Archive for February, 2011

California Gold Poetry

February 22, 2011

The Grip of Gold.

Gold, gold, gold, gold!
Bright and yellow, hard and cold,
Molten, graven, hammered and rolled,
Heavy to get and light to hold;
Hoarded, bartered, bought and sold,
Stolen, borrowed, squandered, doled;
Spurned by the young, but hugged by the old
To the very verge of the churchyard mold,
Price of many a crime untold.
Gold, gold, gold, gold!
Good or bad a thousandfold!

— Thomas Hood

The Gettsyburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) Feb 26, 1909

TO MISS SARAH —-

To Californy I will go,
Where lots of goold is found.
I’ll take my pick axe, spade and hoe
To excavate the ground.

Perhaps for years, I’m doomed to roam,
Till I quite rich have grown
A stranger from my native home,
“Solitary and alone.”

Sometimes of me, perchance, you’ll think,
When I am far away,
A digging for the shining chunk,
In Californi-a.

It grieves me much with you to part,
May be to meet no more
But on to morrow I must start
To seek the yellow ore.

But if I live, I will come back,
My goold with you to share,
And then will take a like time tack —
In wedlock we will steer.

So for a time, I must adjourn
Far o’er the mountains blue,
But with the shiners I’ll return,
My love, to marry you.

Yours till death, JACK —–

Alton Telegraph And Democratic Review (Alton, Illinois) Jan 19, 1849

{Original.}
To my brother, on leaving for California.

To California’s rugged wild,
Where art refined, hath never smiled;
Where the uncultured savage rude,
Delights in scenes of crime and blood;

Thy daring footsteps soon must haste;
Before thee is the trackless waste:
Oh, brother! then, when far away,
Forget not thou, to “watch and pray.”

To watch — lest the fell tempter’s art,
From God, should lure thee to depart;
Fear more his dark and serpent tread,
Than bandit’s steel, or foemen dread.

Thy way lies thro’ a thousand snares,
Through perils, dangers, toils, and cares;
And pestilence, that stalks abroad;
But trust thou in the arm of God.

May health around thy pillow smile,
And hope thine every care beguile;
May’st thou be shielded from the brand
Of savage, and each hostile band.

Farewell, my brother! soon shall seas
Divide us — and each murmuring breeeze
That thro’ the waving woods shall stray,
Will whisper, thou are far away!
Forget not then — forget not then.
Thy sister! — may we meet again!

M.A.W.

Alton Telegraph and Democratic Review (Alton, Illinois) Apr 19, 1850

The Returned Californian’s Song.

AIR — “Oh Susannah.”

I’ve been to Californy,
With my wash-bowl on my knee;
I’ve seen the tallest elephant
That ever mortal see —
He measures from one tip to tip,
About a million feet,
And from the other tip to top
The critter can’t be beat.

CHORUS. — Oh, California!
You’re not the land for me;
I’ve been and left the wash-bowl
I had upon my knee.

He ate the Liza’s cargo,
And then he wanted more,
He ate a man for dinner,
One day he went a shore;
He tried to eat another,
But the feller’s coat tails flew,
And he never stopp’d to tell the folk
A quarter what he knew.

Oh, California! & c.

The folks in California,
They drink a dreadful sight;
You see a fellow very loose,
And then you see one tight;
A loose one shoot’s a tight one
And then they write the folks,
That a grizzly bear devoured him!
And its a very bear-faced Hoax.

Oh, California! & c.

There’s plenty of people raises Ned,
And lots of music goin’;
There’s forty thousand fiddle men
A tootin’ and a blowin’.
The loafers drink and gamble,
And they don’t do nothin, more,
And they’re somehow disappointed,
‘Cause all their hopes is ORE.

Oh, California! & c.

I seen a right smart chance of hills
As full as they could hold,
Of pecks and pecks of silver,
And QUARTZ and QUARTZ of gold,
I filled my wash bowl with ’em,
But a Sidney chap from prison,
He took the bowl and shot at me,
Because the claim was his’n.

Oh, California! & c.

I’ve scap’d the mountains clear my boys,
And drained them rivers dry,
My pockets full enough of rocks,
The gold dust’s “in my eye.”
It ain’t so hard to raise the dust,
If a feller’ll only blow,
(‘Tis WINDY business, blowin’ is,
As whales and black-fish know.)

Oh, California! & c.

I can’t begin to count my gold,
But a feller did that knows;
It took a heap of figgers,
And I think they all wat O’s;
Them O’s is pretty figgers,
But then it seems to foller,
That when a figger’s circular,
It’s so etarnal hollar!

Oh, California! & c.

I jumped off from the ‘Liza ship,
And traveled up the river,
I caught the gue and the shakes,
(The shakes means when you shiver,)
I shook my teeth from out my head,
But then I didn’t need ’em,
I didn’t have them filled with gold,
And so I didn’t feed ’em.

Oh, California! & c.

And now I’m gwine to dig again,
And do it with a will,
But it’s gwine to be a dry diggin,
In another kind of hill!
I’ll dig the lumps and wsh ’em well,
And in the course of nater,
I know, some day, I’m bound to find
Some gold in every tater.

Oh, California! & c.

We’ll rest content with quiet lot,
In spite of lots in ‘Frisky —
And while we raise the taterses,
The fools may drink the whiskey.
Then here’s to California,
And luck to all who try!
And since we’re safe at home again,
Why, brothers, don’t you cry.

Oh, California —
You’re not the land for me,
I’ve been, and left the wash-bowl
I had upon my knee.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio) Jun 24, 1851

More Gold Rush Poetry:

Miner Rhymes From the Gold Country

Poetry of Gold

Ho! For California

Going Ahead on the Yankee Trail

A Miner Rhyme

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“On to Freedom”

February 21, 2011

Image from the Son of the South website.

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

(Written for The Tribune.)

The birthday of George Washington
We celebrate today;
The man who led to victory
Our troops in brave array.

You all have heard the story
Of the axe and cherry tree;
How he spoke up to his father
That the chopper bold was he.

He grew from youth to manhood,
And was noble, good and true;
His firm, unflinching bravery
Made the British feel quite blue.

For the leader and his army
Were patriots, young and old;
“On to freedom” was their motto,
And “liberty” their goal.

He cheered them through starvation,
His endurance gave them strength,
With faith in God they struggled on
To victory at length.

Hurrah for good George Washington,
The father of our land,
And loudly may his praises ring
While earth and time shall stand.

— Minneapolis Tribune.

The Daily Northwestern (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Feb 22, 1899

From the New York Evening Post, Oct. 20.

WASHINGTON MONUMENT.

The corner stone of the Washington Monument was laid yesterday. The day was uncommonly fine — soft, sunny October weather. The procession was magnificent, and long to weariness. It left the Park about eleven o’clock, in the order prescribed in the programme published by us yesterday. A great number of carriages were in the procession, and the throng with which the streets where it passed was lined, was prodigious. There were a hundred companies of firemen occupying the rear of the procession.

The place chose for the erection of the monument is the summit of a hill in Hamilton Square. On arriving at the spot the procession halted, and the Rev. Dr. Vermilye offered an impressive prayer. The corner stone was then laid by Governor Young, assisted by Governor Harris, of Rhode Island. On its top was placed a marble slab, with this

INSCRIPTION:

This corner stone of a Monument to the memory of WASHINGTON was laid with appropriate ceremonies on the 19th day of October, 1847; the anniversary of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis to General Washington, at Yorktown, A.D. 1781, under the auspices and direction of the Washington Monument Association of the City of New York.

The following ode, by Gen. G.P. Morris, was then sung; the whole assembly joining:

A Monument to Washington?
A tablet graven with his name?
Green be the mound it stands upon,
And everlasting as his fame.

His glory fills the land — the plain,
The moor, the mountain and the mart,,
More firm than column, urn, or fame,
His Monument — the human heart.

The Christian — patriot — hero — sage!
The chief that Heaven in mercy sent
His deeds are written on the age —
His country is his Monument.

“The sword of Gideon and the Lord,”
Was mighty in his mighty hand —
The God who guided, he adored,
And with His blessing, freed the land.

The first in war — the first in peace —
The first in the hearts that freemen own!
Unparalleled — till time shall cease —
He lives — immortal and alone!

Yet let the rock-hewn tower arise,
High to the pathway of the sun,
And speak in the approving skies,
Our gratitude to Washington.

Chief Justice Samuel Jones then made an address. A quartette composed for the occasion was sung by the Apollo Brothers, and after addresses had been made by G.W.P. Curtis and J.C. Hart, the proceedings closed.

The crowd in Hamilton Square, besides those who came in the procession, was prodigiously large. In the procession alone it is estimated that from ten to fifteen thousand persons were included.

The baggage wagon taken by the Americans from Cornwallis, was on the ground, as well as two pieces of canon taken from the British in the revolutionary war, one at Princeton, and one at Saratoga. The old flag, somewhat the worse for time, which was first hoisted in New York, on the 25th of November, 1783, by General Washington, was waving over the platform in the square. The day chosen, October 19th, is the anniversary of the surrender of Cornwallis.

Rock River Pilot (Watertown, Wisconsin) Nov 10, 1847

 

Our Presidents to the Tune of “Yankeee Doodle”

February 20, 2011

Our Presidents.

The following verses, which were written by J.D. Elder teacher of the Burwood school, were sung to the tune of “Yankee Doodle” at the recent closing exercises of that school. They will be found valuable in helping the children to memorize the names of the Presidents and the order in which they held office.

We publish it by request.

George Washington, first President,
By Adams was succeeded.
Tom Jefferson was next the choice;
The people’s cause he pleaded.
Madison was then called forth
To give John Bull a peeling.
James Monroe had all the go
In the “Era of Good Feeling.”

‘Twas J.Q. Adams then came in
And next came Andrew Jackson,
Who’d licked John Bull at New Orleans
With such great satisfaction.
Then Van Buren took the chair;
Then Harrison and Tyler —
The latter made the Whigs so mad
They thought they’d “bust their biler.”

We then elected James K. Polk;
The issue that did vex us
Was, “Shall we ‘do up’ Mexico
And ‘take in’ little Texas?”
Taylor then got in the chair,
But soon had to forsake it.
Millard Filmore filled it more,
Frank Pierce then said, “I’ll take it.”

Old Jim Buchanan next popped in.
Abe Lincoln then was chosen;
He found the current of events
Was anything but frozen.
Andy Johnson had a time;
The Senate would impeach him,
But as it took a two-thirds vote
They lacked one vote to reach him.

And now we come to U.S. Grant,
The man who fought at Shiloh,
And Hayes and Garfield, who was shot —
They both came from Ohio.
Arthur then the scepter held,
To Cleveland turned it over.
Ben Harrison sandwiches in,
And now again it’s Grover.

The Mountain Democrat (Placerville, California) Jul 1, 1893

The Churning Song

February 19, 2011

Image from How People Used to Live on Rootsweb.

THE CHURNING SONG.

Apron on and dash in hand,
O’er the old churn here I stand —
Cachug!
How the thick cream spurts and flies,
Now on shoes and now in eyes!
Cachug! Cachug!

Ah! how soon I tired get!
But the butter lingers yet;
Cachug!
Aching back and weary arm,
Quite rob churning of its charm!
Cachug! Cachug!

See the golden specks appear!
And the churn rings sharp and clear —
Cachink!
Arms, that have to flag begun,
Work on, you will soon be done —
Cachink! Cachink!

Rich flakes cling to lid and dash;
Hear the thin milk’s watery splash!
Calink!
Sweetest music to the ear,
For it says the butter’s here!
Calink! Calink!

— Silas Dinsmore, in St Nicholas.

The Daily Northwestern (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Mar 4, 1899

Acrostic for the Dead: Gov. Louis Powell Harvey

February 18, 2011

For the Daily Gazette.
Affection’s Tribute.

AN ACROSTIC.

G one from the post of duty, gone with harness on,
O ver the river, to the farther shore!
V eiled sadly from our vision, sleeping his last sleep,
E nded his earthly task, his labors o’er!
R evering freedom, justice, to the latest hour,
N o thought had he save for his country’s good!
O n mercy’s holy mission — to relieve distress —
R an he his race, and sank beneath the flood!

H e, being dead, speaketh to our aching hearts.
A h! how we loved him for the deeds he wrought!
R adiant with patriotic lights his kindly soul,
V alient for freedom, truth his highest thought!
E ternal One! who ruleth over all,
Y ield us support, while good men round us fall!

Janesville, April 22d. 1862.

— W —

__________

MRS. HARVEY. — The Madison Journal relates the circumstances under which Mrs. Harvey obtained the sad tidings of the death of her husband. She was at capitol when the dispatch was received by Adjutant-General Gaylord, obtaining subscriptions to aid a destitute family in the city. An attempt was made to get her to her boarding place before the contents of the dispatch were made known. She at once saw by the countenances of those whom she met that some bad tidings had been received.

Adjutant-General Gaylord and Mr. Sawyer, her brother-in-law, attempted to accompany her home, and told her that a rumor had been received that gave him some anxiety in regard to the Governor. As Gen. Gaylord was attempting to conceal the full extent of the calmnity, she stopped while they were walking through the Park and said: “Tell me if he is dead!” While he evaded a direct reply, she read the fatal news in the expression of his face and dropped senseless upon the walk. She was soon revived sufficiently to be conveyed home, but remained in a state nearly approaching distraction.

Attorney General Howe left on the morning train for Cairo, for the purpose of obtaining and bringing back the body if it can be found. He was accompanied as far as Chicago by Mrs. Harvey and her sister, Mrs. Sawyer.

Janesville Daily Gazette (Janesville, Wisconsin) Apr 22, 1862

Particulars of the Death of Governor Harvey.

We are indebted to Dr. R.B. Treat, of this city, for the following particulars connected with the loss of Gov. Harvey:

Gov. Harvey returned from Pittsburgh Saturday afternoon on the ferry boat, having previously made an arrangement with the captain of the steamer Minnehaha to call in the evening at Savannah for him and his party. The governor had been exceedingly busy for several days reorganizing the 16th and 18th regiments, and attending to such other duties that the welfare of Wisconsin troops seemed to require. He had labored assiduously day and night and had accomplished the object of his mission except as to the details which he intended to do at his leisure while returning.

He seemed more restless and thoughtful than usual, but appeared to be in the best of spirits, as if conscious of having fully discharged many and onerous duties of his humane mission. We concluded to remain on the Dunleith and await the steamer from the landing. All of our party except the governor and myself, had retired, exhausted with their labors, and were soon asleep. The governor was extremely communicative and spoke hopefully of the complete restoration of the 16th and 18th to their full number and efficiency; also, of the success of our arms in the coming contest at Corinth, which he deemed could not long be delayed.

It was near 10 o’clock when we also concluded to get some rest, when stepping out upon the deck of the Dunleith, we saw the Minnehaha coming down, hailed her as she rounded too, when the captain inquired if Gov. Harvey was aboard the Dunleith. Upon being answered in the affirmative, he came along side and attached the bows of the Minnehaha to the Dunleith. Governor Harvey then went above and woke up his friends and came down very soon after and met Drs. Wilson and Clark, who had come down upon the Minnehaha. They shook hands and the governor passed back toward the stern of the Dunleith, along a narrow way which had no guards. It was lighted by torch, but the deck being wet and slippery, and the probabilities are that he stepped too near the edge when his foot slipped, causing him to fall into the river between the boats. Drs. Wilson and Clark immediately gave the alarm and rushed to his assistance. Dr. Wilson reached him his cane which Gov. Harvey grasped firmly as he came up the first time, but Dr. Wilson found it impossible to hold on to it without being himself precipitated into the river, was compelled to let go, Dr. Clark then sprung overboard and had nearly reached him when he went down again, the current carrying him underneath the barges lying below the Dunleith. Boats and lights were immediately procured and strict watch observed for some time, hoping that he might be carried down stream by the rapid current and yet saved. We finaly gave over the fruitless search and in consultation, concluded to leave a sufficient number to look for the body in the morning. Gen. Brodhead and Dr. Wolcott were selected with three others of the party, while the remainder were to return, bearing the sad intelligence to his family and friends. Drs. Clark and Wilson are deserving of much credit, having periled their own lives to save that of Gov. Harvey.More particularly would I speak of Dr. Clark, who undoubtedly would have met a watery grave had he came in contact with Gov. Harvey.

Janesville Daily Gazette (Janesville, Wisconsin) Apr 23, 1862

Gov. Harvey.

After noticing the sudden death of Gov. Harvey, the Chicago Tribune thus sketches the leading events of his life:

“Gov. Harvey was born at East Haddam, Ct., July 23d, 1820. His parents emigrated to Ohio and located at Shawmsville in 1828. He was educated at Western Reserve College, Hudson, and removed to Kenosha, Wis., in 1840. His first labors in the new state of his adoption were as a teacher in the academy of Kenosha, and later he edited with credit and honor to himself, the Whig organ published in that city. In the same place he was married in ’48, to the esteemed lady who survives him. In 1850 Gov. Harvey moved to Shopiere, Rock county, where he engaged in the manufacturing business, and has since resided there. He was a member of the first constitutional convention, and represented Rock county in the state senate two terms, from 1853 to 1857. He was then elected secretary of state, a place he held until last fall, when he was elected governor. A man of incorruptible integrity, an earnest patriot, Wisconsin was fortunate that the result of her last memorable campaign in state politics placed him at the head of her affairs. He has been earnest and zealous in calling her sons to the field, and in securing fidelity and thoroughness in every detail of their equipment. And when there came from the battle field a call for humanity, in behalf of our wounded, Gov. Harvey was the first to answer to the appeal, and it was the closing act of his useful and honored life.

“Wisconsin had no nobler or truer man than Louis P. Harvey, nor had she ever a more upright, patriotic or incorruptible executive. His untimely decease will fill the breasts of her people with sorrow, and the whole west will sympathize with their grief.”

Janesville Daily Gazette – Apr 23, 1862

From the Madison Journal
Incidents in the Early Life of Governor Harvey.

In our brief and hasty sketch of Gov. Harvey the other day, some mistakes occurred as to dates, and there were some omissions relative to his early life, which we propose briefly to remedy, from the best information we have been able to obtain.

LOUIS POWELL HARVEY was born in East Haddam, Connecticut, July 22, 1820. In 1828, his father removed to Strongville, Ohio. His parents not being wealthy, it was necessary that Louis should be the artificer of his own fortune. In 1837 he entered the freshman class in the Western Reserve College at Hudson, Ohio.

Concerning his collegiate course, a class-mate, Rev. Mr. Brown, at a meeting in La Crosse, thus speaks:

As class-mates and members of the same literary society, and boarders in the same family, our acquaintance was of the most intimate kind. I can bear testimony to his early character, that it was without a stain. He was a noble youth. With brilliant talents, good scholarship, and pleasing manners, he became a favorite among his fellow students. Impulsive in temperament, of unbounded wit and humor, yet chastened by Christian principle. He possessed that rare quality of true nobility, a promptness to retract an error, or confess a wrong. When a sharp word or sally of wit had wounded the feelings of a fellow student, I have seen him repair to this room, and with a warm grasp of his hand, and a tear in his eye, say:

“Brother, forgive me if I have hurt your feelings!”

Being straitened in means, he worked a portion of his leisure hours at book-binding. In the junior year he was compelled to leave to seek employment to enable him to seek employment, to enable him to pursue his studies.

We understand that ill health was the cause of his leaving college previous to graduating.

He sent a short time as a teacher in Nicholsonville, Ky., after which he obtained a situation as tutor in Woodward College, Cincinnati, and after remaining in this position some two years, he turned his steps in a westerly direction, and located at Southport (now Kenosha) in this state, in the fall of 1841.

The Kenosha Telegraph speaks of his career in that place as follows:

He came a stranger, without influential friends to aid him, and without capital, except a good character and a well cultivated mind, which are, after all, better foundations for a young man to build upon than money.

The first business in which he was engaged here was teaching. He found a building which had been erected for the purpose of an academy, but which had never yet been occupied for educational purposes. He immediately hired the building, put out advertisements, inviting students, and opened his school on the 25th of December, 1841. His patronage was not large but all that could reasonably be expected, in view of the newness of the town. In the summer of 1843, he took the editorial charge of the Southport American, a whig paper which had been established in the fall of 1841. He, however did not relinquish the business of teaching, but continued his school. Although this was his first attempt at editing a newspaper, he displayed tack and ability in this new vocation. The American while under his charge was a lively and spirited paper. He was an ardent politician, but never indulged in personal invective, and was generally courteous in the discussion of political differences.

He was generous, genial, possessing an unusual flow of humor; and it was, perhaps, these qualities, combined with others of more intrinsic worth, which rendered him popular among all classes. As an evidence of the strong hold he had on the favor of the people, during his early political career, it may be mentioned that after the expiration of his first years’ residence here, he was put forward annually by his political friends, for some ward or town office. The contest at the polls for these offices was unusually spirited and conducted on party grounds. It is a noticeable fact, seen by reference to our town election returns of those years, that Mr. Harvey invariably run ahead of his ticket, and usually succeeded to an election, even when his party was clearly a minority one.

“Mr. Harvey in early life, exhibited more than ordinary talent as a public speaker, and possessed the elements of a popular orator in a good degree. While engaged in the business of teaching, he was zealous in his endeavors to organize the young men of the town into lyceums, for public discussions on the important topics of the day. Doubtless this early practice of public speaking, was the means of giving him prominence in after times, as a good debater in the state senate, and as an effective platform orator. His example in this respect, is well worthy the imitation of all young men who aspire to positions of influence and usefulness among the people.”

For a short time in 1844, he held the office of postmaster, under the administration of Mr. Tyler. The Telegraph remarks:

As a friend of education, and the interests of our public schools, Mr. Harvey was always ready to aid and give encouragement. In short, in all enterprises — educational, philanthropic or benevolent, he could always be counted upon to give his influence and to speak a good word.

Although Mr. Harvey, while a young man, was the object of popular favor and applause, yet he preserved a gentlemanly equinimity, and did not allow himself to become inflated with pride and conceit; nor did he give way to the temptations which surround young men who are the subject of flattering regard. He was a temperance man from principle — abstaining from all intoxicating liquors. He was moreover a religious man, and a church communicant (Congregational.) There is much in the life of Gov. Harvey while a young man, that is instructive and worthy of example by the young men of the state. To a large extent it may be truly said, he was a self-made man. Before the age of 19 years he was thrown upon his own resources; by untiring industry and perseverance, he achieved a reputation that will live in history, and command the respect and admiration of men in after ages.

In 1847, Mr. Harvey was married to Miss Cordelia Perrine, and removed to Clinton, in Rock county, where he commenced trade. In the fall of that year he was elected to the second constitutional convention, where he distinguished himself as an able debater, and was one of the most influential members of that body.

Afterwards he removed to Shopiere, in Rock county, where he has ever since resided. Of his labors here, his friend Rev. Mr. Brown thus speaks:

“He purchased the water power, tore down the distillery, that had cursed the village, and in its place built a flouring mill and established a retail store, and exerted a great influence in reforming the morals of the place. A neat stone edifice was built, mainly by his munificence, for the Congregational church, of which he was a member, and his uncle, Rev. O.S. Powell, settled as its pastor. It is a coincidence worthy of remark, that Mr. Powell came to his death also by drowning at Fort Atkinson, July 2, 1855.

Of the subsequent career of Gov. Harvey — as state senator, secretary of state and governor, and as a leading citizen of the state, it is unnecessary to refer to them in this connection.

Janesville Daily Gazette – Apr 30, 1862

As an aside for people interested in San Diego, California history, Charles P. Francisco was a nephew of A.E. Horton. In 1872, Mr. Francisco married Miss Mary Evelyn Harvey, the niece of Gov. Harvey. Mr. Francisco arrived in San Diego in 1869. He passed away in 1913, at the age of sixty-eight.

You can read more about him in the following book:

Title:  San Diego and Imperial Counties, California: A Record of Settlement, Organization, Progress and Achievement,  Volume 2
Page 434
Author   : William Ellsworth Smythe
Editor   : Samuel T. Black
Publisher   : The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1913

Arrival of the Watertown Boys: Letters from John C. Gilman

February 17, 2011

Previous posts about the Watertown boys:

Forty-Niner Profiles: The Watertown Boys

Watertown Boys Head For California

*****

Good News From California
ARRIVAL OF THE WATERTOWN BOYS.

Sunday’s mail brought California letters from Gen. GILMAN, H. WALDRON, S. STIMPSON and Dr. MEYER. The gratifying intelligence is conveyed by these letters, that all the Watertown boys had reached the El Dorado of their hopes, after long and patient toils and privations, in good health and high spirits. We have been kindly furnished the general’s letter for publication. It will be read with interest by his numerous friends here.

Mr. WALDRON‘s letter states, among other things, that the oxen, wagons, &c., of the company which cost about $900, had been sold for something over $1,000.

SACRAMENTO CITY, Oct. 14, 1849.

Here I am in California, upon the bank of the Sacramento river, and in the city of Sacramento — a city four months old, whose buildings are mostly made of cotton cloth — a city containing from fifteen to thirty thousand inhabitants; nobody knows the exact number. A great amount of business is done here. Some thirty ships lie along the river opposite the town, many of them from Boston and New York. Every business and laboring man seems to be making money at a rate unheard of before. Prices of manufactured articles and labor are very high. — Common labor is $10 per day and found. Mechanics get from $20 to $25 per day. Pork per barrel $40, flour $9 per hundred, beans 8c per lb., potatoes $1.25 per lb., onions $1.25 per lb. I paid a few days ago 50c for one onion which weighed 7 oz! Board at the public houses is $4 per day. Women’s work is very high — washing, for instance, is $12 per dozen, and every thing else in proportion. In the common eating houses, (and there are many of them,) we can get a meal for a $1. Apple or grape pies, baked upon a common breakfast-plate, are 75c. I paid yesterday $6.25 for a new 5 gallon keg. I filled it with molasses syrrup, at $1.25 per gallon. I paid $16 per hundred for Sandwich Island sugar, a good article; 60c per lb. for dried apples, 75c per lb. for dried peaches, tea $6 for an 8 lb. caddy. Fresh beef sells at the butchers from 20 to 25c per lb.

The price of labor in this country is governed by the amount of gold realized by the miner per day. A laborer gets from $250 to $500 per month. Every body is willing to admit that a man in the mines can make his ounce per day. Some men who came here in July or August, have made and brought to the city 40 or 50 tons of hay, which they are now retailing out at 10c per lb. Oregon sawed lumber sells for from $350 to $500 per thousand. Shingles $50 per thousand.

I am preparing and am nearly ready to go to the mines. I intend to dig this winter — am going in company with Stimpson, Glines and a German from Milwaukee.

We arrived here on the 7th of this month, and after selling our team and all  traps, and dividing the money, I had about $100 for my share. My poney, which would have brought me $100 at auction, strayed from me a day or two before we came here. I had my health good all the way after I left Independence, except some slight affection of scurvy, a disease which prevailed among the emigrants in the latter part of the journey. We surmounted all the dangers and difficulties of the journey without the loss of an ox or any accident of any kind, except the breaking of an axeltree, and that was done near Independence. I kept a daily journal of the whole route, which when I have time I intend to write and send you.

I cannot advise any friend of mine who intends to come to this country, to take the overland route. There are too many dangers and difficulties to contend with. It requires the most indomitable energy, perseverance, watchfulness and incessant labor to effect the journey successfully. There is no lack of feed for stock until you come to Fort Laramie. From that to Green River, on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, the country is a barren waste. Feed for teams is scarce, frequently having to drive our oxen 4 and 5 miles from the road to get grass for them. From Green River onward until we got about one-third part of the way down the Humbolt, grass is abundant. From thence until we came to Carson River, the country is a dismal desert. The water is all bad, and in most instances poisonous to man and beast. The only safe water is the sluggish Humbolt, which continually grows worse as it approaches the sink. It then becomes so foul cattle which drink of it will die in a few hours. Men have dug wells at the sink, whose water is taken to last man and beast 45 miles, the distance from the Sink over the desert to Salmon Trout river, (the old route,) and that of the new one by Carson river, is about the same, 45 miles. This distance cannot be made in the day time. Cattle cannot stand the heat of the sun, when reflected from the surface of the sandy desert. Salt an inch thick lies upon the surface. — From Carson river we had grass until we came within about 60 miles of the western foot of the Siera Nevada. Thence to the foot of the mountains, our only feed for cattle was oak leaves, procured by chopping down trees and turning our cattle loose to them — thence dry grass to the Sacramento.

No rain falls during the summer season west of the Laramie; consequently a cloud of dust constantly enveloped man and beast, which was our greatest annoyance.
Now, my advice to any one and every one, who wishes to make a fortune in the shortest possible time, is to come here. I do not care what a man may set himself about; if he is prudent, he can clear from two to fifty thousand dollars in a year, provided he has his health. I intend to dig until spring in the mines, if I have my health — then I may do something else.

JOHN C. GILMAN.

Watertown Chronicle – Jan 2, 1850

California — Letter from General Gilman.

CALIFORNIA MOUNTAINS, Nov. 28, ’49.

MY CHILDREN — I am now in the mining region, and located for the winter. I am on the Calabarus river, about 20 miles from its mouth. You will see my location by referring to Fremont’s map. Our party consists of six, viz: Stimpson, Glines, Blaucher, (of Milwaukee,) a Dutchman, a Scotchman and myself. We have been digging gold about ten days. We do not get it as fast as many anticipated, or many at home suppose. The product of our labor has varied from 1 1/2 to 7 ozs. per day. Day before yesterday, we got the latter quantity — yesterday about 3 ozs.

Glines has worked but little. Stimpson has not been out of the camp since we came here. He has not yet got rid of the scurvy, and consequently is lame in his limbs. My own health is good, except that I feel the effects of the scurvy in my knees, but not to hinder me from working.

The whole country has gold. Every river and brook, every ravine and gorge of the mountains, has more or less of the precious metal. In prospecting, I find gold in every place. But the ravines, which are called “gulches” here, are where it is dug for. — That which we have obtained is called coarse gold. In size it varies from a three dollar piece down to a pin’s head, is round, and in every other possible shape. It has all been melted, and thrown out by the action of volcanic fire.

I would advise none of my friends to try the overland route. Tell them to go by way of Panama. *  *  *  I have not eaten from a table, or slept on a bed, since the 18th of May last. *  *  *  The largest piece of gold which I have seen, weighed five ounces. *  *  *  Provisions very high, and freights from Stockton to this place, (40 miles, and road good,) 50 cents per pound! *  *  *  Our currency is pounds and ounces, and not dollars and cents.

In haste,

JOHN C. GILMAN.

Watertown Chronicle – Jan 30, 1850

1849  Stockton Main St. image from the San Francisco City Guides website.

California Letter.

The following is a letter from Gen. JOHN C. GILMAN, of Watertown, now in California, to our fellow citizen, Wm. M. Dennis, Esq. who has kindly handed it to us for publication, that the numerous friends of Gen. C. may know of his whereabouts and learn of his welfare.

January 9, 1850.

DEAR SIR, — I have located myself for the winter upon the Caladarus River, nearly due east from Stockton and San Francisco; Stockton is 45 miles distant. The winter here is made up of rainy days, and weeks of fine weather. It is the Spring of Wisconsin — April and May weather. The rainy season commenced about the middle of November. We expect it to cease about the middle of February. Vegetation commenced with the rain; and although I am among the hills, which form the base of the mountains, I have seen but few frosty mornings. I am upon the western verge of the gold regions.

The diggers in our vicinity make from five dollars to an ounce and a half per day. I have, since I stopped here, made two ounces in about half a day; it is not frequent that such an amount can be got in this vicinity. The ravines all have more or less gold — none very rich, and very few entirely destitute.

The one upon which we designed to dig for the winter was a good one. We found forty or fifty Chilinoes at work in the gulch (ravine). Soon other Americans came, and we have a village of tents and log huts of some twenty in number, each containing from two to four men. The men of Spanish descent, (Mexicans and Chilinoes,) are, in point of numbers, the dominant party in these southern mines. They not only assume the right to dig, but to dictate to Americans when they may or may not dig. This assumed right the Chilinoes commenced to practice upon with our own village.

Image from the Kidport Reference Library article on Gold Rush Law and Order.

Some three or four of our men went with their mining tools into a gulch, where a camp of about thirty Chilinoes were at work, our men were soon surrounded by the Chilians, armed with knives and pistols, who ordered them to leave, which they did, leaving behind their washers and mining tools, which the Chilians destroyed. A complaint was made to our Alcalda, who sent a force, and arrested the Chilians, and had them before him — fined them, and ordered them to leave the place. This was on or aobut the 18th of December. On the 28th of December, at ten or eleven o’clock at night, some detached camps of our village were assaulted by some fifty or sixty Chilinoes, all armed, and two of our most worthy men murdered upon the spot, and the ballance of the men of these camps were made prisoners and marched off, three or four of whom were badly cut and wounded — twelve prisoners in all.

These camps are about one-third of a mile from my tent, and where the most of the settlement is; we knew nothing of it until the next morning. I was upon the inquest held upon the bodies. Major Andrew Elliott, of Orlenas Co., State of N.Y., was one of the murdered men, and a Mr. Star, of the same place, the other. Their bodies had ghastly stabs and cuts made with large knives upon them; one dead Chilano lay near, with a bullet hole through the face and head. Our men mustered, and followed the Chilian band. They took the road to Stockton. The prisoners were all rescued, the whole band made prisoners and marched back to our camp; they were forthwith tried by a jury of twelve  men, (the Alcalda acting as judge,) sentenced — three were executed by shooting, one whipped and his ears cut off, and the remainder received from twenty to one hundred lashes upon the bare back, and ordered to quit the country. They obeyed the order without the least hesitation. I can tell you that Chilanoes and Mexicans hereafter will be mighty scarce in these diggings, I mean those that have whole skins.

With regard to the country generally, in my opinion, it has not been over-rated in any particular; its agricultural susceptibility, its now spontaneous productions, and its present herds. Why, the truth has not been half told, or if told, has not been understood. The common cattle of California are the largest and finest I ever saw; and as for fat and good beef, I never saw its equal in any market. I believe also, that the mineral wealth of California is yet to be developed in the main; all the gold yet taken is surface gold — not a vein or a lode has been found or worked, with the exception of two, one on the Maralumny River, found this winter, and the other is on the Maraposa River, and worked by Colonel Fremont’s indians.

Image of Chinaman in 1860 San Francisco from the San Francisco Images blog.

A man with some means can make a fortune here quicker than to dig for it; one or two thousand invested rightly in goods in N.Y., and sent round the Horn, is all that a man accustomed to trade wants. The common Stoga boots are selling this winter in San Francisco and Stockton from two to four ounces per pair, shoes of the same quality half an ounce. I am now wearing a pair of boots which cost in Stockton two ounces of pure gold, such boots as you sell in Watertown for $2.50. Pants, flannel shirts and drawers, are equally high in the mines; the common blue blanket sells at the mines for thirty or forty dollars per pair, and vegetables and eatables of all kinds are still higher. Flour $1.25 per lb., pork $1.00, beans $1.00 per lb., potatoes $1.00 per lb., onions the same, brandy per bottle $4.00. The man who travels the road from San Francisco to the mines, pays at the tents which are set up for entertainment $1.50 for a meal of victuals, $1.00 per quart for barley or corn to feed his mule, $1.00 for sleeping on the floor in his own blankets, and fifty cents for any kind of spirits per glass. Men cannot be hired to work for less than ten dollars per day, at the same time one half of them does not make five clear. I cannot particularise farther, the foregoing is true, and such is the chance to make fortunes; the prudent and industrious will make money, the idle, the dissipated, and those out of health, will be as poor here as in any other place.

If some of you speculators will come out, and bring with you a stock of goods, and open at Stockton, I will come in with you and operate in the mines.

Stimpson has left the camp, and gone to the Sandwich Islands sick with the scurvy. Glines has left our company for Stockton very much out of health, his lungs are affected, and some degree of scurvy; as to myself, the slight attack of scurvy I had on the Humbolt is wearing away, and my health is pretty good, and I have every confidence of enjoying good health in this country. The rest of the Watertown boys I have not seen or heard from since I left Sacramento; I think they must have gone up the American fork. I have not yet received the first letter from home. I cannot write to all I would wish. Please pass this round to Enos, Chappell, Besley, Ned and P.V. Brown, also to my children. If any of my friends come out, let them come by Panama, there is too many great dangers attending the overland route, waggons and pack mules are equally exposed, a correct idea of which I could not give you by letter without some more labor and time than I have at present to spare.

Gambling is done in the towns in this country on the big side; all the taverns and dogeries, and all saloons (and there are many,) are gaming houses. In the best house in Stockton, which is a tavern, there is one faro bank, three monta tables, two roulettes, and one billiard table, all in the bar-room.

Thousands of dollars lie stacked up on each table. I was at Stockton a few days ago, and stopped at this house for a day or two, and witnessed some of their operations. Money changed hands rapidly — thousands of dollars would be won and lost in a short time — all were cool, and no excitement — not a word of discord between the better and the dealer — one hundred eagles bet upon a single card.

The above is a fair sample of the business done in this line in California. Monta is the favorite game of the South Mexicans and Chilians, and they all bet with apparent carelessness.

Taft, of Milwaukee, U.S. House, and Robert Maloney, got up and opened a large tavern house in Stockton, some time in december, at an expense of thirty or forty thousand dollars, in about ten days from opening of the house, it took fire and was burnt down, all was lost — Taft has gone to the mines. I heard of Bristol at San Francisco, he was in the public hospital and not expected to live. Saw B. Crangle at Sacramento, he was home-sick, and talked of returning home. W.S. Hamilton and Olinger is on the American fork; O’Neal of Mineral Point is in our camp; Doctor More of Beloit is at Sacramento; Lieutenant Wright I cannot hear of.

As soon as the rainy season is over, I intend to explore some of this mining region; it is believed here that the Gold Region Proper is far up in the mountains to the east. I have seen a newspaper report of an Exploring Expedition which went out last Summer, they report the whole western slope of the Serra Nevada Mountains to be composed of quartz rock, and all bearring gold; their experiments and tests show that the least quantity of gold extracted from the pound of rock was one dollar, and that the best yield of pure gold to the single pound was fifty-four dollars and fifty cents.

Specimens of every variety of the rack have been forwarded to Washington by the senators elect from the State. All the gold taken in California is called by miners surface gold, it has escaped by some means from the place of original deposit, and has been scattered into all the ravines, brooks and rivers, by the agency of water, and that the places of the original deposit will shortly be discovered, I have no doubt.

Yours truly,

JOHN C. GILMAN.

P.S. — I now think that letters addressed to me should be directed to Stockton.

Democratic State Register (Watertown, Wisconsin) Apr 9, 1850

CALIFORNIA LETTERS.

A number were received in town by Monday’s mail. Mr. STECK writes that he is employed in the Sacramento postoffice, at a salary of $200 per month. He had either seen or heard from most of our “boys” a short time previously. They were all well. Gen. GILMAN does not write very flatteringly. We judge from what we have heard of the tone of these letters, that our friends there are not realizing their expectations.

We also received a letter from the “Rothschild of Coloma,” inclosing some beautiful specimens, to the value of eight or ten dollars. Thanks, brother LITTLE!

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Oct 16, 1850

Image of San Francisco Harbor – 1851 from the Sparkle Tack blog.

From California.

Letters were received in town by Monday’s mail, from Gen. GILMAN, H. WALDRON, A. STECK, and J. ROGAN. We make the following extract from the letter Gen. G.:

The river turning business has proved total failure throughout the mines generally. Homeward bound vessels are filled with passengers, but still the increase of population is wonderful. Trade increases, and cities rise upon the plains. Thousands are turning their attention to agriculture and cattle growing, and yet the mines are overrun with diggers. Thousands will return home as poor as they came, and many much more so, while others will return rich. Many return without an effort to make money. A more disappointed lot of men I never saw, than those who came over the plains this year.

Watertown Chronicle – Dec 4, 1850

California Matters.

We have a letter from Gen. GILMAN, under date of Feb. 28th. We make an extract, from which it will be seen that the prospects of miners and business men in California, are gloomy enough:

“There has been but two rainy days since the  season for rain commenced — not enough to produce the usual vegetation. This dry winter is decidedly adverse to the interests of the miners. They have no water in the gulches to wash gold with. If the season should continue dry as it now is, there will be a general break down of the business men of California, and Stockton and Sacramento will almost cease to be places of trade. The success of all business men is this country depends upon the success of the gold digger. A great change in prices of almost every thing has already taken place. All necessaries are much cheaper than heretofore, and the tendency of prices is still downwards. — The forced sales of imported goods at San Francisco alone, is sufficient to supply the demand in the country. Comparatively few immigrants arrive this winter, and those mostly from Europe, while the homeward bound steamers are crowded with passengers — many of them poor.”

Watertown Chronicle – Apr 23, 1851

Acrostics for the Dead

February 15, 2011

An Acrostic.
[To The News.]

An old veteran submits the following double acrostic blending the name of Geo. Ball and the High school, as they will ever be inseparably connected:

Grand was the man whom, while God gave the breatH,
Enthron’d with wisdom and strength to replI;
Opened the doors — a temple of learninG;
Riches to the mind, and joy to the heartH,
God grant his bounteous gift may ever blesS
Each pupil — grades to the scientifiC;
Blending in harmony Art’s highest brancH.
Ages after ages will come and gO
Loving hearts revere the name of one whO
Left this token of affection to alL.

G.W.G.

Galveeston, September 25, 1885

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Sep 27, 1885

GEO. BALL’S BIRTHDAY.
ANNIVERSARY ENTERTAINMENT AT BALL HIGH SCHOOL.
An Excellent Programme to the Memory of George Ball, Galveston’s Philanthropist.
[excerpt]

The recitations given by each were as follows:

GEORGE BALL ACROSTIC.

Gone! Is that man gone
Whose influence is upon his kind?
He lives in glory, and his speaking dust
Has more of life than half its breathing maids.

Each hero’s name
Shall shine untarnished on the roll of fame,
And stand the example of each distant age,
And add new luster to the historic page.

On Fame’s eternal camping ground
His great, good name is read.
and glory guards with solemn round
The last home of the dead.

Rugged strength and radiant beauty —
These were one in nature’s plan;
Humble toil and heavenward duty —
These will form the perfect man.

Great men by their lives remind us
We can make our lives sublime,
And departing leave behind us
Footprints on the sands of time.

Earth may not claim them. Nothing here
Could be for them a mear reward;
Theirs is a treasure for more dear —
Eye hath not seen it, nor the ear
Of dying mortal heard
The joys prepared, the promised bliss above —
The holy presence of Eternal Love.

By fairy hands their knell is rung,
By forms unseen their dirge is sung;
There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray,
To bless the turf that wraps their clay;
And Freedom shall awhile repair,
To dwell, a weeping hermit, there.

A city’s gratitude in thee,
Meet tribute to thy honored memory,
A time-enduring monument shall raise
And garland it with glory’s brightest rays.
They noble deed with each returning year
Shall make thee over to us ?? more dear.

Lo, there is no death; the stars go down
To rise upon some fairer shore.
And bright in heaven’s jeweled crown
They shine forevermore.

Let us then be up and doing,
With a heart for any fate;
Still achieving, still pursuing,
Learn to labor and to wait.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) May 10, 1885

Edmund Jackson Davis:

An Elegaic Acrostic.

Erewhile a form of manliness and grace
Did tread our thoroughfares, and we could trace
Much in the man to win our reverence!
Unto all so courteous, without pretense.
None this denied, how else their verdict ran,
Despite all doubt, he is a gentleman.

Justice, perchance, demands no judgment hard;
Defects like his, our Hancock might have marred,
A captive had he been, as once the dead.
Vilest of dooms impending o’er his head —
It may be, here, injustice scarred his brow,
Supreme the wisdom that doth judge him now.

AUSTIN, Feb. 12, 1883. CARITAD.

Galveston Daily News (Galveston, Texas) Feb 16, 1883

Image by Jill.

To Our Child.

The following acrostic, the work of our townsman James Tyson, was handed to us to publish, as aside from the fact of possessing literary merit is has a local application in forming the name of one dear to many of us, now passed to the home beyond the river:

Florence, tis not wrong to cherish fond memory,
Link it with the past in pleasant, happy dreams.
Oh, no! we think of sunny days that
Recollection calls back, of times that were
Ever full with privileged joys agone,
N‘er to return in earth’s abiding place,
Can we contemplate without sorrowing,
Ever recollecting days of childhood?

No, never! never!! ‘Tis not right we should.

Well, then, let it be our greatest pleasure,
Recollecting the pleasant incidents
Ever an anon strewn in Life’s walks —
Ne’er to weary in contemplation —
Ne’er to forget these many happy hours.

The Mountain Democrat (Placerville, California) Jul 1, 1893

A Valentine Acrostic

February 14, 2011

An Acrostic

TO THE PRETTIEST GIRL IN FREDERICK.

Ah, lady fair with sun-kis’d hair,
Valorously I sing thy charms,
And bid dull care of thee beware
Lest I ‘gainst it do take up arms.
Earth holds for me no lure but thee —
No idol that I cherish more,
Throughout the sea there’s naught could be
I‘d stranger love or so adore,.
Now, if I’m not too vituline,
Enroll me for your Valentine!

MR. GUPPY.
February 14th, 1884.

The News (Frederick, Maryland) Feb 9, 1884

Image from Recycled Wares on Flickr.

Faded Valentines

February 14, 2011

THE FADED VALENTINES.

Paper lace and golden rings,
Doves and darts and dainty things,
Verses traced in letters quaint,
As the psalter of a saint.
Tucked away in dusty nooks,
As the leave of moldy books,
Where the moth in darkness dines,
Lie the sweet old valentines.

Ghosts of girls of olden times
Haunt the Cupids and the rhymes,
Winsome maids in combs and curls,
Scarlet heels and strings of pearls,
Gallants, too, in buckled shoes,
Jeweled swords and ribboned queues,
What romances one divines
From the yellow valentines!

All the hearts that fluttered so
Are in ashes long ago,
But I fancy belles and beaux,
Sweet with lavender and rose,
From the shadows reappear
In their places once a year,
And together read the lines
Of their faded valentines.

— Minna Irving, in Criterion

The Daily Northwestern (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Feb 17, 1899

MILAN, Ohio, Feb. 16, 1852.

FRIEND HADLEY — As this is the anniversary of that illustrious and widely honored personage, Saint Valentine, and delicately worded verses, on pretty little bits of sweet scented paper, so soft and velvety, and all bright as California round the edges, are just now “the rage,” perhaps a duplicate of one of these poetic effusions just drawn from a tender section of your friend and correspondent’s heart, as an offering to the shrine of its worships, may be an acceptable “item” for a corner of your paper.

To _____, of Chestnut Hill, Ohio.

BY AN INVALID.

St. Valentine’s day! indeed, ’tis very true,
And here I’m minus — really ’tis too bad!
Not one verse written — Oh, I’m, I’m glad,
For ’tis begun, a Valentine to you.

‘Tis not in fancy nor in jesst I write;
My words have meaning if you take them right —
Embellished not with language — but for sound,
Deep in their thoughts an affluence may be found.

Once on a time — it was not long ago —
No matter when — although you really know —
I met — don’t, I beg your pardon — ask me what
A lady, Georgie, close resembling you.

With eyes of lustre, bright as the gazelle’s,
I felt at once their glance and owned their spell.
Her form was light and agile as the roe;
In motions graceful as the willows grow.

Around her brow sweet auburn curls entwined,
Befitting Venus or a Josephine’s,
While o’er her face the graces did impart
A charm of beauty borrowed from no art.

But not in beauty had that face its charm,
Nor sylph like motions of that lovely form;
‘Twas more than this that had such magic spell,
And made the bosom with emotions swell!

‘Twas more than this that kindled hopes like mine,
Round which the joys of brighter days entwine;
‘Twas more than this that woke my silent lyre,
And warmed my heart with its celestial fire.

‘Twas mind, its treasures radiant with a glow,
Sparkling like pearls through waters deep below,
That gave to all like summer to the sky,
Those features charms, and brightness to the eye.

‘Twas heart — such hearts as few have known;
Oh, how I’d prize its affluence to own,
Kind to a fault, and noble as ’twas true;
(Here the resemblance makes me think of you.)
United to those cultured gifts so rare,
That crowned her queen among the jeweled fair.

Now all that’s left in semblance or in form,
Of that fair lady, bright as dewy morn,
By thee’s possessed; yes, Georgie’s thine,
And, I can’t but own it, am your Valentine.

Watertown Chronicle (Watertown, Wisconsin) Mar 3, 1852

Scrambled Valentines

February 14, 2011

Reno Evening Gazette –  Feb 14, 1919

Since this was a political cartoon, I would say the “Scrambled Valentine” was meant sort of a comic (or Vinegar) Valentine. Since I didn’t get the “joke” for all of them, I looked at some of the news articles to get some insight:

Soda Pop – Booze Houn’ =  Prohibition

League of Nations – For the World  (this one was easy) Nobody wanted it = failure

Bumper Crops – Farmers = Lots of wheat expected, but got higher labor costs, but lower wheat prices

Mister Hohenzollern = Had to abdicate throne, end of German monarchy

Willard – Dempsey – Sport Fans = Dempsey Virtually Wipes Out Willard in One Round

44 hour week – Prosperity – For Labor =  Limit work hours – limit  pay –  Organized Labour/Unions

Food Profiteers – Housewife = Food Shortages caused high prices, government tries to go after profits rather than increase food production

Universal Suffrage – Suffraget = Um… women get to vote? Be careful what you wish for?

Congress – Get Busy! = If Congress is “busy” they are doing bad things “for” the country

Job – Our Soldier Boys = (guessing here) Soldiers back from war – Puts others out of work