’s call, my gift I bring;
But on thy olden shrine I lay
A freeman’s dearest offering!

The voiceless utterance of his will —
His pledge to Freedom and to Truth,
That Manhood’s heart remembers still
The homage of his generous youth.

American Freeman (Prairieville, Wisconsin) Sep 18, 1844

10 Year-Old Slave Girl Goes on a Murdering Spree

March 2, 2009
Unprotected Spring

Unprotected Spring

BALTIMORE, May 15.

HORRIBLE DEPRAVITY.

Otho Shipley, of Baltimore county, 23 miles from the city of Baltimore, on going to the spring about 5 weeks since, found one of his children, three years old, dead in the spring, the water in which, was not more than three or four inches deep; suspicions resting upon no particular person, it was supposed to have been an accident. The spring was afterwards covered with boards, sufficient room only being left to dip out the water. About two weeks afterwards, another child named Jemima, about six years old, was found dead in the spring; from which the boards had been removed, the face of the child was in the water, and had upon it marks of violence. Suspicion then attached to a black girl, who had nursed the children, but not sufficient to enable them to extort a confession from the negro, in consequence of her age, which was only ten years. Mr. Shipley, however determined upon sending the black girl, to his father’s from whence he had got her, and mentioned the circumstances. The negro girl had not been at her master’s more than two weeks, before a black child was found dead, having been suffocated; she afterwards requested another negro child to lay her head upon a block, and taking an axe, said she would show her how they killed chickens; the child became alarmed,  and ran from her. At night she was discovered in a room in which some of the ladies of the house usually slept, and was turned out; in about an hour afterwards, she was discovered, getting in at the window, and being asked what she wanted, she said, that she came to tell them, that it was she who had killed Jemima, (the child of Mr. Shipley, mentioned above) and on being questioned, acknowledged that she had also killed the negro girl, and related the particulars of the murder of Jemima, as follows” —

She was with the child in the garden, and struck her — the child returned the blow, she (the negro) then took a handful of sand, and stuffed it into her mouth and took her to the spring, where she immersed her face in the water, until she supposed she was dead; she then left her, and went towards the house; but, hearing the child cry, to make use of her own words, “she went back and finished it.”

The above narration we have had from a source that entitles it to full credit, and we do not remember ever to have heard of a transaction in which at so early an age, such shocking depravity has been displayed.
Baltimore Chronicle.

BALTIMORE, May 16.

We understand that the Girl, of whose depravity so shocking a detail was given in our paper of yesterday, has been examined by the proper authority and has substantiated by her confession every part of it, with the exception of getting in at the window, her hands having only extended up toward it.
Chronicle.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) May 30, 1827

Edith Wilson, An Old Colored Woman

February 27, 2009

eda-wilson-1880

An Old Colored Woman.

An old woman known as Aunt Edith Wilson, who lives near Providence, Ky., is said to be 133 years old. She was born in South Carolina, and belonged to a man named Adams. Before the Revolutionary War she was a grown woman, and was a house servant and waiting maid to the daughters of Mr. Adams.

Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, Nevada) Nov 8, 1890

edith-wilson-1870

The 1880 census lists an Eda Wilson, age 112, grandmother, living with the Bruce Williamson family.

The 1870 census list an Edith Wilson, age 85, living with the Francis Rice family.

Runaway Slaves

February 24, 2009

runaway-slave

$100 Reward.
RAN away from the subscriber, living near New-town, (Trap,) Frederick county, Md.

On Saturday night, the 22d insant,

TWO NEGRO MEN;

One named JESS, but calls himself Jess Mackaby, a blacksmith by trade, about 5 feet 8 or 10 inches high, yellow complexion, has a deep scar on one of his ancles near the ancle bone, the sinew nearly cut in two, occasioned by the cut of a scythe, and also a scar on one wrist near the hand, caused by the cut of a knife — reads a little. Had on two linen pantaloons, fulled linsey drab coat, two linen shirt, the chain cotton, fur hat about half worn, and old boots.

The other named ADAM, calls himself Adam Jones, about 23 years of age, about 5 feet 8 or 10 inches high, black complexion, has a small piece bit out of one ear, the middle finger on one hand much larger than the others, occasioned by a cut, and has several scars on his back from large biles. Had on and took with him, the same clothing as Jess, excepting a wool hat and coarse shoes. It is supposed they have made for Pennsylvania.

Fifty dollars will be given for the apprehension of the above described negroes if taken in Frederick county; and the above reward if taken elsewhere, and all reasonable expenses paid if secured in Frederick county jail.
James Hook.
September 26.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Oct 17, 1821

Patsey: Woman, Mother, Slave

January 15, 2009

A PROLIFIC NEGRO FAMILY.— The Memphis Avalanche has discovered a most prolific and certainly well-branched family. Such a family wouldn’t take much time to stock all the plantations of the South with “hands.”

The head of this family is now living in Chickasaw county, Mississippi, on the plantation of Colonel Duncan Hubbard, and is now considerably over one hundred years of age. She was a woman and a mother during the war of the revolution. Her name is Patsey.

1860 Slave Schedule

1860 Slave Schedule

It is related of the old woman, that a few Sundays ago, becoming impatient at the slow progress made by some of the younger negroes in hitching up a team which was to convey her to church, some two miles distant from her master’s plantation, she started off on foot at a brisk rate, walking the whole distance, and reaching the church before the others with her.

The number of her descendants is truly astonishing, she having no less than [three hundred and one] living children, grandchildren, great grandchildren, and great great grandchildren. A large number of the descendants — perhaps one-third of the whole — have died. Her oldest son, a robust, healthy man, died recently at the age of ninety years, and her oldest living child is over seventy years old. One of her sons, “Uncle Billy,” is the father of sixteen children, and these children have now living eighty descendants. Patsey, the maternal ancestor of all this army of men, women and children, still lives in the enjoyment of a ripe old age, surrounded by every comfort which a kind and indulgent master can bestow, and respected by all who know her, whites as well as blacks.

Newport Daily News (Newport, Rhode Island) Oct 3, 1859

Duncan Hubbard was the son of David Hubbard, a cousin of Samuel Houston. Sometime after 1860, probably during or after the Civil War, Duncan moved to Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, which is where his father died.  There is a PDF file regarding the papers of David Hubbard, which also gives a timeline of David Hubbard’s  life among other things here.

As far as Patsey and her family, I have no idea if they followed Duncan to Louisiana or not, since I can’t find Duncan on the later census records.  There only appear to be a few Hubbard’s (provided they used that surname) who were probably at one time slaves in the Chickasaw Co., MS area and Pointe Coupe Parish, LA in 1870.