Posts Tagged ‘Tennessee’

Deadly Cloudburst Hits Tennessee Mountains

June 12, 2012

Image from the Stoney CreekerThe Lewis Farm Historical Photos

12 DEAD IN FLOOD IN TENNESSEE HILLS

———

Twenty Miles of Southern Railway Washed Out and Thousands of Acres of Farm Lands Are Ruined.

———

Johnson City, Tenn., June 14. — Twelve known dead, four seriously injured, more than a dozen houses, barns and mills demolished. 20 miles of the Appalachian division of the Southern railway made impassable and thousands of acres of farm lands ruined, constitute the toll of the most disastrous cloudburst ever recalled in this section.

It appeared to have its center near Hunter, Siam and Carden’s Bluff, and on Little Stony creek and Blue Springs creek, where a house in which two families lived, went to pieces, taking nine lives.

The storm came without warning Friday night and early Saturday.

Aside from the impassable condition of roads the section is very mountainous, cut by precipitous bluffs, coves and many streams. Most of the houses and farms are in the valleys and lower lands, in the path of the rising streams, which feed the Watauga and the Doe rivers.

Unconfirmed reports from other sections told of persons missing and believed to be dead. Relief parties have started from Elizabethton and Hampton and from this city. Broken roads, however, prevented them penetrating further than the outer edge, except by primitive modes of travel. Telephone and telegraph lines are down.

No word has been received from Fish Springs and Butler, Tenn., good sized villages believed to be in the center of the devastated area. The cloudburst came as a climax to a day of heavy intermittent rains, swelling streams already raging torrents and sweeping everything before them.

The stricken area is partly traversed by two branch line railways, both of which are badly damaged and by highways which were not the best in dry weather and now no longer exist.

A telephone message from Elizabethton, the nearest point to the stricken area gave as known dead as follows:

Mrs. Pearl Lewis and her children, William, 14; Mary Lou, 4, and a 2-year old son, and an infant daughter; Lum Smith and wife and their son, Willard, 7, and a 6-year-old daughter of W.G. Ellis, a farmer.

The Lewis and Smith families lived in the same house. The Ellis family lived in the Stony creek section near Hunters.

Members of a second family named Smith and another named Norton also are reported missing.

Unconfirmed reports from Carden’s Bluff indicate eight known dead. Impassable roads and lack of telephone wires have prevented verification of this report.

*     *     *

Image from Stoney Creeker

AGENT OF RED CROSS ON WAY TO REGION

Atlanta, Ga., June 14. — Upon receipt of a news dispatch that the towns of Hunter and Carden, Tenn., had been virtually wiped out by a cloudburst, southern division headquarters of the American Red Cross here announced they had dispatched a staff representative to the territory to take charge of relief measures.

Billings Gazette (Billings, Montana) Jun 15, 1924

And on the same page of the newspaper:

Down East.

Just got back from an eastern town,
Where mornings are dark, where rain comes down
And washes corn from the listed rows —
Down where the muddy Missouri flows.

Got out of bed at my usual hour,
In the chill and damp from the midnight shower,
Dressed in the gloom of the early light,
Wished for the warmth of sunshine bright.

Wanted to travel the open spaces,
Tramp along where the Yellowstone races
Down from the heights, from melting snow
Where clouds ride high and warm winds blow.

I saw no distant mountains where mighty rivers rise
From snows that fall in winter, or where the eagle cries;
I saw no rugged rock rims across the valley floor,
Nor heard the river dash and churn in restless midnight roar.

— H.S. Tool, Billings.

Billings Gazette (Billings, MOntana) Jun 15, 1924

Some of the Famous Vendettas of the Feud States

August 23, 2011

Click image to enlarge.

Some of the Famous Vendettas of the Feud States

THE killing of James B. Marcum, the prominent young lawyer and politician of Breathitt county, Ky., has once more focused attention on the “feud states” of the Union. Whatever the reason, the fact remains that in the border counties of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina and West Virginia men are today to be found imbued with the same spirit that prompted the Scotch border raids, the spurt of repaying real or fancied wrongs by declaring war to the death upon all connected in any way with those who they deem have injured them and of bequeathing to their sons generation after generation a hereditary animosity which can only be appeased by the extermination of their enemies.

The story of the feudists is a ghastly narrative of murder and rapine, of arson and ambuscades, of cruelty beyond description. As in the Marcum case, assassination by the bullet is the feudists’ favorite method of procedure. So widely recognized is this that when a feud county factionist is riding through a piece of woods or a mountain d???? he will drop the reins and with a revolver in each hand be on the alert for a possible attack.

Undoubtedly the most sensational feud in the history of the country has been that of the McCoys and the Hatfields, an interstate affair involving Kentucky and West Virginia. Like most feuds it originated in a very trivial dispute, a quarrel between old Randall McCoy and Anse Hatfield, better known as “Devil Anse,” over the ownership of a pair of razorback hogs that could not have brought $3 in the open market. The dispute finally got into the courts and after the trial a Hatfield witness was mysteriously slain, presumably by one of the McCoy boys. Three of them were arrested, tried and acquitted.

War then began at a rate that promised the speedy extermination of both families. From 1882 to 1887, when the two states were aroused to a realization of the situation, killing and mourning went on unchecked.

The culminating outrages were two raids on McCoy’s home by parties of Hatfield henchmen. In the first raid McCoy’s son Calvin and his daughter Alifair were killed, and in the second McCoy’s wife and five of their children met death. On both occasions the house was set on fire and the inmates slaughtered as they fled from the flames. After the last raid McCoy started on the warpath, and as a result of his efforts a number of the Hatfields were captured and sent to state prison for terms varying from eight to ten years. During that period there was comparative peace in the mountains. In 1897, however when the convicts times was up “Devil Anse,” who had been in hiding, reappeared and once more placed himself at their head. It was not long before he fell into the hands of the authorities and was clapped into jail, with three indictments for murder pending against him. He managed to cut his way to freedom and took to the cave that had been his refuge during the preceding nine years. Randall McCoy learned where this hole in the mountains was located and led the pursuers to it. The place was a natural fortress and was not stormed until a liberal supply of dynamite had been used. In the confusion old Anse escaped once more. By this time he had had enough of feud fighting, but no one suspected it until last year when he sent a message to Randall McCoy expressing his desire for peace. Jim McCoy, answering for his father, replied that there could be no compromise between the Hatfields and the McCoys. It is thus evident that the end is not yet.

One of the curious features of the feuds is the way in which one family after another is drawn into the trouble until a man may ultimately have five or feuds on his hands at the same time. “Blood is thicker than water” is a popular cry in the mountains, and the feudists consequently take up the vendettas of their relatives and friends with the ardor they display in settling personal accounts. The natural results of this multifarious feudism are pitched battles in the mountains and terrorizing out of state troops, with Gatling guns and loaded rifles, to restore order. The celebrated Baker-Howard feud is a case in point, because though of independent origin it was fomented and intensified by the participation of its principals in the White-Garrard affair, which raged for over sixty years. The latter trouble was caused by the ambition of the White and Garrard families to surpass each other in wealth and political power, and it was the bitterness of their struggle and its subsequent complications that earned for Clay county the sobriquet “Bloody Clay.” Of late years the most sensational episode in this feud was the killing of Tom Baker, a Garrard sympathizer, while awaiting trial for the murder of Will White.

Baker had been captured in the mountains by a squad of militiamen and taken under guard to Manchester, where he was confined in a tent in the courthouse yard, surrounded by troops. Half an hour before his case was to be called he stepped to the tent entrance, a shot rang out from the house of Sheriff White, across the way, and Baker fell back dead in the arms of his wife, who, before his body was cold, gathered her ten children about it and made them swear to avenge their father’s death. Since then the feud has been raging intermittently, the latest incident being the killing of Sid Baker a little over a month ago in a roadside battle with William McCollum. At one time the various factions hired a number of men to fight for them, paying each man $1 a day and supplying him with food and ammunition. One of the leaders in this notorious imbroglio was Jim Howard, now under sentence of life imprisonment for the murder of Governor William Goebel. The Howards have always supported the Whites, while the Bakers have been identified with the Garrards.

Probably the most expensive feud Kentucky has ever known was the French-Eversole affair, another instance of a feud within a feud. It began with the killing of the head of the Confederate family of Gambrills by the Union Eversoles during the civil war, and fighting went on in a desultory way until 1884, when Fulton French came from Virginia to Hazard, Ky., and opened a store in opposition to Joseph C. Eversole. Trouble soon followed. The Gambrills sided with French, and the feud was on again in deadly earnest. It is said that French and Eversole have spent about $150,000 to carry on their warfare, thirty-eight lives being the cost in human blood. One of the feud’s many brutal features was the unprovoked killing in 1894 of aged Judge Joshua Combs, who was shot from behind a fence. His only connection with the trouble, it is said, was that he was the father-in-law of an Eversole.

The French-Eversole dispute was largely tinged with politics, and it was owing to a political feud that Lawyer Marcum lost his life. In fact, politics has always played a prominent part in the Kentucky vendettas. Marcum, a member of the Cockrill faction of the Hargis-Cockrill feud, was shot down while standing in the doorway of the Breathitt county courthouse at Jackson, Ky. He had filed a motion for the reopening of certain contested election cases in which the Hargises were vitally interested, and it is asserted that this was the direct cause of his assassination. Although a number of men were near him at the time of the killing the slayer had little difficulty in escaping.

A practical joke was responsible for another feud of long standing — the Howard-Turner — when a lighted match held to the face of a sleeping man started an enmity which stirred up all Harlan county, Ky., and resulted in the loss of at least fifty lives. Yet another sanguinary feud in the Blue Grass State was started last year between the Bentleys and the Rameys, two large and influential families. Politics, moonshine whisky and women were mixed up in this feud as they have been in so many others. The Martin-Tolliver feud, with its death roll of twenty-three, was chiefly remarkable because one of its chiefs, Craig Tolliver, was undoubtedly the most desperate man who ever led feudists. Also worthy of mention as being the first feud of importance in the state was the Hill-Evans vendetta, which began in 1829 as the result of a dispute over the ownership of some slaves. This lasted for twenty years.

Some notorious feuds of other states have been the Chadwell-Morgan in Tennessee, the Malone-Tyler in Georgia, and the Barnard-Sutton in Tennessee. The first two were strikingly similar in that both were accompanied by murders committed in churches. In the Chadwell-Morgan trouble forty Chadwells and thirty Morgans have been killed, the crowning horror occurring in 1901, when a Chadwell party attacked the Union Baptist church at Big Springs, Tenn., where the Morgans were attending services. In the pitched battle that followed both sides lost heavily.

WALTER Q. TAVISTOCK.

Mansfield News (Mansfield, Ohio) May 29, 1903

Ruskin Colony: Socialism Fails Everytime it’s Tried

June 24, 2010

ONE GREAT TRUST

Which Will Be Controlled by the People Is the End

To Which Our Business Interests Must Come, Says Herbert N. Casson — An Interesting Lecture.

The few people who gathered at the Odd Fellow’s hall last evening to listen to the social problems discussed from socialistic point of view by Herbert N. Casson were well paid for their time and trouble. Mr. Casson comes from the “Ruskin Colony” in Tennessee, a colony which is run upon the co-operative plan and in which every man earns his own living. His theories are there put into practice and he believes it to be the model way of living.

As a lecturer he is a success. Logical, terse and epigramatic, his words carry force with them. He kept his audience almost spellbound for nearly two hours, while he expounded his teachings. He prefaced his remarks by saying that thought along was mighty. The man who thinks is a power; he who does not is a machine. He said in part:

“America is at one the wonder and disappointment of the world; the wonder, in that in the short space of 120 years it has achieved a richness of civilization whose enjoyments are limitless; a disappointment, in that these same enjoyments are already captured by a few.

“The influences of Europe are already being felt and the abuses which our forefathers left behind when they started in the Mayflower have followed in a Cunarder. America was once the laborer’s paradise; it is now a Paradise Lost, but let us hope, under a different system, it shall be Paradise Regained.

Greenland, with its frozen, almost untillable land, is without a pauper and almost without a criminal. The lazy, indolent inhabitant of the South Sea islands never works and is never hungry. But we, who occupy the grand middle position, with labor-saving machinery and all the civilization, cannot feed our poor and have hundreds who are suffering for want of protection against the cold blasts of winter tonight. In the preparations for civilization labor and capital were on a proper basis; now capital is in the ascendancy and labor suffers.

“It was labor who said ‘let there be cities; let there be railroads; let there be telegraphs;’ and these comforts sprang into existence. But in their enjoyment labor has no share. The relation between production and distribution is inequitable. What ails us is that we have no proper conception as to what should be owned in private and what should be owned by the public. Everything that belongs to the individual comfort should be owned by the individual. What is of public use and for the enjoyment of all, such as railroads, telegraphs and lighting plants, should be owned by the public.

“It is not a fight between the rich and the poor, for the capitalists are as dissatisfied as the laborer. It is a contest to do away with classes altogether and to get into the natural conditions of life. What appears to be our greatest sign of danger is in reality our greatest sign of hope. The trust is the only professional way of doing business; all else is amateur. And the trusts will continue until there is a trust of trusts, when the public will step in and take possession, legally and without force.”

He claimed as a maxim that whatever people got together they owned together. His remarks were illustrated by events of every-day life, which made his remarks exceedingly interesting.

After the lecture, Mr. Casson gave the following information concerning the Ruskin colony, which is located in Tennessee, 57 miles west of Nashville, six miles from any railroad. There are 300 members of the colony and they have 1,800 acres of land. They have no officers, no public officials, have no use for law, issue their own money, have no church, have farms, some factories, and raise all they have to eat and only pay money for clothing and utensils needed. In conclusion Mr. Casson said they published a paper called the Coming Nation, for which he solicited subscriptions.

Sandusky Star, The (Sandusky, Ohio) Feb 14, 1899

Wedded By Compact.

What is spoken of as one of the most remarkable weddings that has ever taken place within the United States was “compacted by mutual agreement” in the little town of Ruskin, Tenn., on a recent Sunday afternoon. Its announcement is of local interest, inasmuch as the groom has spoken here several times. He is Rev. Herbert N. Casson, formerly of Boston, and the founder and pastor of the Lynn labor church. He is now a member of the Ruskin colony, and is editor of its paper, the Coming Nation.

There was no church or religious formula used for the marriage, but in the presence of witnesses bride and groom entered into a mutual compact, each agreeing to the marriage. The mode of “wedding by compact” is in accord with the principles of the socialist co-operative town of Ruskin, and in this case is referred to as probably unprecedented in singularity.

North Adams Transcript (North Adams, Massachusetts) Mar 15, 1899

RUSKIN COLONY OF SOCIALISTS COLLAPSES.

Sale Takes Place in Tennessee Cave — Many of the Women Shed Tears Over the Failure.

Tennessee City, Tenn., July 28.

The Ruskin Co-operative Colony property was sold yesterday in a big cave near here.

Several hundred people were seated in the cave, including the colonists and their wives and children and farmers from the surrounding country. W. Blake Leech represented the Receiver.

Four tracts of land, containing a total of 784 acres, were first sold to Leech for $11,000. Another tract of a thousand acres, mostly worthless land, went to George Wright for $1,450. He also bought the storehouse and lot for $15, making the whole amount received for land and about thirty houses thereon $12,465.

The land originally cost several thousands more. Growing crops go with the land.

The minority stockholders, who had the property thrown into the hands of a Receiver, were the purchasers. Horses, mules, fine hogs, etc., went for a song, mostly to neighboring farmers.

It is said that the purchasers, will reorganize the colony on a somewhat different basis. Fifty-five majority stockholders already have an agent out looking for a new location. They may go to Virginia.

Today the colony paper, the Coming Nation, will be sold. Its circulation of 60,000 has dwindled to 11,000.

Many of the women shed tears at the sale, and there is much feeling over the breaking up of the new Utopia.

History of the Experiment.

The Ruskin Co-operative Association in Yellow Creek Valley, about fifty miles northwest of Nashville, Tenn., was founded for the purpose of working to a practical conclusion the theories of absolute Socialism — the theories of Fournier and Bellamy.

The concern owned at first 1,509 acres of excellent land, and conducted a number of manufacturing and  commercial enterprises.

It was said at the beginning of the colony’s work that if, with everything in its favor, this enterprise failed, then it might be set down as demonstrated that Socialism by sections — independent of national Socialism — is a failure.

With the exception of the metals the Ruskin Colonists had in abundance the raw material for the manufacture of almost everything necessary to the physical comfort of man, together with the skill, the industry, and intelligence to put it to use.

In the community were men skilled in agriculture and horticulture, machinists, engineers, brick-workers, shoemakers, tanners, printers, bookbinders and authors.

The Bee (Earlington, Ky.) Aug 3, 1899

PROPERTY SOLD,
and the Ruskin Co-Operative Company is Now a Memory.

NASHVILLE, Tenn., July 29.

The property of the Ruskin Co Operative colony, situated at Ruskin, Tenn., 50 miles northwest of here, has been sold by a receiver. The land, 1,700 acres, and buildings brought $12,000.

This means the failure and end of the Ruskin colony, founded by J.A. Wayland in 1895, and which has been looked on both in this country and Europe as the most successful experiment in socialism ever inaugurated. The colony was prosperous, revenues far exceeding expenses, but became disorganized by a faction favoring free love, contending it was sound socialism.

Fort Wayne News (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Jul 29, 1899

J.K. Calkins, editor of The Coming Nation, a socialist paper published by the Ruskin Commonwealth, at Ruskin, Ga., is in the city. The Coming Nation is doubtless the only family socialist paper published in the world. Although Ruskin is a very small community, having only 217 members, the paper has the remarkable circulation of 17,000 copies and its subscribers are in all parts of the world.

“Our success has been something remarkable: said Editor Calkins yesterday. “We have one of the best equipped publishing concerns in the country. Our press is a perfecting machine of late pattern that cost $5,500, and we get out a sheet that is, we think, very creditable from a typographical and literary standpoint.

“The Ruskin colony is now about six years old. Since moving to Georgia, our career has been most successful. We experienced some trouble in Tennessee on account of some members who wanted to ‘rule or ruin’ and who came near accomplishing the latter. This troublesome element has been weeded out and we are now in a very prosperous condition.”

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Apr 11, 1900

THOMAS HICKLING

Vice President of the Ruskin Community

VISITS HIS OLD HOME

In Sandusky and Talks Entertainingly of the Socialist Colony in Southern Georgia

Thomas Hickling, who moved his family to the Ruskin Commonwealth in Southern Georgia a few months ago is visiting in the city and expects to remain until the latter part of next week. He hopes to dispose of his property on Prospect street and will make his home permanently in the South which he says has a great future.

In Sandusky, Mr. Hickling was grown as a Socialist leader and the community in which his family now make their home is conducted on the co operative plan. A charge of $500 is made for each family that enters and the profits of the various enterprises engaged in by the members are shared in common, although each family is assigned its own house and the members may take their meals in private or in a great common dining room as they may choose.

The Ruskin colonists own 800 acres of valuable land, much of it being covered with timber. They engage in the manufacture of shingles, brooms, suspenders, cereal substitutes for coffee and other articles, although many of the men are necessarily employed in agricultural pursuits. Mr. Hickling says that when he went to Ruskin there were 200 or more members of the colony. Now there are not quite 100. The colonists have been able to make good livings but their number has been decimated because history has repeated itself and the members of this co operative colony have been unable to agree as to the details of the management. Upon some things however they are thoroughly agreed and one of the rules is that nine hour shall constitute a days work for a man.

Mr. Hickling has become one of the leaders in the colony and has been made vice president of the organization. He admits that the management of the Ruskin colony has not been exactly ideal but says that a re-organization will doubtless be effected in the near future. Mr. Hickling stoutly maintains that the communal idea is a good thing but thinks that the people are not far enough advanced in thought and education to live in that way at present. There is some talk of dividing up the colony so that the members will individually own certain portions of the real estate but maintaining a sort of an organization whereby they will still work together for mutual benefit instead of in competition with one another.

The Ruskin colony has three schools in one of which Miss Grace Hickling a Sandusky High school graduate of 98 has been one of the teachers. A.D. Hickling a young man who went to Ruskin with his parents is no longer in the colony but is learning the machinists trade in the Air Line railroad shops at Waycross, Ga.

The Ruskin colonists have no churches of their own but there lain surrounds a Baptist and Methodist church so that they have ample opportunity to attend divine worship regularly.

Sandusky Daily Star (Sandusky, Ohio) Apr 17, 1901

SOCIALISTS MAKE FAILURE

Property of Ruskin Commonwealth To Be Sold by Sheriff.

FAMILIES LEAVING DAILY

They Settled Near Waycross About Two Years Ago — Their Dreams of Happiness Unfulfilled

Waycross, Ga., August 18. — (Special)

The Ruskin commonwealth of socialists, 7 miles west of Waycross, has about gone by the board. Only three or four families now remain, the others having departed for different points north and west. The printing outfit is advertised to be sold by the sheriff on August 31, while the land will go the same way on September 3. This will wipe out the last vestige of the colony which came here from Tennessee two years ago next month. Several families have located near Valdosta, where they have hopes of making a permanent settlement. The printing outfit will be sold to satisfy labor and other claims, while the land goes to satisfy a mortgage.

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Aug 19, 1901

Ruskin Cooperative - Strawberry Pickers (Image from Wiki)

PRINTING OUTFIT WAS SOLD.

Property of Socialists Disposed of by the Sheriff.

Valdosta, Ga., September 1 — (Special)

The printing outfit of The Coming Nation, the defunct socialistic paper, recently printed at Ruskin colony, in Ware county, was sold at sheriff sale yesterday and was bought in by the creditors of the concern. There were mortgages aggregating $1,600 or $1,800 against the plant, among the heaviest creditors being the A.S. Pendleton Company, of this city, and M. Ferst & Co., of Savannah. The Coming Nation was a leading organ of the socialists and at one time had nearly 40,000 subscribers, scattered in every quarter of the globe. The outfit which the paper owned is a large and modern one, embracing a Campbell perfecting press, stereotyping outfit, etc.

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) Sep 2, 1901

John Ruskin

You can read a biography of John Ruskin at VisWiki.com. LINK

*****

Most of the images in this post are from this  insightful book (linked below) written by a member of the failed Ruskin Cooperative.  The publisher, an avowed socialist, wrote the preface, which includes the typical “Yes, socialism failed here, but only because it wasn’t implemented correctly,” blather. The failure is never caused by “socialism,” itself,  but by the “incompetent” people trying to prove its awesomeness. Unfortunately , it is still being pushed on us today, and worse, it is being forced on the whole country, not just a little commune in a cave.

Title: The Last Days of the Ruskin Co-operative Association
Standard socialist series
Author: Isaac Broome
Publisher:   C. H. Kerr & company, 1902

Tennessee Mountain Dew Queen

January 21, 2009

whiskey_jug

Tennessee’s Mountain Dew Queen.
From the Arkansaw Traveller.

Miss Bettie Smith, of Fentress county, Tenn, who was arrested on the charge of illicit distilling is said to be handsome and accomplished, and is supposed to have written that wild and stirring romance, The Blue Headed Sapsucker, or The Rock Where the Juice Ran Out. Colonel Harvey Mathes editor of the Memphis Ledger says that Miss Smith is undoubtedly the author of the story. This is a startling revelation. At one time Colonel Mathes offered $3,000? for the discovery of the author.

When Miss Smith was arraigned before the United States court at Nashville she conducted her self with such grace and dignity that the polite old judge deeply impressed arose and made her a profound bow.

‘Miss Smith,’ said the judge, ‘to see you in this awful predicament seriously touches me.’

‘It does me too judge.’

‘How old are you?’

‘Judge you should not ask such a question but I will tell you I am two years older than my married sister who was married before she was as old as I am. She has been married eighteen months, and still speaks well of her husband. Now, how old am I?’

‘I cannot tell.’

‘I am not to blame for your mathematical inefficiency.’

‘Why did you go into the distilling business?’

‘Because I wanted to make whisky.’

‘How long have you been a distiller?’

‘Ever since I was sixteen years old.’

‘When were you sixteen years old?’

‘The year my father died.’

‘When was that?’

‘The year my uncle Henry moved to Texas.’

‘Miss Smith, you are a woman but I insist that you shall answer my questions. Remember that if convicted of this awful charge you will be sent to the penitentiary. What did you do with the whisky you made?’

‘Sold it.’

‘Who bought it?’

‘Well judge, it would be rather hard to tell who bought it all. Sometime ago a party of gentlemen came out into my neighborhood to hunt deer. The party got out of whisky but found it difficult to buy any. After a while I told a man if he would put his jug down on a dollar and go away he might when he came back find the jug full of whisky. He did so.’

‘Would you know the man?’

‘Oh, yes sir. I recognized him in a moment. You are the man, judge.’

The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) May 27, 1888